Concept: A perceived regularity in events or objects, or records of events or objects, designated by a label: Life Cell Blue Ship Democracy Unicorn Proposition: An expression of the relation between concepts. A basic unit of meaning or expression. e.g., living things are composed of cells e.g., the ship was blue
Cognitive Processes: Visualization methods can help the user to articulate implicit knowledge (as in a visual metaphor) and to stimulate new thinking (like with a mindmap). Two simple and established categories to employ in this context are [e.g. 24]: • Convergent thinking [ >< ] is a mode of critical thinking in which a person attempts to reduce complexity through analysis and synthesis. • Divergent thinking [ <> ] is a mode of thinking in which a person generates many unique, creative responses to a question or problem.
Teams and teamwork are crucial in the functioning of any organization, especially when dealing with complicated, complex or ill-structured situations, problems, and decision-making tasks not easily addressed by individuals (Stout, et al. , 1999). Enhancing team performance Research has indicated that team cognition is closely linked to team performance (Stout, et al. , 1996). Based on this theory of team cognition O’Connor et al. (2004) undertook research to illustrate the value of concept mapping in representing shared levels of understanding among team members and enhancing team performance. Concept maps result in an interpretable conceptual framework that is graphical and expressed in the language of the participants and thus help the team to remain focused on the task and improve team or organizational cohesiveness and morale and eventually team performance (Trochim, 1989). The enhancement of team performance by the use of concept maps and concept mapping tools was also pointed out by Cannon-Bowers, et al. (1993) and Blickensderfer, et al. (1997). In the global arena of military operations the use of concept maps to understand shared mental models within teams, lead to improved efficiency, thus decreasing the need for cross-training (Evans, et al. , 2004).
Intro to concept maps v3 march 2012
UWC TEACHING AND LEARNINGTeaching and Learning Workshop Mont Fleur Concept maps Louis C H Fourie
Key ideas underlying concept maps Concept maps are based on:• A Theory of Knowledge All knowledge is built from Concepts and Propositions• A Theory of Learning Ausubel’s assimilation theory: Meaningful Learning involves changing one’s current knowledge as a result of the comprehension of new knowledge.• Research in Education (Novak)
Foundation One: A Theory of KnowledgeAll knowledge is builtfrom Concepts andPropositions
Concept:A perceived regularity in eventsor objects, or records of eventsor objects, designated by alabel: Life Cell Blue Ship Democracy Unicorn
Proposition:Two or more concepts combinedto form a statement aboutsomething: a basic unit ofmeaning or expression•e.g., living things are composedof cells•e.g., the ship was blue
Propositions versus Sentences“My son plays with the red truck”PROPOSITION CONCEPT RELATION CONCEPT 1 I have son 2 son engages in play 3 play is with a truck 4 truck is red
Concept Maps:Represent knowledgeusing diagrams thatexpress concepts andpropositionsA tool to represent thestructure of knowledge
The importance ofthe linking phrases:Without the relations,our knowledge wouldnot “cohere”
Foundation Two: A Theory of Learning(Ausubel & Novak)
David Ausubel (1968)If I had to reduce all of educationalpsychology to just one principle Iwould say this: The most importantsingle factor influencing learning iswhat the learner already knows.Ascertain this and teach himaccordingly.** Epigraph, Educational Psychology: A cognitive view
Key ideas:3. Distinction between rote and meaningful learning.2. In the process of meaningful learning, people construct meanings for concepts and propositions based on experiences, building up their knowledge structure.
David Ausubel’s Theory of Learning Meaningful Learning involves changing one’s current knowledge as a result of the comprehension of new knowledge. This process is called “assimilation”
David Ausubel’s Theory of LearningFour fundamental processesthat lead to assimilation:• Progressive differentiation of concepts and relations over time.• Superordination of concepts under more general, more inclusive concepts.
David Ausubel’s Theory of Learning3. Subsumption of new concepts into existing, more general concepts and propositions.4. Integrative reconciliation to achieve coherence and consistency over time.
Learning may vary from highly rote to highly meaningful
New epistemological thinkingToward:Constructivist epistemology holds thatknowledge is a human construction andevolves over timeAway from:Positivist epistemology holds that knowledgederives from empirical observation and is“unfettered” by varying human ideas over time
Where do students need help? Decreasing their focus on memorisation Increasing their self-regulation strategies Increasing and focusing their own motivation Recognizing the need for transfer
Instructional problem: Emphasis on memorisation “I studied so hard and thought I knew everything. Students don’t have How could I get a C?” the same definitions “Could you post all the of learning that we notes on the website?” “What’s the right answer?” do.
What does it mean to understand? Put a concept in your own terms? Give your own examples? Apply the concept to new situations? Understand the structure of a concept and how it relates to other concepts.
Structural knowledge: the concept map Self worth Expectancy theory Value theory Attribution theoryNeeds Goaltheory Non- Cognitive theory cognitive theories theories Self Drive determinationtheory theory Motivation
Why does structure help? It provides organisation to memory, which reduces cognitive load. It identifies similar concepts for generalisation. It forms the basis for analogical reasoning. It allows you to fill in gaps by inference. It allows you to imagine possible realities you haven’t directly experienced.
A Cognitive Roadmap for Teaching and Learning“Meaningful learning involves the assimilation of new concepts andpropositions into existing cognitivestructures" (Novak & Gowin, 1984).
Graphic Organisers as Cognitive Road MapsGraphic organisers are designed as visual representations of cognitive structures (knowledge, concepts or ideas). A sampling of graphic organisers is tabled below:Flow chart Fishbone diagram Events chainVenn diagram Brainstorming web Hierarchy diagramStory board Concept map Chart / MatrixWord web KWL chart Cycle diagramFile and folder Thinking grid Mind map
Periodic Table of Visualisation Methodshttp://www.visual-literacy.org/periodic_table/periodic_table.html#
Educational Applications of Graphic OrganisersConvey a clear general picture of topics.Reinforce understanding throughvisualisation of relationships between keyconceptsHelp identify misconceptions and/or missingconceptsCan be used in creative ways to assessstudent achievement
Concept Mapss Developed in an educational setting by Novak (1977)s Used as the primary language for description and communication of concepts within Assimilation theory (Ausubel)s A Concept map: s is a graphical display of concept names connected by directed arcs encoding propositions in the form of simplified sentences s In educational settings, concept mapping techniques have aided people of every age to examine many fields of knowledge
Thus Concept maps…Represent knowledge usingdiagrams that express conceptsand propositions IHMC developed CmapTools and CmapServer - used in 132 countries
Benefits for the Designer The process of drawing the map: Helps designer understand the domain Is a creative process – new discoveries are made as the map is drawn Helps establish credibility with the team The map itself: Offers the first chance to interject the user as a guiding concept for the product
Benefit - Progressive Cognition 1. Scannable at a glance… The executive-level view 2. Readable with some attention… Most team conversations take place at this level 3. Deeper, rich understandings can be layered in.
The use of concept mapsin teaching and learning
Why use Concept Maps? To assess existing knowledge prior to beginning a teaching/learning session As a reflective practice to create and make explicit mental linkages surrounding a concept As a group exercise to improve group problem solving
Why use Concept Maps? To review problem-solving options To summarise understanding and identify misconceptions To evaluate student progress To evaluate course/program outcomes
What can be done with Concept Mapping ?Generate ideas (brain storming, etc.);Communicate complex ideas;Organise and integrate a complexstructureAssess understanding or diagnosemisunderstanding.
The use of Concept Maps As a learning tool As a teaching tool As an assessment tool As a review tool: greater power to evoke memory than ordinary linear notes
How Do Concept Maps Expedite Learning? Provide for Concise Organised Expression of the Knowledge Inherent in Textual Source Material Concepts (Classes/Entities) Attributes/Properties (of concepts/entities) Relations (between concepts/entities) Learning Occurs During the Process of Creating and Refining the Concept Map Learning Occurs During Iterative (Repeated) Study/Review of the Concept Map with Reference Back to the Source Material and Associated Updates to the Concept Map
Concept Map Driven Approach to Studying The Steps Phase 1: Read Through Textbook Assignment and Notes Go Back and Identify/Map Nouns with C-map Phase 2: Read Through Textbook and Notes Go Back and Identify/Map Noun-Verb-Noun/Adjective Relationships with C-map Phase 3: Study and Think (hard) about the Concept Map Identify Unclear (in your mind) Meanings Check for Sense of Completeness Check for Sense of Consistency Reference the Text for Clarification Update the Concept Map Accordingly Repeat the Preceding
Some Additional Advice Stick With It! Must Do It Several Times for It to Seem Natural Get to the Point Where You Are Uncomfortable Studying Without Using Concept Maps Think Hard and Ask Yourself Questions! What Does a Passage or Paragraph in the Source Material Mean? Is the Concept Map Complete? Is the Concept Map Coherent? Does It Make Sense? Don’t Quit Until You Have Figured It Out and You Understand Your Concept Map
Collaborative knowledge modelling and transfer of expert knowledge● Corporate Memory● Preserve Senior Engineers knowledge of launch vehicle systems integration with regard to the Centaur/RL-10 rocket system● Result is a browseable, multimedia model of the experts’ domain knowledge of the system(Coffey et al., 1999) NASA Lewis Research Center
Collaborative knowledge modelling and transfer of expert knowledgeCmaps used toexternalise tacitknowledge atthe Oceano-graphy andMeteorologyTrainingFacility, NASPensacola(Coffey et al.,2002) STORM-LK project
Collaborative knowledge modelling and transfer of expert knowledgeNASA usedconceptmaps for thetransfer ofknowledge(Cañas etal. 1999) Mars project
Teamwork Knowledge elicitation and preservation Eliciting/representing models on group formulated and used knowledge in a given context (Brewer and McNeese, 2004). Shared expectations and understanding Enhance shared expectations and shared understanding by aiding a group or team to capture and come to consensus on their collective knowledge (Novak, 1998). Enhancing team performance Conceptual framework help team to remain focused on the task and improve team or organisational cohesiveness and morale and eventually team performance (Trochim, 1989).
Group facilitation Brainstorming Brainstorming and idea generation (reaching consensus). Visual representation of knowledge “at a glance” enhance the conveyance of understanding, and promote NASA: Mission to Mars discussion and creativity. Collaboration in problem solving Identifying problem areas (Fraser 1993; Novak and Iuli 1994). US Navy: Task Force Excel
Training• Successfully used for training in numerous instances.• Claimed to reduce normal training time significantly.• US Navy: used for training and job- performance improvement of electronic El-Tech: Demonstration System technicians (Coffey, Cañas, et al., 2003).
Applying this to your own situation. Is there an example of a structural model of the content that you use in your course? How can you encourage students to use or create their own structural understanding representations?