NUCLEAR ENERGY :A THRUST TO INDIA’S FUTURE SOP 14 Sonia Susan Oommen Kiran P Anosh Anand Robin Korah Jomon Thomas Davika Vijayan
NUCLEAR ENERGYNuclear power is our gateway to a prosperous futureEvery single atom in the universe carries an unimaginablebattery in its heart called NucleusThis form of energy often called Type 1 fuel
NEED FOR NUCLEAR ENERGYEnergy is the most fundamental requirement of everysociety or nation as it progresses through the ladder ofdevelopmentDistinct and categorical relation between the energyconsumption and income of a nation
HOW NUCLEAR ENERGY IS PRODUCED ?Nuclear energy is derived from Nuclear reactions.Nuclear reactions are of two types FUSION REACTION FISSION REACTION
NUCLEAR CHAIN REACTIONSIf each neutron releases two more neutrons, then the number of fissions doubles eachgeneration. In that case, in 10 generations there are 1,024 fissions and in 80 generations about 6 x 10 23 (a mole) fissions.
WHAT’S A NUCLEAR REACTORA nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear chainreactions are initiated, controlled, and sustained at asteady rate, as opposed to a nuclear bomb, in whichthe chain reaction occurs in a fraction of a second andis uncontrolled causing an explosion.
TYPICAL NUCLEAR REACTOR DESIGN
TYPES OF REACTORSPressurized Heavy Water Reactor ( PHWR)Light Water Reactor (LWR)Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR)Fast Breeder Reactor
ADVANTAGES Nuclear power generation does emit relatively low amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2). This technology is readily available, it does not have to be developed first. It is possible to generate a high amount of electrical energy in one single plant The production of electricity is very cost competitive compared to the other existing energies Nuclear plants are also very efficient and produce constant energy without interruption for a long lifecycle
DISADVANTAGESThe problem of radioactive waste is still an unsolved one.High risks: It is technically impossible to build a plant with 100% security.The energy source for nuclear energy is a scarce resource
INDIAN NUCLEAR PROGRAMMES - HISTORY India entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing AEC- Homi Bhabha as chairman. Later on Dept of Atomic Energy was created under the office of then P.M. Jawaharlal Nehru. Initially the AEC & DAE received International cooperation TARAPUR Atomic Power Station-First Nuclear Power Plant -1962
After the defeat with China and China’s nuclear testing , in 1974 India performed a peaceful nuclear explosion ( 15kt)- Western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation & cut off all financial & technical help. India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors & exploded both fission & fusion devices- May 11 & 13, 1998. International Community viewed- a serious road block to Non Proliferation Treaty & Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.• In 2008, Ind0-U.S. nuclear deal signed and reinstated all financial & technical help.
THE THREE STAGE INDIAN NUCLEAR POWER PROGRAMME : Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors using Natural Uranium as fuel and producing Plutonium which is recovered in reprocessing plants for initiating the 2nd stage Fast Breeder Reactors using Pu as fuel and breeding Pu. Thorium-233 based reactors
INDIA’S NUCLEAR COOPERATION U.S.A. Russia France Mangolia Namibia Argentina Canada Kazakhstan South Korea
NUCLEAR FACILITIES IN INDIA POWER OPERATOR STATE TYPE UNITS TOTAL STATION CAPACITY (MW) Kaiga NPCIL Karnataka PHWR 220*4 880 Kakrapar NPCIL Gujarat PHWR 220*2 440Kalpakkam NPCIL Tamil Nadu PHWR 220*2 440 100*1 Narora NPCIL Uttar Pradesh PHWR 200*1 1180 220*4Rawatbhata NPCIL Rajasthan PHWR 100*1 1180 200*1 220*4 Tarapur NPCIL Maharashtra BWR(PHWR) 160*2 2400 540*2 TOTAL 4780
NUCLEAR FACILITIES IN INDIA- UNDER CONSTRUCTIONPOWER OPERATOR STATE TYPE UNITS TOTALSTATION CAPACITY (MW)Kudankulm NPCIL Tamil Nadu VVER-1000 1000*2 2000Kalpakkam BHAVINI Tamil Nadu PFBR 500*1 500 Kakrapar NPCIL Gujarat PHWR 700*2 1400Rawatbhata NPCIL Rajasthan PHWR 700*2 1400Banasware NPCIL Rajasthan PHWR 700*2 1400 Total 9 6700
MAJOR INCIDENTS REGARDING NPPS CHERNOBYL THREE MILE KASHIWAZAKI FUKUSHIMA ISLANDReactors •A high-power, boiling •TMI-2 reactor •BWR •Light water reactorused water type reactor (RBMK)The main •The operators •The sequence of •Earthquake •Tsunamicauses of violated plant certain events - -the procedures and were equipmentaccident ignorant of the safety malfunctions, design requirements needed related problems and by the RBMK design. worker errors.consequenc •The Ukrainian •None people died. •None died. No •Environmentales Ministry of Public There were no environmental problems Health in April 1995 environment pollution pollution. & death toll very said 125,000 already high dead. •Economically, the consequences have been staggering: at least $300 Billion and more.
NUCLEAR RISKS –INDIAN SCENARIO Radiation Fallout Nuclear Accidents Water Temperature Increases Terrorist Attack Radioactive Wastes
BENEFITIALS OF NUCLEAR ENERGY OVER OTHER ENERGY SOURCES- INDIAN SCENARIO Nuclear power can be considered a clean source of energy despite the waste it produces It does not contribute to global warming as it gives less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Reduction of air pollution is furthered as, unlike other sources of energy, nuclear power has no mercury or smog, acid rain, and soot causing emissions.
Comparing with other energy power plants the CO2 emission per electricity produced is very low Cost of electricity per unit is comparably very low Nuclear medicine uses radiation to provide diagnostic information about the functioning of a persons specific organs, or to treat them. Diagnostic procedures are now routine. Radiotherapy can be used to treat some medical conditions, especially cancer, using radiation to weaken or destroy particular targeted cells. Tens of millions of nuclear medicine procedures are performed each year, and demand for radioisotopes is increasing rapidly.
FUTURE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY- INDIAN SCENARIOLargest Thorium reserve in the WorldIndia’s plan for advanced heavy water reactor (AHW) is animportant step to launch early commencement ofThorium utilization in India
INDIAN NUCLEAR POWER PROGRAMME TILL 2020 REACTOR TYPE AND CAPACITIES CAPACITY CUMULATIVE (MWe) CAPACITY (MWe) 13 reactors at 6 sites under operation 3,260 3,260 Tarapur, Rawatbhata, Kalpakkam, Narora, Kakrapar and Kaiga5 PHWRs under construction at Tarapur (1x540 1,420 4,680MWe),Kaiga (2x220 MWe), RAPS-5&6(2x220 MWe)2 LWRs under construction at Kudankulam(2x1000 MWe) 2,000 6,680PFBR at Kalpakkam under construction (1 X 500 MWe) 500 7,180Projects planned till 2020 PHWRs(8x700 MWe), 13,900 21,080FBRs(4x500 MWe), LWRs(6x1000 MWe), AHWR(1x300MWe)2005-05-27 (Delhi, Petrofed) RKS - Indias Energy Security - The Role of Nuclear Energy 23
CONCLUSIONClean and affordable source of energyIt will enable us to meet the twin challenges of energy securityand environmental sustainabilityIt have major spin offs for the development of our industriesWe cant compromise our energy requirements with simplearguments against nuclear power plantsOur safeguard features is as par with international standards.