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FATE OF THEINTELLIGENTSIABy: Andre EscobarMichael Leon
CZESLAW MILOSZ Czeslaw Milosz was born on June 30, 1911 in what was then Russian Lithuania Milosz was raised Catholic in rural Lithuania and emphasized his identity with the multi-ethnic Grand Duchy of Lithuania (he refused to categorically identify himself as either a Pole or a Lithuanian). In his youth, Milosz came to adopt, as he put it, a "scientific, atheistic position mostly", though he was later to return to the Catholic faith. Since his works had been banned in Poland by the communist government, this was the first time that many Poles became aware of him. When the Iron Curtain fell, Milosz was able to return to Poland. During this period in Poland, his work was silenced by government-censored media. Milosz spent World War II in Warsaw, under Nazi Germanys "General Government". Here he attended underground lectures by Polish philosopher and historian of philosophy and aesthetics, Wladyslaw Tatarkiewicz. He did not participate in the Warsaw Uprising since he resided outside Warsaw proper.
MILOSZ LITERATUREMilosz wrote all his poetry, fiction and essays in Polish and translated the Old Testament Psalms into Polish. After World War II, Milosz served as cultural representative of the communist Peoples Republic of Poland in Paris. In 1951 he deserted and obtained political asylum in France.In 1953 he received the European Literary Prize.
MILOSZ & “THE CAPTIVEMIND”(1953) The book was written soon after the author received political asylum in Paris following his break with Polands Communist government. It states his experiences as an underground writer during World War II, and his position within the political and cultural elite of Poland in the immediate post-war years. The book explains both the intellectual charm of Stalinism and the temptation of collaboration with the Stalinist regime among intellectuals in post-war Central and Eastern Europe. At the heart of the book then follow, a depiction of a gifted Polish man who submitted to the demands of the Communist state.
INTELLIGENTSIA AND RUSSIA VS. THEWORLD Intellectuals who form an artistic, social, or political vanguard or elite Intelligentsia The consciousness of our Intelligentsia has not been oriented towards the historically concrete and it is lacking in the proper organs for judgment and appraisal in this area. This consciousness makes a fatal use of its judgment and evaluations, taken from areas altogether different, and more the customary for it. The traditional Intelligentsia consciousness was totally focused upon questions of internal politics and it was oriented exclusively towards social interests. Across the wide masses of the Russian Intelligentsia, the war ought to generate a deep crisis of consciousness, a broadening of horizons, an altering of the basic values of life. The world war inevitably refocuses the awareness upon international politics and it evokes an exceptional interest on the role of Russia in world life.
INTELLIGENTSIAS Władysław Broniewski: At first, he published his poems in the newspaper published by the Soviets, but soon he was arrested by NKVD on the charges of "hooliganism” Aleksander Wat: in 1931 he was also one of the main journalists of the Marxist Tygodnik literacki. Until the outbreak of World War II he was also the literary director of Gebethner Wolff, the biggest and the most renown Polish printing house of the time. Despite his sympathy for Communism, he was arrested by the NKVD and exiled to Kazakhstan. Leopold Lewin: was a Polish poet, journalist and translator. Arrested by NKVD, he became a Polish communist, joined the Union of Polish Patriots there, and was an author of many socrealistic poems. After the war he was an editor of several Polish newspapers and the Secretary General of the Polish Literary Society.
INTELLIGENTSIAS (CONTINUED) Anatol Stern: was a Polish poet, writer and art critic. With time he drifted away from avant-garde poetry and became a notable screenwriter. Prior to the outbreak of World War II, he authored more than 30 screenplays for both Polish and foreign films. After the Invasion of Poland he moved to Soviet-held Lwów, where he was then arrested by the NKVD and sent to Soviet Gulag. Teodor Parnicki: was a Polish writer, notable for his historical novels. After the Invasion, during the Soviet occupation of Lwów, he was arrested by the NKVD and sentenced to 8 years in a Gulag for alleged anti-Soviet conspiracy.
SZYMBORSKA BACKGROUND Wisława Szymborska is a Polish poet, essayist and translator. Many of her poems feature war and terrorism. Although she once remarked in a poem entitled "Some like poetry" that no more than two out of a thousand people care for the art. Szymborska was awarded the 1996 Nobel Prize in Literature "for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality". Szymborskas compact poems often conjure large existential puzzles, touching on issues of ethical import, and reflecting on the condition of people both as individuals and as members of human society. She has long been cherished by Polish literary contemporaries (including Czesław Miłosz).
SZYMBORSKA & LITERATURE Szymborska frequently employs literary devices such as irony, paradox, contradiction, and understatement, to illuminate philosophical themes and obsessions. Her first book was to be published in 1949, but did not pass censorship as it "did not meet socialist requirements." Like many other intellectuals in post- war Poland, however, Szymborska remained loyal to the People‟s Republic of Poland (PRL) official ideology early in her career, which was signing political petitions and praising Joseph Stalin, Vladimir Lenin and the realities of socialism.
„LENIN‟ He led the oppressed into the battle He made their victory last for ever He put a powerful fundament for the coming epochs. The grave where he is resting This Adam of a new mankind Shall be decorated with flowers from planets unknown today.
„FOR THE YOUTH THAT BUILDS NOWAHUTA‟ Who built the house in which I live? Who put their work on the foundation? This mason, potter and glazier and carpenter are missed by the human memory. Class with a bad memory - dies. More accurate memory, choose: same as the book opens czytywanych most places. Today for you, with you, from you, young, the city begins to resume. Memory of the names of your everyday zdobnym word recorded in admiration, gust recorded your standards and turns into a beautiful plan calculations. Because it is the working memory serving the working class.
WORKS CITED Berdyaev, N. A. "War and the Crisis of the Intelligentsia Consciousness." Berdyaev (Berdiaev) Online Library and Index. 2001. Web. 20 Nov. 2011. <http://ww Hitchens, Christopher. "The Captive Mind - Magazine - The Atlantic." The Atlantic — News and Analysis on Politics, Business, Culture, Technology, National, International, and Life – TheAtlantic.com. May 2009. Web. 20 Nov. 2011. <http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2009/05/the-captive- mind/7368/>. Judt, Tony. "Captive Minds by Tony Judt | The New York Review of Books." Home | The New York Review of Books. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. <http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2010/sep/30/captive- minds/?pagination=false>.w.berdyaev.com/berdiaev/berd_lib/1915_201.html> . "Miłosz Czesław." Instytut Książki. Web. 22 Nov. 2011. <http://www.bookinstitute.pl/en,ik,site,40,78,115.php>.