Tracking & Reading Signs
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  • 1. Tracking & Reading signs
    The Basics in tracking Animals and Humans from Andre.
  • 2. Ninja tracking
    Tracker sets the place.
    Record from the start.
    Always know your location.
    Confirm the trail.
    Keep in visual contact.
    Identify the correct tracks.
    Never walk over the trail.
    Get into the quarry ’s mind.
    Move slowly so you don’t overlook any telltale signs.
    Use your sense of smell as well as your sight and Hearing.
    Interpret what the tracks mean.
    Study any information about your enemy, Like Operation procedures, Habits and Equipment.
    Be Persistent, A Ninja will never give up.
  • 3. If you lose a trail from tracking and you have looked systematically but there’s no sign, start back at the last sign the enemy or Animal was travelling in and start recoding arch’s and route sweeps.
    Using common sense and thinking ahead of the last direction giving, considering what’s in the surroundings ahead to try and pick up any new signs.
    Try not to disturbed the area you are searching through to much, Consider looking back down the trail again, the enemy or animal could of back tracked and went off the track in a another direction.
  • 4. Tracking humans
    A Ninja should learn tracking and reading signs, Because:
    Human footprints or tracks are everywhere. Everyone leaves tracks wherever they go, unless you are trained in Anti-tracking as a Ninja.
    People get lost off a trail in the wilderness, every year around the world, This does make some exciting tracking for the tracker.
    If you had some tracking skills, you would find it a lot harder to get lost.
    Also if you found you where off your trail in the wilderness and you had lost your tracks from bad weather , using tracking and reading signs will help you to track animals for food, helping you to survive.
    A Ninja would use tracking for all sorts of scenarios, especially near enemy areas.
    The Ninja also uses his tracking skills to locate a enemy sentry.
    There are so many different ways, you could use your tracking and reading skills to help you when you need it.
  • 5. Ninjas don’t leave trails, before concealing them you most learn about tracks and signs to understand how to conceal them.
    Don’t leave your foot prints, for someone to track you down, Be careful not to leave you foot prints from moving over watt areas on Roofs & Floors from the elements, Also muddy area through the fields and on the paths.
  • 6.
  • 7. New Print
    Old Print
    The Old print shows how quick the track breaks down in minutes.
    Prints in sand do break down very Quickly, its good to make your own prints on different surfaces to study how quickly the prints break down.
    The new print in the sand is prominent with a lot of details.
    This type of print in sand, has just been made immediately.
    Make sure you take all the Measurements of the prints, this will help you to keep on the right tracks of a trail.
    Make your own Record of timings of tracks breaking down in different surfaces in different seasons.
    Also studying tracks by making prints in different times of the day and night.
    You can learn so much, just from a single print.
  • 8. Use a stone or stick to mark the first and last track of ten prints.
    After you’ve made each print as a track in a trail.
    Then start studying each print for experience.
    Use conflicting definitions on this trail.
    Take measurements and write down all the little details of the trail.
    Look at different ways to change the track in the way the prints are pressure released.
    Information to learn about from a trail are as follows:
    Heel point
    Stride length
    Step length
    Carry length
    Foot line
    Foot angle
    Push-off angle
    Foot offset
    Leg angle
    Direction of travel
    Straddle length
    Walking base
    Step out length
    Rear stretch length
    Plotting Results
  • 9. Looking for a missing person.
    To make it easier to find a missing person, write down a list with all the little details about the Person, This will help you by not overlooking any details that can help you find the missing person.
    Learning about a person's character and personality, not just what the person may look like will help you to paint a mental picture of the person you are searching fore.
  • 10. Physical Description:
    eye colour
    hair colour
    hair style
    hair length
    photo available
    shoe size
    shoe style
    shoe make/model(obtain identical shoe)
    Physical Abnormalities:
    missing limbs, fingers or toes
    deformity of limbs, fingers or toes
    Physical Abnormalities:
    missing limbs, fingers or toes
    deformity of limbs, fingers or toes
    Other Identifying Marks:
    missing, capped or crooked teeth
    birth marks
    prominent moles
    visual acuity
    hearing loss
    tone deafness
    The description list for a missing person
    Andre wearing a very plane-look, with No loud cloths or No Identifying marks.
    Making it easier to blend in to his background.
    Something to consider as a Ninja
  • 11. Current Physical Condition:
    cold, flu
    asthma, diabetes, etc.
    illicit drug use
    alcohol use
    tobacco use
    last food eaten
    how long can they go between meals
    last water taken
    Physical Conditioning:
    strength (excellent good fair poor)
    cardiovascular (excellent good fair poor)
    endurance (excellent good fair poor)
    left or right handed
    left or right dominant
    stride measurement
    shoe wear patterns
    Temperament/Personality (choose one item per pair)
    artistic or structured
    logical or emotional
    independent or obedient
    stubborn or compliant
    social or loner
    tenacious or quits easily
    easy going or intense
    patient or easily frustrated
    organized or messy
    humorous or serious
    emotionally tough or fragile
  • 12. Mental Health:
    multiple-personality disorder
    other psychoses
    psychotic episodes
    attempted suicides
    work, school or relationship problems
    highest grade completed
    degrees obtained
    schools attended
    being alone
    authority figures
    particular person (father, mother, spouse, guardian, sibling etc.)
    TV show
    Movie & toy or stuffed animal
  • 13. Outdoor Experience:
    hunting (rifle, bow)
    swimming (expert, advanced, beginner, non-swimmer)
    military training
    Military Service:
    time/dates of service
    special training
    special awards or citations
    type of discharge
    single, married, widowed, divorced
    significant other
    years married
    years divorced
    quality of relationships
    history of abuse
    recent break-up (reason)
    living with one parent
    living with both parents
    siblings (names, ages and quality of relationships)
    relatives in the area
    caretakers, nannies, babysitters
    best friends (interview)
    history of foster care and adopted
    job title
    previous occupations
    length of employments
    problems in workplace
    Criminal History:
    prior arrests
    previous convictions
    previous incarcerations
    violent offender
    pending legal problems
  • 14. Andre uses a technique to uncover more tracks, and also to highlight their features. As the angle between the track and source of light decreases more track highlights are revealed. Make sure to use the sun for a better scan over the ground to find more information about the tracks, trail and area you are analysing.
    Andre’s General track analysis.
    Debris pressure personality overall personality of debris.
    Debris interaction.
    Shine or dullness.
    Debris lay marks in soil.
    Stone punctures and debris.
    Soil send Organization.
    Dust and Grit personality.
    Wall conditions.
    Horizon conditions.
    Rise of compacting.
    Track Analysis
    Requires 4 tracks
    Prime track
    Old track
    Fresh track
    No track
    Dissect area of no track, paying attention to colours, textures, hues, do the same with new track then prime track and old track.
  • 15. To get you started, here are some classic pressure releases Andre suggested to practice and memorize, Also take a good look at the shadows in and around the prints.
    Head Dip
  • 16. To get you started, here are some classic pressure releases Andre suggested to practice and memorize, Also take a good look at the shadows in and around the prints.
    Right Turn
    Left Turn
  • 17. To get you started, here are some classic pressure releases Andre suggested to practice and memorize, Also take a good look at the shadows in and around the prints.
    Good push-off
    Rocking or feeding
  • 18. To get you started, here are some classic pressure releases Andre suggested to practice and memorize, Also take a good look at the shadows in and around the prints.
    Lost balance
    Skid Marks
    Head turn
  • 19. Pressure Releases and Pressure Release Systems, by Tom Brown Jr. Illustrated by Andre.
    The systems shows the speeds, gait changes and other things the moving body has undergone.
    These are only some of the basic larger pressure releases for forward movement, Using a Human track as a standard.
    These pressure releases will be found in all tracks, larger in sand, smaller almost minute in hard-packed soil, Only as grit compressions and spirals on rock.
    Information next slide
  • 20. Wave - The large general pressure release of wave or waving means that the man or animal is walking at a slow gait showing no slow down, speed up, fast pace, or unbalanced stance (see illustration). This can be easily seen on the beach when someone is walking. Keep in mind that strolling has a different waving system. On hard ground it will be a gentle gathering of particles and dust in the arch axis of the footprint.
    Double Wave - A double wave is a small wave followed by a larger wave, moving from the front to the back of the track. This pressure release indicates a faster pace and will continue with the walk, until it slows down. On hard ground it will appear as a ridge, in front of the gathered particles and dust, previously described in wave pressure release.
    Disk - This round disk-shaped pressure release appears just behind the ball of the foot and indicates a speed change, from slow to fast. As the speed increases, this disk will fissure, then eventually crumble. Remember that fissuring and crumbling are separate pressure releases so you must use the two names together, such as: disk crumble or disk fissuring. Remember also that fissuring comes from forward movement against the primary wall in any direction. Servicing comes from dirt on the primary wall being pulled away; and cracking is an act of nature drying or contorting the soil with the two flex temperatures.
    Dish - Right after the disk crumbles the arch of the foot begins to split from the wave and creates a dish, indicating higher speeds. This dishing will occur the entire pattern until the body slows or picks up more speed. The dish will then fissure then eventually crumble as speed increases more. (Keep in mind that if a dish-like pressure release occurs on the outside of the true print, this is called a plate or plating.) Dishes can be read on hard ground as mass accumulated ridges.
    Explode-Off - The final act of acceleration is where the dirt literally blows out the back of the track, much like a drag racer peeling out. This pressure release is only kept up until high speed is obtained, then evens out to piling fissure dishes.
    Please keep in mind that these are only the larger acceleration pressure releases. I have left many more subtle pressure releases out because they would only confuse you at this point. Later, in a Field Guide dedicated to Advanced Tracking, or in an Advanced Tracking Class, I will be teaching those in-between pressure releases.
  • 21. To find out if someone has been creeping around your house, use this method
    Moving in bad weather.
    Using the Rivers and streams.
    Use the Roads and Railways to help cover your footprints.
    Roll out and walk over your Ninja Silk Belt.
    Brushing your tracks over, behind you with branches or any weighted cloths.
    Wearing the enemies footwear, especially around enemy areas.
    Moving stealthy over rocks or hard surfaces.
    Walking through a heavy populated area, Like small Towns and Villages.
    Use Ninja booby traps or set an Ambush on your trail.
    Use dead Animals or Cattle on your trail over your tracks.
    Tip-toe with Tabi Boots on.
    Using Ninja sword by walking along the sheath then the blade & repeating over small areas.
  • 23. Tracking Animals for survival
    Sign tracking
    Learning how to track Animals is about knowing where to search for Animals.
    Sign tracking is how we find a area of possible Animals, by finding a Trail, Animal waste, disturbed foliage & half-eaten plants, Smells and water-holes.
    Tracking is where you are following a trail of prints on a track.
    So reading signs go’s together with tracking.
  • 24.
  • 25. Tracking using a Stick or Ninja sword, fromJoe Longshore and Tested, Illustrated & re-writing by Andre
    A tracking stick or Ninja sword is a very useful tool to use while tracking.
    Its main value lies in assisting you with finding the next track in a series that you have been following.
    You mark out, on the stick, the length of the stride of the animal you have been following.
    Consider the stride will vary, but you will obtain an average as you follow the trail.
    When you reach a point where the trail "disappears", you can place the end of your tracking stick or Ninja sword at the tip of the last known track, and then sweep it in an arc while carefully looking for the next track of the series, which could be located under one of the stride length marks you placed on your stick or Ninja sword.
    When you sweep your stick or Ninja sword in an arc above the ground, try not to disturbed the track or signs that are presented on the ground itself.
  • 26. Animal strides are typically measured from the toe of the one track to the toe of the next.
    Once the stride length is marked on the tracking stick or Ninja sword and the mark placed in the heel of the track (toe for animals) the stick is then moved through an arc to the next track, giving you Measurements and Direction after reading Ten prints through the trail.
    The Horse prints may look like they are pointing towards North, but if you follow a clear track, you will find the Horse is moving West-North, and if you lose this track, use your Stick or sword to keep on the same trail.
    Consider this, from one point to the other, over a greater distance, the two points will be way off from a straight trail.
    sweep your stick in an arc above the ground so as to not disturb tracks or signs that are present on the ground itself!
    Important average stride measurements
    House cat 7 inches
    Bobcat 10-13 inches
    Red fox 10-14 inches
    Gray Fox 8-12
    Coyote 13-16 inches
    Gray Wolf 16-18 inches
    Black tail Rabbit 9-12 inches
    White Tail Rabbit 10-15 inches
    Snowshoe 10-12 inches
    Cottontail 7-12 inches
    Red Squirrel 5-9 inches
    Gray Squirrel 10-15 inches
    Whitetail Deer 18-21 inches
    Animals walk 95% of the time.
    80% of animals are right dominant.
  • 27.
  • 28. A Badger hole are great places to hide weapons and gear.
    Badgers are known for burrowing all over the rural area, not just in one place.
    You can tell when a Badger is sleeping in their hole by a Deep smell, moderately warm around the entrance and new Badger prints around the hole.
    Just a other way to use your tracking skills, to hide your weapons or gear.
    These badger hole are easy to conceal too.
  • 29. If you come across a pool of blood, particularly in a fresh bed, You probably are pushing the hunted.
  • 30.
  • 31. Andre’s basics on tracking, just to get you thinking a bit more about your outdoor skills.
    Tracking and reading signs can help you in so many different ways and you will never know when you might need them.
    I use my skills to hunt the enemy in our real time scenarios.
    The more you use these skills, you will become so much better in the field.
    Knowing what’s going on around you in the surroundings at all times.
    Use your surroundings against your enemy and Become apart of nature.
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