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A journey companion by Ariel Dagan

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This companion is for any educator who is interested in understanding how to combine various disciplines to open the doors to the wonderful and fascinating world of archaeology. You do not need to be …

This companion is for any educator who is interested in understanding how to combine various disciplines to open the doors to the wonderful and fascinating world of archaeology. You do not need to be at a dig to benefit from these materials. Suitable for all knowledge seekers of all ages.

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  • 1. A Journey Companion “A hands on experience to let you dig into your history”
  • 2. Early in modern times, archaeologists engaged in an attempt to “prove” the historicity of the Bible Even today, some go to great expense and great effort to locate the lost Ark of the Covenant or to find the remains of Noah’s ark. But mainstream archaeology has charted a much more interesting and relevant course. Modern archaeologists use what they find in the field to help us understand how the Bible was crafted and why. This we learn by reconstructing the life and lifestyle of the people of the Bible.
  • 3. In the first place, touching history is far different from reading about it. ► A storage jar from Lachish, found beneath the ruins of the ancient gate of that city, is more than a piece of pottery. It is an historical text. We can “read” it, the way we might read a passage in the Bible. We can “interpret” it, the way we might interpret a biblical text.
  • 4. • We can imagine the people who made the jar and those who filled it with oil or grain, those who loaded it on carts and brought it from the countryside to the Lachish, those who unloaded it and stored it in the warehouses beneath the massive city gate, those who counted it and weighed it, and those who depended on the jar and its contents even as they faced the wrath of an army invading their homeland. We can almost hear the prayers of the defenders of the city, just as when we touch the Wall at the Temple mount, we can almost feel the touch of generations of Jews who have stood there before us, beginning with those who lent their hands to build it.
  • 5. Through these high-quality pottery “puzzles” that you can bring into the classroom, you can reconstruct the work of modern archaeologists, learn the ways in which archaeologists reconstruct history from artifacts, and get the feel of holding history in your hands. For young people, this is an exciting introduction to a reality that no longer exists. It makes history live for them, first in the classroom and then in their hearts.
  • 6. A journey Companion • These guides help you get the most out of the Antika kits, make it an enjoyable task to translate classroom archaeology into classroom reality. What seems on the surface to be a mere puzzle turns into a classroom adventure, a journey back to the beginnings of our people, to a time when our hopes and our aspirations were fresh and inspiring.
  • 7. In the classroom Of course, for parents and teachers, the highest satisfaction occurs when the inspiration abiding in religious history (and particularly in the Bible) comes alive for our young people. This is what transforms the work of teaching into the joy of learning.
  • 8. What is Antika?    Antika archaeology Group Activity Pack includes 24 units of ANTIKA a unique threedimensional puzzle suited for archeologists of all ages. Just as an archeologist needs to work hard to find pieces of fragments that fit together, so will you enjoy finding potshards in your own dig and solving the mystery of their original form. Inside you will find the shards of replicated artifacts actually found in various digs, and which are currently on display in several museums in Israel. These replicated pieces are hand made by a skilled potter in Jerusalem, and are made to appear as authentic as the originals. There are 12 unique artifacts in the ANTIKA collection from several archaeological sites around Israel and from different time periods. In addition to the replicated vessels are the necessary tools to guide you on your reconstruction of your ancient artifacts. Assemble these 3dimensional puzzles just as an archaeologist would, piece by piece. The job of an archeologist requires patience and skill. Build your own collection. Then, like the museum originals, these authentic replicas will become part of your own collection, beautiful treasures for all time. Each GAP includes all the necessary material for the learners to put together their treasure piece  Ancient Ties Inc. designed a companion activity guidebook for the educator and the learners . This guide can be used for a unit covering from one class period up to three weeks worth of classes and it is appropriate for learners ranging from the very young to senior adults. The companion helps the educator and the group of learners explore through a multidisciplinary approach the piece which they are about to assemble. The companion explores many themes: Archaeologist Tools, Water Sources, Hideouts, Walled Cities, What is a Tel, The Oil Industry, Fruits of the Land and many more.  Through the use of different activities in Arts, Science, Social Studies, Math and Literature the learners will have a better understanding and appreciation for the Land of the Bible, it’s People and our shared history.
  • 9. Who may benefit from the Journey Companion?    There are so many reasons to include archaeology in your school curriculum, not necessarily as a separate course, but within existing core areas of study. Archaeology provides the subject matter for a wide variety of "hands-on" individual and group activities that stimulate student interest, independent learning, social interaction, and communication. These exercises can also develop critical and creative thinking: from rudimentary levels such as classification, through making inferences and developing hypotheses, and finally to high level skills such as developing and testing alternative hypotheses, and using research results to develop broad generalizations about culture. The skills involved in archaeological research and interpretation include manipulation of numbers, graphing, and computer literacy to name just a few. The multidisciplinary nature of the subject makes it a useful umbrella under which a variety of required areas of study can be taught. Perhaps most importantly, archaeology is an exotic and fascinating subject for most people, and is capable of capturing even the imagination of students who might otherwise lack interest in academic pursuits.
  • 10. The guide is meant for many formal and informal educational settings. • You may use all or just some of the recommended material provided to you. The material is not meant to replace, but rather enhance both the core and supplemental curriculum being presented by current educators. It is meant to provide a wide range of ideas for fitting archaeology into the curriculum, because of the interests of the teachers, the interests of the students, or to take greater advantage of opportunities for class involvement in archaeological research.
  • 11. Meeting Goals and Objectives  The Journey Companion takes into consideration certain goals and objectives educators have identified in both the fields of general and Judaic subjects, and it helps bridge these objectives through the use of the interdisciplinary approach it brings to the units presented in this package. At the same time, the Journey Companion still leaves ample room for both flexibility in time management and use of material.
  • 12.  You will see by the way the material is presented that they can be used in a variety of settings . It is up to the individual educators to decide how to navigate the material being presented once he/she begins the journey.
  • 13. Core subject vs. interdisciplinary approach Social Studies  In social studies, archaeology should be introduced as an important method of gathering information about the past, information about everyday events and people that were often left out of written histories. That is why archaeologists study historic sites. During any class discussions of past historical events and different cultures, archaeological reflection can be practiced as a means of practicing critical and creative thinking:
  • 14. Social Studies -continued    What kinds of materials would be left behind after such an event? Which of these would survive after several hundred years of abandonment? What would be unique about the materials that would give archaeologists clues about the time that the event occurred, and what people were involved (male or female, culture or nationality, status of participants within their culture)?   What aspects of this culture would distinguish it from all others in the archaeological record? What information could you retrieve from the archaeological record about this [relationship system, religion, language, economic system, political system, modes of transportation, food production, or world view]?
  • 15. Mathematics     Archaeology can provide subject matter for exercises to develop: plotting skills, numerical calculations , geometric concepts, and measuring skills.
  • 16. Science   Archaeological ideas can be introduced in science classes at all grade levels. It provides suitable material for covering most of the dimensions of Scientific Literacy. Ecological concepts, geography and geology, are all integral units to archaeological research. Its biggest contribution is the ease with which it can be used to get students involved in the procedures of scientific investigation observation,  measurement,  classification  experimentation  communication  formulating hypotheses  formulating theories and models and making predictions using analogies. 
  • 17. Language Arts Recording information is integral to collecting archaeological materials. Journal entries are made daily in the field, regarding the weather, who was present, what was done, what was found, and some preliminary interpretations. Students visiting archaeological sites or taking part in archaeologically oriented activities may write such a journal entry. An important aspect of archaeology is formally reporting what has been found and how it has been interpreted. This can be done through written reports, oral presentations (perhaps accompanied by slides or displays), poster displays or exhibits, or even video.
  • 18. Language Arts Creativity can be brought out in fictional accounts of archaeologists uncovering the mysteries of the past, or elaborate instructions of past cultures based on archaeological information but using imagination to fill in the gaps. All of these types of activities allow students the opportunity to use archaeological terminology in context, and develop their communication skills.
  • 19. Arts Education Reproducing artifacts and archaeological sites allows students to be creative. The most valuable activities for giving students a sense of how life was in the past are those which attempt to reproduce artifacts as authentically as possible, using the materials and techniques that would have been available to the ancient people. Archaeological interpretations may also be presented in visual form, as illustrations or even as dramatic recreations of the events that may have taken place at a site. These forms of expressions can bring life to interpretations that can seem static if presented only in tables of data and factual reports.
  • 20. Interdisciplinary methodology  By using an interdisciplinary method of teaching you may eliminate the need for core subject teaching and use the archaeological exploration as the focal point. The material lends itself to teachings of various disciplines.
  • 21. Religious Education • The connection to the land of our ancestors are done both on a spiritual level and an emotional level. The biblical text serves as more than an historical account to events of the past. The land itself has always been a focal point for the people of Israel. The physical land has managed to attract many nations who have left their imprint in its soil. Throughout history many peoples have returned to it and restored its past.
  • 22. • Religious education is focused on the identity of who we are and where we came from. Archaeological research helps unearth many of the mysteries about our ancient heritage. The Journey Companion enables a student to achieve a greater appreciation of their faith and Nationhood. • One must dig beneath the surface to begin to appreciate the wonders that are waiting to be discovered in the Land of the Bible.
  • 23. How to use this companion • The companion is organized like a Tel. The deeper you dig into a section, the more in depth the information becomes. In each tel you can explore down deep or wide and shallow.
  • 24. Base Camp ► The base camp is the starting point, where you and your crew get the basic knowledge about archaeology, its methods and tools. This will provide you with an understanding of what you will need for further exploration. You will understand what the necessary tools are for the journey ahead. Throughout the companion, historical and general background information will be provided to help the educator be better equipped to present the material on hand to the learners. The base camp will cover the basic steps in archaeological research: •Problem •Excavation •inventory •Recording •Testing •dating, and follow up.
  • 25. You are about to embark on an amazing journey. On this journey you will sit in the drivers seat. You will have to have be equipped with the correct tools and gear. Your path might start on a straight road, but be ready for detours. Your journey is going to take you back in time as you dig into your roots!
  • 26. Think about it! Recall and note a previous journey you have taken. What was the destination? __________________________________ Circle either one way round trip How long did the journey last?________________________ (days, months) Who accompanied you?____________________________________ What memories do you have of that journey? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ What item(s) might you have in your possession to remind you of that journey? _____________________________________________________ Many famous journeys took place a long time ago. Some of these were one-way journeys while others were roundtrip. They took quite some time to be completed . Back then the explorer didn't carry A Journey Companion such as this guide. Many times the records of these explorers might have been written years after the journey actually took place. Often they were written by other people based on memories of stories they heard. Only at a later date were some of these explorations written down. If one wanted to go back in time and follow in the footsteps taken by these travelers, it would be most difficult. What are some of the items that might help us trace the past of adventurous and courageous travelers? _______________________________________________________________
  • 27. From: Shmul Simon –Dept. of Antiquities Israel To: Antika explorer Subject: Help Wanted Dear Traveler, As I am sure you are aware, Israel is constantly expanding its roadways and building new highways. The other week, work was brought to a stop because one of the construction vehicles became immobilized on a wall not visible, as it was under the surface of the road. While the crew was investigating the problem, some of the construction workers noticed some shards of ancient pottery . Due to the newly unearthed findings, we were called upon to survey the site. There are many things we need to do to survey the site and decide what should be done. The shards I sent over should give you a clue as to where we are and what type of site we’ve encountered. We really need your help. Please come as soon as possible. Shmul
  • 28. Archaeological research begins with choosing a problem. As introduced in the student letter, we have a problem. It involves having to recover as much information as possible in a limited amount of time if a site is in danger. The danger to this site is that it is located on an area due to be paved over. Once a problem is identified, the archaeologist must decide where to do the research (the study area), and what are the best methods to use. After much planning, the archaeologist is finally able to leave their location and do the most well known part of the research - fieldwork. Our fieldwork will be conducted in The LAND OF THE BIBLE using our Tel.
  • 29. Who, what, where, when, how? You probably figured out that one of the most important items we need is some substantial evidence. So lets turn to the sources and see what information we can gather. As suggested, we need to look back into the written journals to obtain clues. Lets begin our assumptions with the obvious . What do we know? A place was found which was inhabited by people . We also know the location of the place as modern day Israel. Lets try to use the Bible as one source material to obtain additional information about the people who might have journeyed through the place. We will also need to have a map of the Land of the Bible The map serves for us as a point of information that someone has recorded for us. There are many maps available. Unfortunately maps often change through time. Later on we will explore why these changes happen and how to interpret these changes.. We will see what insights we can gain from the map, most important we will know how to use the maps to our advantage. Let’s begin by getting a general sense of the place and the who where some of the people who journeyed in and to the land.
  • 30. Inventory     The first part of archaeological fieldwork is to take an inventory of all sites in the study area. This will be achieved in various levels either independently or with your guidance as explained below. A site is a location that contains evidence that people performed some activity there in the past. Sites are recognized by finding artifacts and features left behind by people in the past. An artifact is anything that has been made or changed by humans. However, many items, particularly those that have been used by humans but not changed, have an archaeological importance that is not easily recognized unless they are found closely associated with other items or artifacts. Such as if an archaeologist finds 50 rocks arranged in a circle, this cultural feature provides a clue about the structures that people built at that site. A site can be found in a number of ways. Sites are often discovered accidentally by ordinary people, who then contact an archaeologist. But usually archaeologists look for sites. They survey by walking along lines, set a distance apart so that they set consistent coverage over the study area. While surveying, they look for artifacts or features on the ground surface, or in places where the sub-surface is made visible.
  • 31. Read all about it! We can find out about the eldest family of explorers in Genesis (Chapter 11:31-Chapter 12: 9) After reading the text we can answer these questions: Who participated in the journey?___________________________ Where did it begin?_________________________________ What was the final destination? __________________________________ Who were the inhabitants of the destination?________________________ Much information is given to us about places that existed in those days. We will use them later in a greater detailed map. Write down the places mentioned:_________________________, ________________________, _____________________________, ______________________ Note: One of the things we can pick up from the text is information about roads and routes. There are many obvious reasons roads are developed. In the following page you will see a map of an area referred to as The Fertile Crescent. The area stretched from modern day Iraq to Egypt. Fertile, because some of the best farmland of the Fertile Crescent was in a narrow strip of land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Crescent, because the areas half moon shape. Before going on try to answer: why do roads get developed? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________
  • 32. After reading the following texts what assumption can you come up with regarding the area identified in the map above. (All the texts are in the book of Genesis) (chapter 12:10, Chapter 13:1, Chapter 24:2,10, 51,52,59,63, Chapter 28:6 – Chapter 29 Chapter 32 Chapter 41:52 Chapter 42 Chapter 43 Chapter 46 Chapter 49: 28) ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ What did the text reveal to you about trade in Biblical days? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ After reading the texts what clues might it shed about some ancient societies? ___________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________
  • 33. Do you enjoy solving puzzles and interested in the past? Then archaeology is for you! What is archaeology? It is the scientific study of human culture based upon interpretation of the evidence of human activity. Using clues left behind, the archaeologist pieces together the mysteries of earlier cultures. The archaeologist interprets any remains that show evidence of having been made, used, or altered by humans. Archaeologist's work consists of locating evidence of past cultures, conducting detailed excavations, completing laboratory analyses, writing reports, and teaching others about what has been found. Besides conducting studies to understand the past, the archaeologist is also involved in saving artifacts of the past for the benefit of future generations. To achieve all this an archaeologist needs to know history, understand human cultures and social patterns (social sciences), science, geography and other topics related to the job.
  • 34. Until know we have looked at maps, read recorded history but have not seen the hard facts! We will refer to the Bible and maps as Records. This means that at some point in time someone actually recorded what they have seen or heard. It is part of archaeological evidence we call records. When archaeologist are interested in pursuing and finding more information about somewhere, they have to rely on earlier records. Since we can’t get the information from the people who are long gone, where do you think archaeologist can turn to in order to gather more needed information? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________
  • 35. Archeological Skills Find more of the hidden skills you might need and use on your archaeological exploration. Circle the skills you find. N I B R V C Q N M Z V X R R P U A V I T Y N R A J S M E D T N C I I O O L R W G L B H G S G A B C I L T X P A M O P D I D O I P I E O V O I R I A E U O W M R X T A G L J A E R T G W W E P O M A C I Y S R G E N Y W E O V T K M T S X E O C I T R W I U C S K E P T H T T L T S K L O G L I X h K M O I V S C Z R T Z R N H R T Q H V M S C U B A D I V E R Z A P E X T C E T I H C R A N K V M R M C E Q T N W L V M P V K A P E J L V L D L W D Q M J F I H W Biologist Linguist Scuba diver Rock climber Detective Photographer Art expert Architect Historian Mathematician Write down other skills: _______________, ________________, _________________
  • 36. Well, it’s time to bring all those skills together. Archaeologists are not experts in all the skills you’ve uncovered. They usually work in teams where each person brings their specialized skill into the equation. Before we can start to decipher the artifacts Shmul Simon sent us, we have to make sure we understand what it is we are going to try and reconstruct. Look around the area you are in (be it outside or inside). make a group list of 15 material possessions you see (books, toys, clothing, etc.) 1. _________________________________ 2. _________________________________ 3. _________________________________ 4. _________________________________ 5. _________________________________ Think and discuss with your group which items you think you will still have around in 50 years time and why? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Discuss what you think happens to the things that are not around and why are these items not around today? How do we know what people used 100 years ago? ___________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________
  • 37. Few of the objects people have used a few thousand years ago have survived. This is because most material would decompose over time. Damp weather can destroy wood, writing paper and clothing. Only in harsh dry climates do objects remain in their original form. Many artifacts have been found throughout Israel in the same condition the object was left many years ago. One of the most common artifacts found in archaeological sites are objects made from stone or pottery. Why do you think many pottery and stone artifacts are found in various sites.? ________________________________________________________________ Why are pottery and stone artifacts so common? ———————————————————————————————— The problem As we see from Shmuls letter, we have a problem. It involves having to recover as much information as possible in a limited period of time, because of the possible danger to the site . The danger to this site is that it is located on an area due to be paved. The site might be of significant importance. We must decide where to do the research , and what are the best methods to use. In order to achieve this, we must have more detailed information about the people and the places of the Land of the Bible. We have already read about some of these places. Reading about it is insufficient. One must be able to identify it on a map and be sure the location is correct, prior to excavating and digging up a specific site. When we have gathered the historical information we will finally be able to leave this area and do the fieldwork. Our fieldwork will be conducted in The LAND OF THE BIBLE using our Tel.
  • 38. Surveying your site There are different ways to survey an area depending on the conditions of the land. Surface survey can be done by looking at features available to the naked eye. Aerial survey are used for spotting buried walls in agricultural fields or patterns in rocks. The student companion has pictures and question regarding site surveying. Archeologist often survey sites in areas which have some sort credible evidence that people have performed some activity there in the past. The students will look at the aerial and surface pictures and determine if there are clues about past habitation activity in these areas. Ask the students to indicate what are the methods they used to determine this? How does prior knowledge of history contribute to our survey of a site? The important concept is that the visible surface of the Tel may give information about people and places. However, records and artifacts may not be visible on the surface. Note: It is important to convey to the learners that although we may not have the knowledge of who the inhabitants of the place were , it is our goal to find out who were the people that dwelled in this place.
  • 39. The site Your site is a Tel. A Tel is a raised mound marking the site of an ancient city. Just as a Tel has many parts which need to be surveyed so does this Journey Companion. The entire site (or Tel) is the physical LAND OF THE BIBLE. Your Tel will have to be surveyed by your group. Archeologists often refer to layers of habitation as strata. A Tel is made up of strata. Surveying your site There are different ways to survey an area depending on the conditions of the land. Surface survey can be done by looking at features available to the naked eye. Aerial survey is used for spotting buried walls in agricultural fields or patterns in rocks. Archeologists often survey sites in areas which have some credible evidence that people have performed various activity there in the past. Based on our previous text reading what might we find at a specific site? ____________________________________________________________ Look at the pictures taken on the surface and by air and determine if there are any clues about habitation activity in these areas.
  • 40. Aerial Survey Clues in picture 1:_____________________________________________
  • 41. Surface Survey Clues in picture 2:____________________________________________
  • 42. • How did you reach your conclusion? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ • How does prior knowledge of history contribute information to our survey of a site? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ • Important Note: On the visible surface of the Tel is information about people and places. Records and artifacts however, are usually not visible on the surface of any site.
  • 43. Testing and Excavation • • • If sites are found during an inventory, they are marked on maps. Then they are tested to find out how important the site is - will it help answer the research problem? Assessment can involve collecting all of the artifacts lying on the surface of the field, and carefully mapping the location of each item. Or it may involve using shovels to dig a series of square test pits; these tests give the archaeologists an idea of how deep the site is buried, and if parts of the site remain undisturbed below the ground surface. In our Tel example we will be using the outline of The Land of the Bible for test sites. This will be for the purpose of looking at the importance of historical knowledge. You will use the knowledge your learners have at this point of the journey. By doing the activity, they will indicate to you and themselves what areas they have established as credible and ones that they have some familiarity with. A site is only excavated if the assessment indicates that a site will be productive in archaeological materials that are important to the problem at hand. By indicating the dot on the grid, they are acknowledging that there is something there that is worth further exploration. Until they actually dig, they will not know what they are going to find. • Archaeological excavation is a slow and careful process. Archaeologists carefully scrape soil away with pointed trowels or carefully maneuvered shovels, and collect the soil in buckets. Artifacts are left in place for as long as possible, while dirt is brushed away from around them. They are only removed after the archaeologist has had a chance to observe the relationships among the artifacts in the area being excavated. The archaeologist dumps the bucket of excavated soil into a shallow box with screen mesh forming the bottom; the dirt falls through the screen and the archaeologist has one last chance to find the artifacts. Detailed notes are recorded at each stage of the excavation.
  • 44. • Excavation is an expensive and time consuming activity which involves destroying part of the site, and possibly destroying the information for which future archaeologists may be searching. Therefore, not every site that is discovered is excavated, and even sites that are excavated are rarely fully excavated. However, some archaeological sites are in danger of disturbance or destruction by natural processes such as erosion or modern developments as in our example of the highway project. It is necessary to study these sites in unusual detail because important information might otherwise be lost. To future archaeologists, access to the complete records and the artifact collection from the excavation of a site is the next best thing to personally digging there.
  • 45. The Test Site Activity The following activity is one of the most important stages which will help guide the learner in the direction in which they would like to pursue their test site. Material presented in the student companion about testing may give the explorer the ability to choose which categories to further explore in an area. The test site categories will be spread out on the grid of 12x13 squares. 12 of them are prearranged to correspond with the Antika vessels.
  • 46. There are a total of 156 site activities. These include topics such as:           Cult objects Burial Embalming Writing methods Maps Roads Seals Money Hunting and Fishing Weights & Measures            Market Agriculture Calendar Inscription Weapons & Warfare Houses Monasteries Palaces Synagogues Fortification Baths & Bathing Each activity gives the explorer an insight to People, Places and Records.
  • 47. One of the first things you need to do in an archaeological dig is to map the site. Mapping the site If you have determined that the site does have potential for excavation, based on the results of your area survey , your next step is to map the site. The survey area is mapped out on a grid, and a few different locations are selected for sample testing. On the horizontal surface, archeologists usually divide the site into a pattern of squares called a grid. One corner of the grid is the designated reference point, called the datum. It is a reference point that never changes, such as the building in the picture below. A more detailed map must be made of the site and testing areas are determined. This is called shovel testing.
  • 48. • On the next page you will find a map of the Land of the Bible. Your task will be to do shovel testing in certain areas and see what you will unearth. • Since there are so many different archaeological sites and many different facts you will unearth, the site map lets you decide where and what you can excavate. • Remember, we will be stripping layers to try and understand who was here, what they did, and when was it done. • A lot of cleaning or removal of debris will take place so we can see the important facts. We will sift through records, sites, dates and other information and retain important facts. Making a drawing of found objects and where they were found, will be helpful for later reference. The most important challenge facing us is the restoration of the shards and observation of their significance .
  • 49. At this time , you will use the archaeological tools to sift through the material and artifacts. As you explore the sites on the map, using the shovel testing method, you will identify which squares on the grid reveal vital information. By doing this you will start to explore and excavate those areas that have not been previously explored by your group. A/13 B/13 C/13 D/13 E F G H I J K L/ B/1 C/1 D/1 E/1 F/1 G/1 H/1 I/1 J/1 K/1 L/1 A/12 A/11 A/1 0 A/9 A/8 A/7 A/6 A/5 A/4 A/3 A/2 A/1
  • 50. Recording Location and Context • • • Archeologists do not excavate in a random fashion. You should dig in only one square at a time. In our Tel we will be using the grid method. Each square in the grid will represent one unit of exploration. As previously indicated these exploratory units will help you have a greater understanding of your roots. The units will be self-contained and you may complete one or more units for shovel testing. What you have found and discovered within that specific unit will be recorded into you journals. In order for others to benefit from your work, you as an archaeologists must keep records of artifacts and indicate precisely where each artifact was found within a specific unit. Each artifact that is collected during excavation is placed in a bag labeled with all of the necessary information: In that way, archaeologists can reconstruct the site in the laboratory, by plotting artifact locations. By studying these plots, archaeologists can study how artifacts are associated in groups, and what those groups can reveal about human activity. Recording an artifact's context is also important in interpreting what activities occurred at a site. While you are excavating with your group you will be writing notes for future reference. Once you have finished your shovel testing at a few sites, you will evaluate the contents of the “labeled bags” . Then you will gather the information and facts you have found, putting together the puzzle.
  • 51. If the explorer indicated Beer Sheva D4 on their map, they might end up exploring the following : How did the city get it’s name? What significance did this place hold? Who were the people that lived there? Was the city inhabited throughout time? When in Biblical accounts is the city mentioned? and so on…. •The explorer will use the archaeological tools here to sift through the material and artifacts to see which ones have significance to their identified sight on their map. By doing this they will start to explore and excavate areas that have not been touched upon. •At this point of the journey the learners will get the trowel, bucket, soil, screen mesh which will all come into play in their hands. Careful analysis and detailed note taking will begin to take place as the dig progress.
  • 52. Archaeologists must also control the vertical scale of their excavations. The arrangement of the layers of sediment at a site is called stratigraphy. Stratigraphy is important in determining vertical relationships among artifacts. Artifacts found within the same soil layer, or strata were all deposited at approximately the same time period. On the other hand, artifacts found in different strata were deposited at different times, perhaps by completely different people. For that reason, archaeologists must excavate in layers. When gathering the information from your units you will be looking at information from different strata. Notes about each vertical dig or (time period) will be kept on level record forms. These forms are filled out for each level of each unit that is being excavated. The forms have spaces for writing information about what article was dug, how deep the level was (time period), what was collected, and observations about the environment, unusual associations of artifacts, and any other useful information. This will help you understand and determine which group of people lived in a certain place at what period in time.
  • 53. Record your observations from each site dig you complete Test site grid location: _____________________________ Pencil drawing of object Artifact discovered: _______________________________ Material artifact is made from: _____________________________ Theory about the use of the artifact: __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Recorded references: __________________________________________________________________
  • 54. Activity sheets example #1- Wells • Stop and think: • By looking at our map we notice 3 beds of water. Unfortunately not all of them are suitable for consumption: Why do you think this is the case? • Investigate and write the name of the available source of fresh water:______________
  • 55. • As you might imagine from the answer above, settlements in Biblical days had to concentrate around this one area. However river and springs helped expand settlement to many remote areas in the land. • Look at following records: Genesis 14:10, 16:14, 21:19, 21:25-30, 24:11-20, 26:18-25, 26:32, 29:2-10 Exodus: 2:15 Numbers: 20:17, 21:1622 Samuel II 17:18-22 • What can you learn from these records about wells and their importance? • In what surrounding were these wells dug?.
  • 56. • Groundwater is contained in the zone of saturation below the land surface. The top of this zone is known as the water table. People can tap into this source of water by digging wells. The depth of the well and level of the water table greatly influences the wells productivity. • To this day Bedouins (see separate sheet) dig wells even in dry river beds reaching the source lay below. • During the winter months, heavy rains cause flooding in many areas. Many times these floods mud up the wells and they have to be dug again in the spring.
  • 57. This activity can help you understand what happens in wells over time. • Materials: Pencil, fine wire screening, small wire for fastening, medicine dropper, drinking glass, water, course sand, and food coloring.
  • 58. Procedure: 1. Roll a piece of screening around a pencil to make a cylinder. 2. Enlarge the cylinder to approximately 1 cm in diameter. Fasten cylinder with a piece of wire around it to keep it from unrolling. 3. Place the cylinder upright in a glass with sand, keeping the sand out of the cylinder. 4. Pour water into the sand. The sand will take up water, but the water will also go into the cylinder – the well. 5. Remove water from the well with the medicine dropper 6. After you remove water from the cylinder (your well), notice the level of water in the sand. Your well will also be lower at first but will eventually fill up again. 7. Add more water to your sand and observe your well. Recording: • Observe your well and record your observations in each one of the steps. • (You may choose to draw what you notice) • What happened to the groundwater when you removed water from the well? • What happened to your well as more water was added to your “groundwater”? • How do finding records about wells help archaeologists? • What information about cultural behavior is described in the records you have explored? • What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of relying on wells for water needs?
  • 59. Activity sheets example #2- Writing • When we come to think about writing in today’s world we can’t imagine a time when only a few elite people had the skills or the knowledge of writing. It seems we take it for granted that schools today teach us this basic necessity of life. Even the tools we used have changed over time. • Even currently you might have a few choices when taking notes either in digital form or mechanically. • Write down some of these options: ____________, _________________, ________________, ____________ • There have even been changes in writing tools since your parents were in school. Even a simple tool such as a pen has evolved. Today we have pens with erasable ink. What we write on has changed through time.
  • 60. • Archaeological finds indicate that many different materials were used. Many inscriptions chiseled onto stone have been found. However these stones must have been heavy and bulky. As more people gained the ability to communicate through writing, other methods were used. One example of that would be clay tablets. • Clay would be shaped into a tablet, written on with a fine stylus and perhaps left out to dry in the sun, or baked in the oven to preserve what was written on them. At times sherds of broken pottery jars were written on using ink and a fine brush. These clay shards are called ostraca. The word comes from the Greek ostrakon, meaning "shell, sherd.” School lessons, short letters, receipts, and other administrative documents were written on these clay sherds. • In many digs such as Lachish, Arad and Samaria archaeologists found thousands upon thousands of ostraca.
  • 61. • Records indicate that wooden tablets were also commonly used with writing in ink. Not many wooden tablets have been found. Can you understand why this is the case? • The English term "paper" is partly derived from an ancient writing material called papyrus. Many papyrus documents from the Roman and Byzantine periods have been found. Papyrus was made from stems of papyrus reed, which are 10-15ft high, cut into strips. These strips were laid vertically side by side to form a single layer. These layers then were moistened, pressed together, and dried. Sheets were cut to a desired size. Papyrus was more convenient than clay tablets since it could be easily written upon, was considerably light, and handy. • Writing was also done on parchment, which is made from the skins of animals. The animal hide was soaked in limewater to make it white. It was then polished with chalk and pumice stone to smoothen the surface. The skins were cut into sheets, and like the Torah sewn in scrolls.
  • 62. • When writing on parchment, ink is used as the pigment. There are several instructions, which vary in regards to the consistency of the ink when related to Jewish writings. Some of the ingredients are: soot, resin, olive oil and water. A scribe would carry with him his inkpot and penknives. A scribes room was found in Qumran with tables and inkpots of clay. Because of the dry climate of the area, the consistency of the ink has remain in tact through the years. • Look at following records: Exodus 24:7, 34:27 Deuteronomy 24:1-3, 27:2-4, Kings I 14:19, Kings II 5:5 Isaiah 8:1, Jeremiah 17:1, 29:11-12, 36:17-29, Ezekiel 37:16 • What do the records indicate was the main purpose of writing? • What do the records want to show to us about the power of writing?
  • 63. Cost conscious curriculum By purchasing the ANTIKA GAP your school gains an excellent hands-on activity The experience of uncovering an ancient artifact, the challenge of its restoration etc. Buying these kits without the GAP offer would cost your school $675.00 and would offer limited educational content. Buying the GAP would offer a huge saving of $325.00 with no additional cost to the vast educational resources in A JOURNEY COMPANION.