MULLAPERIYAR DAM MULLAPERIYAR DAM ISSUE ISSUE By SOP 12 Alex George Aparna Mohan 1 Bijesh S.B Geethu K.Ravi Rahul P.M Vinayak S.L
MULLAPERIYAR DAM It is constructed over the headwaters of the Periyar River in 1895 situated in Idukki District of Kerala The Periyar National Park, Thekkady is located near the Periyar reservoir formed by the backwaters of this dam. The name is derived from a portmanteau of Mullaiyar and Periyar. In 1886 a lease for 999 years was made between Maharaja of Travancore and Madras presidency The dam was built by British Army Engineering corps under the supervision of Benny Cook. Still standing because of the excellence of the British 2 Government work
CONT… By another agreement in 1970, Tamil Nadu was permitted to generate power also. The dam stops the west flowing river to form a reservoir, exclusively located in Kerala. From the reservoir, Tamil Nadu collects water to the eastern side of Western Ghats via a tunnel. Badly needed for the arid lands of Theni, Ramanathapuam, Sivaganga and Madurai Districts of Tamil Nadu. The water from the Mullaperiyar Dam reaches to Idukki Dam,kulamavu dam and cheruthoni dam. Idukki dam is the biggest hydel power reservoir in Kerala 3 and a major producer of Electricity in the State.
MULLAPERIYAR DAM DISPUTE Grand example for inter basin water transfer has a height of 155 feet(47.24m) water is stored up to a height of 136 feet only against the protest of neighboring State of Tamil Nadu which demands to store water up to 142 feet(41 to 43m). The Kerala government has opposed this move, considering the safety issues more than hundred year old bridge and the thickly populated 4 districts downstream More than 5million people will be wiped out 4
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE DISPUTE The project came into being after the Madras government entered into an agreement with Travancore state in 1886 gave right to divert "all the waters" of the Mullaperiyar and its catchment to British territory for 999 years. and the use of waters of the river flowing through the tract for irrigation purposes by diversion. After Independence, both the entities became non- existent. treaties between British Government and Indian 5 Princely States have lapsed.
CONT….. Subsequently, a supplement to the principal agreement was signed in May 1970 by both parties to enable the use of the waters for power generation by TN. people from both states are reaping the benefits of this century-old inter basin water transfer. In 1979, the dam showed signs of distress necessitating urgent repairs Consequently the water level was brought down to 136 ft After the requisite repairs were completed, TN wanted the water level to be raised to 152 ft which Kerala did not agree to, on grounds of safety. 6
CURRENT STATUS Supreme Court has allowed for the storage level to be raised to 142 feet(2006). Kerala enacted a new "Dam Safety Act" against increasing the storage level of the dam But Kerala did not object giving water to Tamil Nadu. Their main cause of objection is the dams safety as it is as old as 115 years. Increasing the level would add more pressure to be handled by already leaking dam.So we need to construct a new dam 7
CONT… Tamil Nadu want to increase the water level to 142 feet Environment and Forests ministry of India granted environmental clearance to Kerala for conducting survey for new dam. Kerala argued that if Mullaperiyar is an interstate, the SC has no jurisdiction to intervene in the issue . According to this agreement, only the dam area is leased to Tamil Nadu, and water is not leased. Kerala also argues that if the water level is increased to 142 feets, wide forest areas that are inhabited by conserved flora and fauna will be 8 inundated.
CONT… Tamil Nadu also asserted that Mullaperiyar is not an interstate river, The Tamil Nadu counsel argued that Kerala has an motive to make a new dam and keep it under its control. Tamil Nadu fears that the water supply will be restricted if Kerala builds a new dam and controls it. MDMK, has called for a road blockade on May 28 to stop transport of food grains, vegetables and milk to Kerala to protest its proposal to construct a new dam in place of the Mullaperiyar dam. 9
CONT… On 18 February 2010, the Supreme Court decided to constitute a five-member empowered committee to study all the issues of Mullaperiyar Dam and seek a report from it within six months. The Bench in its draft order said Tamil Nadu and Kerala would have the option to nominate a member each, who could be either a retired judge or a technical expert. The five-member committee will be headed by former Chief Justice of India A. S. Anand to go into all issues relating to the dams safety and the storage level. The ruling party of Tamil Nadu, DMK, passed a resolution that the state government will not nominate any member to it 10
CONT… Consisting of D.R. Rajpal Singh, J.Director of CWPRS,Senior research officials Pankajkumar, Vythriy, Rizwas Ali, Cauvery Water Tribunal technical committee member Siva Subramanyam. Collect details from inaccessible areas by using expert deep water swimmers & underwater camera’s. These committees have to give report to supreme court regarding the settlement of issues prevailing between Kerala & Tamilnadu 11
KERALA’S STAND ON THE ISSUE Collapse of the dam will create the greatest man- made disaster Kerala does not want to raise the level of water from 136 cft to 142cft. The existing dam is in an area prone to earthquake- IIT-Roorkee report, IISc-Bangalore Kerala seeks to own and operate a new Dam. 12
CONT… Even after the new construction, the water supply to TN from the old structure would continue TN is not cooperating with Kerala in inspections Tamil Nadu officials did not permit the Kerala engineer to carry out his duty. Tamil Nadu did not respond to the letters from the Kerala Government 13
TAMILNADU’S STAND ON THE ISSUE The attitude of the Kerala government is a danger to TN Kerala want to abort the existing water sharing agreement Kerala wont be able to provide water to Tamil Nadu from the new structure. Kerala does not utilize water wisely whereas Tamil nadu use it judicially. Demolition of Mullaperiyar dam will make 4 districts in TN deserts. 14
CONT… Unilateral movement by Kerala Govt. to ascertain the safety of the dam Kerala tries to hinder implementation of Supreme Court verdict, 2006- by the amendment of State Irrigation and Water Conservation Act, 2003 No need of a new dam. The existing dam itself is safe. 15
The Mullapperiyar dam is one of the oldest dams in operation in the World. The Dam was built on a technology available 115 years ago. As for the people of Kerala the danger from the Mullaperiyar Dam is real and serious. Tamil Nadu which demands to store water up to 142 feet. The Kerala Government cannot do that on account of the structural weakness of the Dam. 17
IIT Delhi conducted a study which stated that the dam safety would be affected even at a level of 136 ft (41 m). IIT Roorkee conducted structural stability study on the Reservoir and found that the structure would not be safe in the event of an earthquake The Dam is situated in a quake prone area 20 mild tremors were reported this year alone and the latest was a few days ago 18
Idukki Dam is just 30 Kms away from Mullaperyar. The water from the Mullaperyar Dam reaches to Idukki Dam, the biggest hydel power reservoir in Kerala and a major producer of Electricity in the State Our nation has been famous for post mortem for any disaster than proactive measures to prevent them 19
“If Tamil Nadu has to go without water, naturally Kerala will have to go without food. The day the Mullaperiyar dam is demolished, national integration will be in question and any emotional outburst will have serious chain reactions on both sides.” 20
FAILURE OF DAM ALSO OCCUR DUE TO THE FOLLOWING CAUSES:1.Liquefaction of the materials used in the dam.2.Liquefaction in the foundation soil. 3.Inability to estimate performance of the dam and foundationcharacteristics by comparison with case histories of damfailures .4.Slope failures induced by ground motions5.Sliding of the dam on weak foundation materials 22
6.Disruption of dam by major fault movement in thefoundation7.Loss of freeboard due to slope failures or soilcompaction8.Piping failure through cracks induced by theground motions9.Overtopping of dam due to slides into thereservoir10.Overtopping of dam due to failure of spillway orfailure of dams upstream 23
SOLUTION TO THE ISSUE According to the views of govt. & experts the only solution is to built a new dam for preventing the greatest man made disaster ever Reservoir level is to be maintained below 136 ft. till a new dam is built Water released is to be measured and priced anew 24
CONCLUSIONFor commissioning a new dam in mullaperiyar thepaper works are going on, but the earthquakeshave no paper works to do before they hit at atarget 25