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μαρκοπουλος μιχαλης DISCOVERING VIENNA
μαρκοπουλος μιχαλης DISCOVERING VIENNA
μαρκοπουλος μιχαλης DISCOVERING VIENNA
μαρκοπουλος μιχαλης DISCOVERING VIENNA
μαρκοπουλος μιχαλης DISCOVERING VIENNA
μαρκοπουλος μιχαλης DISCOVERING VIENNA
μαρκοπουλος μιχαλης DISCOVERING VIENNA
μαρκοπουλος μιχαλης DISCOVERING VIENNA
μαρκοπουλος μιχαλης DISCOVERING VIENNA
μαρκοπουλος μιχαλης DISCOVERING VIENNA
μαρκοπουλος μιχαλης DISCOVERING VIENNA
μαρκοπουλος μιχαλης DISCOVERING VIENNA
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μαρκοπουλος μιχαλης DISCOVERING VIENNA

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  • 1. ΓΕΝΙΚΟ ΛΥΚΕΙΟ ΝΕΑΣ ΕΡΥΘΡΑΙΑΣ “DISCOVERING VIENNA” ~ του Μιχάλη Μαρκόπουλου ~ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ ΣΤΟ ΜΑΘΗΜΑ ΤΩΝ ΑΓΓΛΙΚΩΝ ΑΘΗΝΑ, ΙΑΝΟΥΑΡΙΟΣ 2014
  • 2. INDEX INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................3 LANDMARKS & ARCITECTURE..................................................................................4-5 HISTORY............................................................................................................................6-7 COMPOSERS.........................................................................................................................8  Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.........................................................................................8  Ludwig van Beethoven ..............................................................................................9  Joseph Haydn …........................................................................................................10  Johannes Brahms.....................................................................................................10  Franz Schubert...........................................................................................................11 ΒΙΒΛΙΟΓΡΑΦΙΑ..................................................................................................................12
  • 3. Introduction Vienna is the capital and largest city of Austria, and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.757 million and it is cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, and before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it is the second only to Berlin in German speakers. Vienna hosts many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city lies in the east of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is also said to be "The City of Dreams" because it was home to the world's first psycho-analyst - Sigmund Freud. The city's roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century. The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, and the late-19thcentury Ringstrasse lined with grand buildings, monuments and parks. Each year since 2005, Vienna has been the world's number one destination for international congresses and conventions. It attracts about five million tourists a year. - Austrian Heroes' statues at the Heldenplatz -
  • 4. Landmarks & Architecture The former winter palace of the Habsburgs , the which is spread over a large area in the city center . Once this palace was home of emperors and as the increased power of the Habsburgs , the various emperors buildings they added modern culture , so is a complex of buildings , with 18 wards , 54 stairs and about 2,600 rooms . Today, it hosts the offices of the President of Austria , various official and private houses , museums and some winter riding school , where trained white Lipizaner elegant stallions of the Spanish Riding School . Τhe impressive parliament (Parliament), which is almost opposite the palace, a Greek style building, with two wide ramps that lead to the main entrance and adorned with statues of Greek philosophers . The architect Theophilus Hansen , who designed it , chose the ancient architecture and style to resemble , as they say , the country that gave birth to democracy . -ParliamentEqually important building is the neo-Gothic town hall (Rathaus) with the impressive spiers and pointed windows . The town hall was built to express the pride of the Viennese for their city . It has 1,575 rooms where the mayor and the municipal town council have their offices. Certainly, the chief venue for classical music is the Vienna State Opera including 2.880 seats! The Staatsoper is a building whose construction started in 1861 and opened its doors to the public in May 1869 with ... Mozart. It is worth mentioning that one of the two architects committed suicide because the opera was not impressed neither the world nor the Emperor Francis Joseph , who was designated as Station ! During the Second World War , the building was completely destroyed , but quickly repaired and now is a reference point for music lovers of the whole world . Vienna was founded about 500 BC , first as a Celtic settlement . 15 BC was a stronghold of the Roman Empire against the Germanic tribes of the North.
  • 5. - Hofburg Palace - -State of Opera- -Rathausplatz-
  • 6. History Findings reveal stone age human settlement in the city. 100 BC was conquered by the Romans . In the 9th century Austria became part of the empire of Charlemagne , and in 976 the Emperor Otto II gave to the family of Vavemvergon . During the 12th century, the city was a part of today's Old Town . He gained great fame when came into the possession of the Habsburg family ( from 1278 to 1918 ) . During the Middle Ages, Vienna was the seat of the dynasty Bampenmpergk and in 1440 became the seat of the Habsburg dynasty , and so eventually became the capital of the Holy Roman Empire and a cultural center of Europe in the arts, sciences and music . In 1529 and 1683, Turks failed to conquer the city. The battle of 1683 marked the historic end of the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Europe. During the 15th century, a flourishing Greek community was developed and major personalities of Struggle were active (P. Velestinlis , I.Kapodistrias , A. Gazis , I. Farmakidis etc. ). The " Greek Street " is located in the center of the old city . In 1784, the first Greek newspaper, the "Efimeris", was released. During the same period, the city became the starting point for dissemination of coffee in Eastern Europe . In 1805, the Napoleonic troops conquered Vienna. In 1805 , it became the capital of the Austrian Empire and later the AustroHungarian Empire - and played a major role in European and world politics, including hosting the Congress of Vienna in 1815 . In 1918 , after World War I , Vienna became capital of the First Austrian Republic. During the Second World War, Vienna lost its status. Berlin became the capital of the Austrian Republic. However, in 1945, after its occupation by the Soviets , Vienna became the capital of Austria once again.
  • 7. -The allied forces in Vienna- -Congress of Vienna (1815)-
  • 8. COMPOSERS Classical Music and Vienna are so closely linked - most immediately one thinks of Vienna as the music capital of the world. More famous composers have lived and worked here than in any other city on earth: Mozart, Beethoven, Haydn, Brahms and Schubert, and many more. Vienna started to become known as a central place for music already in the 13th century. But why? The most logical explanation is the central European location that Vienna holds till today. Since before Christianity many trade routes crossed and passed by Vienna bringing cultures and traditions closer to each other as well as prosperity - the entertainment and art world did not stay far behind... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756 - 1791) Mozart thought of Vienna "as the best city in the world for my career" - it indeed was at that time. Although born in Salzburg and already on his first European music tour at the age of 5, Mozart decided to move to Vienna at the age of 25 and opted for a freelance career here. He lived in the inner city close to St. Peter's Church. After his marriage to Konstanze Weber he moved to what today is called the "Mozarthaus" into a big apartment - he was successful, accepted as a musician and in love. Here he composed many chamber music works, piano concerti and one of his famous operas "Die Hochzeit des Figaro" (Figaro's Marriage). The "good times" passed and Mozart became heavily indebted and sick - he worked very hard to earn money, however, the family had to move into a smaller residence. During this time he composed "Die Zauberflöte" (the magic flute) and his famous Requiem, which he never finished. Mozart suddenly died in December 1791 - because he had no money
  • 9. left he was buried in an "grave of th unknown" at the St. Marx Cementery. Only 60 years later there was a monument erected there in his honour. You will also find a beautiful Mozart memorial in Vienna's Burggarten (park). Ludwig van Beethoven (1770 - 1827) Ludwig van Beethoven was by birth German and became a musician while still living in Bonn. Only in 1787 he moved to Vienna to meet and work with like mind composers like himself (Mozart, Haydn, etc...). By then Vienna was the musical capital of the world, attracting everybody interested in making a career in music. In the contrary to Mozart, Beethoven could count on a variety of aristocratic friends and patrons who financed him generously so that he could spend all his time composing music as a free artist. He mostly lived and worked at the "PasqualatiHaus" or as a guest in his patrons' residences - as a thank you he dedicated many of his works to those families Quite early in his career, shortly after arriving in Vienna, Beethoven starting getting problems with his hearing - it was an incurable disease at that time. Despite of his handicap he continued to compose fervently and produced the famous "Eroica Symphonie", or the Symphonie No. 5 in Vienna. Beethoven only composed 1 opera called "Fidelio" that was premiered here in 1814. It was only 1818 that he became completely deaf, but he continued composing - and produced the incredible "Choral Symphony, No.9" during this time. Beethoven died during a thunderstorm in 1827 and is today buried at the Vienna Central Cementery (Zentralfriedhof).
  • 10. Joseph Haydn (1732 - 1809) Haydn was born 1732 in the Austrian countryside and only arrived in Vienna at the age of 8 - as a choirboy. Although he was educated as a musician and singer he only started composing much later around the age of 30. Haydn was one of the leading musicians in Vienna together with Mozart and Beethoven. Haydn is known for his important role in the development of symphonies and quartets often called the father of symphonies or string quartets. The aristocratic family Esterhazy became the main patron of this excellent composer who was one of the most important musicians at his time of death in 1809. His most famous work is the string quartets "Rider" ,the "Emporer Quartet" and the world famous song "God Save The Emperor Franz", which the Germans use as their national anthem.You can visit the charming Haydn Haus where he lived his last 12 years. Johannes Brahms (1833 - 1897) Again, Brahms is one of "Vienna's most famous composers" having been born in Hamburg (Northern Germany) and an already a known musician there in his time. He became the Director of the Vienna Singers' Academy in 1862 and therefore moved to the capital of music Vienna that became his second home. Today you can visit the Brahms monument at Karlsplatz, opposite the Musikverein, or the "memorial Brahms room" dedicated to this great composer that is today located in the Haydn House. Brahms composed for piano, chamber ensembles, symphony orchestra, and for voice and chorus. He was an excellent pianist who premiered many of his own works. Several compositions were never published during his lifetime - being a perfectionist he preferred destroying his work or hiding it rather than having it performed in public. His work includes 4 Symphonies, 2 Serenades, vocal pieces with orchestra and a wide selection of chamber music.
  • 11. Franz Schubert (1797 - 1828) Schubert was crazy about music since very early childhood. He studied piano and organ as well as violin and singing. Still in his teenage years he had produced and composed several works of music (piano pieces, string quartets, his first symphony and had even started on an opera). No matter how deep his love for music was, he became a teacher due to the pressure of his parents - the father owned a school in Vienna. Secretly Schubert continued writing and composing music and started frequenting "likemind" artists who got together regularly, and dedicated themselves to make music and songs with Schubert - those evenings became known later as the famous "Schubertiads". In 1822 Schubert got infected by syphilis and was getting more and more in financial trouble. In any case, Schubert could not stop and continued to create his famous work (i.e. "Eighth Symphony ("unfinished")" and the string Quartet d Minor ("Death and the Maiden"). In his time of death Schubert was one of the most famous songwriters in Vienna, but the work he left to his audience includes much more - Symphonies, String Quartets etc..... F.Shubert J.Brahms
  • 12. BIBLIOGRAPHY ✔ http://www.mydestination.com/vienna/809/photos?page=4 ✔ http://www.zougla.gr/travelcontent/article/vieni--istorika-st%CE%BFixeia ✔ http://www.koolnews.gr/travel/taksidi-stin-romantiki-vienni/ ✔ http://www.istorikathemata.com/2010/08/1529.html ✔ http://trans.kathimerini.gr/4dcgi/_w_articles_taxworld_1_11/02/2009_267028

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