A polyolefin sheet material that is permeable to water vapor but not to air or liquid water.
Air barriers protect the structure from weather to ensure that the interior walls do not become mildewed and corroded. Also they help to reduce energy used by limiting airflow.
Attic Ventilation 1. Soffit Vents located at the eave of a roof, permit generous airflow to the rafter space as they act as the intake to the attic’s ventilation.
Attic Ventilation 2. Ridge Vent Ridge Vents, located at the highest point of a roof, allows air to be exhausted while still protecting the attic from weather.
Attic Ventilation 3. Gable Vent located high in the wall at opposite ends of an attic. Gable vents create a cross draft to help ventilate the attic.
Attic Ventilation 4. Roof Turbines Roof Turbines use wind to expel air out of the attic to ensure the moist air does not settle in the attic and begin to mold .
Piece of equipment used in the excavation of a site consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two-piece articulated arm. This bucket is thirty inches wide.
Boards that are set horizontally along the edge of a foundation, which are used to support strings that outline the foundation.
Brick Arches Gothic
Brick Arches Roman
Brick Arches Keystone
Brick Arches Centering
Centering is the process of setting up temporary formwork in the process of building an arch, dome, or vault.
Not Team Anchorbolts
Brick Bonds Flemish Each course consists of alternate headers and stretchers, with headers in alternate courses centered over the stretchers.
Brick Bonds Common Usually 5, 6, or 7 courses of stretchers followed by a course of headers and then repeated.
Brick Bonds Rowlocks
Brick Bonds Headers
Brick Bonds Soldier
Brick Bonds Sailor
Brick Bonds Stretcher Rowlock (Shiners)
Brick Size Modular Brick
Modular Brick - 3 5/8” x 2 1/4” x 7 5/8”
Brick Size Utility Brick 3 5/8” x 3 5/8” x 11 1/2”
Bulldozer A heavy engineering vehicle that has a large vertically mounted blade in the front that is used to move earth, tree stumps etc.
Cladding - Brick
Cladding - EIFS
Cladding - Stone
Cladding - Wood Boards
Cladding - Wood Shingles Wood Shakes: a shingle split from a block of wood Wood Shingle: is sawn from a block of wood Wood Shakes
Code Requirements Window IBC Requirements: Sill height less than 44” Min. Width 20” Min. Height 24” Min. Area 5.7 sf Measurements: Sill Height: 20” Width: 31 1/2” Height: 37 1/2” Area: 8.2 sf This window meets all of the IBC requirements for window sizing.
Concrete Joints Control Joint An intentional groove strategically placed to prevent cracking in a slab of concrete.
Concrete Joints Isolation A joint placed in such a way as to separate column bases and other structures to keep unwanted stresses from causing cracks along the slab.
CMU (with brick) A block of hardened concrete, with or without hollow cores, designed to be laid in the same manner as brick or stone. Used in many load bearing walls as well as in most residential foundations. Typical Dimensions – 7 5/8” x 7 5/8” x 15 5/8”
CMU Different Sizes
4” x 8” x 16”
12” x 8” x 16”
Decorative CMU Split Block
Decorative CMU Ribbed Split-Face Block
Doors Exterior Flush
Doors Exterior Panel Panel Stile Top Rail Lock Rail Bottom Rail
Doors Transom A window above a door that is usually hinged to a horizontal crosspiece over the door. Transom
Doors Sidelight A tall, narrow window alongside a door. Sidelight
Electrical Transformer Box An electrical device that changes the voltage of alternating current.
Electrical Service Head Where the three wires (two hot and one neutral) enter the house
Electrical Meter Measures power usage of the home.
Electrical Service Panel Houses the breakers, which act as fuses, for the electrical circuits in the home.
Electrical Duplex Receptacle Electrical outlet with space for two plugs
Framing Elements 1. Anchor Bolt
Framing Elements 2. Sill Plate
Framing Elements 3. Floor Joist
Framing Elements 4. Subflooring
Framing Elements 5. Sole Plate
Framing Elements 6. Stud
Framing Elements 7. Top Plate
Framing Elements 8. Ceiling Joist
Framing Elements 9. Rafter
Framing Elements 10. Roof Decking
Framing Elements 11. Sheathing
Framing Elements 12. Stringer
Front-End Loader/ Backhoe Front-end loaders are used to move a material from one place to another. Unlike the bulldozer, the front-end loader can pick up material in its bucket whereas a bulldozer can only push the material. A front-end loader cannot dig into the ground like a backhoe can do. Backhoe Front-End Loader
Gypsum Board Wall board made of layers of fiberboard or paper bonded to a gypsum core
f an moves outdoor air across coils containing refrigerant to change the temperature of the refrigerant.
Air Handling Unit
conditions and circulates the air in an air-conditioning unit
Advantage: Has the ability to both heat and cool Disadvantage: Difficult to zone
Insulation 1. Batt/Blanket Most popular type of insulation for wall cavities. Also used in some attics, roofs, and floors.
Insulation 2. Loose Fill Most commonly used in attics because it is inexpensive and leaves few voids with no gaps between pieces.
Insulation 3. Foamed Provides high R-values but can be very expensive to install. Its retardant to fire makes foam insulation desirable. Most commonly found in wall cavities..
Insulation 4. Rigid Board Used where high R-value per unit thickness is necessary. Commonly found in roof assemblies, walls and ceilings where insulation thickness is limited, and in below grade areas with a special water resistant composition.
Lintel A beam that carries the load of a wall across a window or door opening.
Mortar #1 Tooled, Concave 3/8” wide Commercial Building Mortar Type: N
Mortar #2 Tooled, Flush 3/8” wide Residential Home Mortar Type: N
Oriented Strand Board (OSB) A non-veneered building panel composed of long shreds of wood fiber oriented in specific directions and bonded together under pressure. The strands of rectangular wood strips are held together by a wax and resin adhesive.
Plumbing 1. Lavatory Piping to drain lavatory: 1 1/2”
Plumbing 2. Water Closet Piping to drain water closet: 3”
Plumbing 3. Manufactured Shower/Tub
Plumbing 4. Roof Vent The Vent Through Roof (VTR) maintains a system of plumbing drains and waste lines at atmospheric pressure by connecting them to the outdoor air.
Plumbing 5. Sink Drop-In Sink
Plywood A wood panel composed of an odd number of layers of wood veneer and bonded together under pressure. Veneer – A thin layer, sheet or facing.
Radiant Barrier A reflective foil placed adjacent to an airspace in roof or wall assemblies as a deterrent to the passage of infrared energy.
Rebar #4 Rebar, 1/2” Deformations in rebar are to help prevent slipping
Steep Roof Drainage Gutter a narrow channel which collects rainwater from the roof of a building and diverts it away from the structure, typically into a drain. The main purpose of a rain gutter is to protect a building‘s foundation by channeling water away from its base
Steep Roof Drainage Downspout Feeds the water collected by the rain gutter
Steep Roof Drainage Splashblock Used in order to prevent soil erosion/moisture problems around the foundation of a building or house. Leads the water away from foundation
Steep Roof Shapes 1. Gabel Roof
Steep Roof Shapes 2. Gambrel Roof
Steep Roof Shapes 3. Hip Roof
Steep Roof Shapes 4. Mansard Roof
Steep Roof Terms Ridge- level intersection of 2 roof planes in a gable roof Rake- sloping edge of steep roof
Steep Roof Terms Valley- trough formed by the intersection of 2 roof slopes
Steep Roof Terms Eave- horizontal edge at he low side of a sloping roof Soffit- undersurface of a horizontal element of a building Fascia- exposed vertical surface of an eave
Steep Roof Terms building without fascia Lacking the exposed vertical face of an eave
Stone Random Rubble Pattern
Stone Coursed Rubble Pattern
Stone Coursed Ashlar Random Ashlar
Vapor Retarder Placed between insulation and sheathing, prevents condensation of water vapor
Waterproofing loosely laid Impervious membrane applied to the outside of a foundation prevents penetration of water
Weep Hole A small opening whose purpose is to permit drainage of water that accumulates inside a building component or assembly.