Chapter 2
Chapter Module 2A Inside the System Unit Module 2B Data Storage Module 2C   Input and Output 2
Inside the System Unit <ul><li>Talking about Computer Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>The System Unit:  Looking Under the hood ...
Talking about Computer Hardware Computer and peripherals Inside the System Unit A Module
The System Unit:   Looking Under the Hood The system unit, exposed Inside the System Unit A Module
How Modern Computers Represent Data Inside the System Unit A Module <ul><li>Digital versus Analog Representation </li></ul...
Binary Numbers A binary number is called a binary digit, or bit. A bit is the smallest unit of information that a computer...
Counting Inside the System Unit A Module
ASCII & EBCDIC Inside the System Unit A Module <ul><li>Originally used a total of 7 bits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>encodes a t...
Inside the System Unit A Module <ul><li>Unicode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>expanded to 16 bits   (65,000 characters) </li></ul>...
The CPU:   Looking Under the Hood Inside the System Unit A Module <ul><li>System Clock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>determines sp...
Microprocessors:   Computers on a Chip Inside the System Unit A Module CPUs in most computers designed for individuals are...
CPU Compatibility Inside the System Unit A Module <ul><li>Compatibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a program that can run on a ...
Comparing CPUs Inside the System Unit A Module <ul><li>Data Bus Width & Word Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>number of bits in ...
Comparing CPUs Inside the System Unit A Module <ul><li>Multitasking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>processor runs more than one pro...
Memory:   CPU’s Electronic Scratchpad Inside the System Unit A Module <ul><li>Memory Capacities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>kilo...
Random Access Memory Inside the System Unit A Module In RAM, each memory location has an address, just like a post office ...
Memory Inside the System Unit A Module <ul><li>Read-Only Memory (ROM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>non-volatile </li></ul></ul><u...
Buses: Freeways for Data Inside the System Unit A Module Circuits that carry data from one component to another are called...
Plug and Play  Inside the System Unit A Module Microsoft and Intel created the Plug and Play (PnP) standard. This standard...
<ul><li>Storage Concepts:  The Basics </li></ul><ul><li>Disks and Disk Drives:  Putting a Spin on it </li></ul><ul><li>Mag...
Storage Concepts: The Basics Data Storage B Module Memory versus Storage
Storage Devices Data Storage B Module <ul><li>Sequential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>go through fixed sequence to get data </li>...
Disks & Disk Drives: Putting a Spin on it Data Storage B Module Before a disk can be used for storage, it must be formatte...
Floppy Disks Data Storage B Module A 3 1/2 inch disk plastic casing read/write opening sliding metal shutter write protect...
<ul><li>How Hard Disks Work </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Capacities </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Performance </li></ul><ul><li>...
Hard Disk Interfaces Data Storage B Module
Removable Hard Disk Data Storage B Module Many new computers come equipped with a Zip drive, a removable hard disk that us...
Magnetic Tape: Still Useful Data Storage B Module Quarter-inch cartridge (QIC) tape drives work with cartridges that can h...
Optical Storage Media: Seeing the Light Data Storage B Module CD-ROM disks are prerecorded and cannot be altered. CD-ROM p...
Optical Storage Media: Seeing the Light Data Storage B Module DVD-ROM drives are expected to replace CD-ROM drives as the ...
Storing Data in Files Data Storage B Module Files are always named and can be organized into directories. Just as a filing...
<ul><li>Configuration files   </li></ul><ul><li>Text files </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics files </li></ul><ul><li>Database fil...
Naming Files Data Storage B Module File names can contain up to 255 characters as well as spaces and some punctuation. The...
Organizing Files into Folders  (Directories) Data Storage B Module By viewing the directory, you can get information about...
Organizing Files into Folders  (Directories) Data Storage B Module In Microsoft Windows 95 & 98, the root directory contai...
The Data Storage Hierarchy Data Storage B Module The data storage hierarchy 8 bits = A Last name field Four fields = 1 rec...
<ul><li>Transaction file </li></ul><ul><ul><li>batch processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>real-time processing   </li></u...
Sequential File Organization Data Storage B Module The computer processes a sequential file in the order in which the data...
Direct (Random) File Organization Data Storage B Module Records in a direct access file are stored according to a position...
Indexed Sequential File Organization Data Storage B Module With indexed sequential files, records can be accessed either d...
<ul><li>Understanding Input:  Not Just Data Entry </li></ul><ul><li>Input Devices:  The Computer’s “Senses” </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Keyboards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>numeric keyboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>function keys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Cursor & Cursor Movements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>insertion point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cursor movement keys (a...
<ul><li>Mouse operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clicking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dragging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dou...
Pointing Devices <ul><li>Trackball </li></ul><ul><li>Trackpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Touchpad </li></ul><ul><li>Touch-Sensiti...
Additional Input Devices <ul><li>Soundcards </li></ul><ul><li>Microphones & Speech Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Video Cap...
Input Devices in Business  & Industry <ul><li>source data automation </li></ul><ul><li>image processing systems </li></ul>...
Additional Input Devices <ul><li>Biological feedback devices </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical detectors </li></ul>C Module Input...
<ul><li>Video Adapters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>video RAM (VRAM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>video graphics adapter (VGA) </li...
Video Graphics Adapter C Module Input & Output Common PC resolutions 640 x 480  800 x 600 1024 x 768 1600 x 1200
Video Graphics Adapter C Module Input & Output Common color depth Color Depth Number of colors VGA (4 bits) 16 256 Color M...
Monitors <ul><li>cathode ray tube  (CRT) </li></ul><ul><li>liquid crystal display  (LCD) </li></ul>C Module Input & Output...
Screen Size C Module Input & Output Quoted Size and Actual Viewable Area Monitor Size Viewable Area 21 inches 20 inches 17...
Additional Monitor Characteristics <ul><li>dot pitch </li></ul><ul><li>interlaced monitors </li></ul><ul><li>noninterlaced...
Impact Printers <ul><li>Line  </li></ul><ul><li>letter-quality  </li></ul><ul><li>dot-matrix </li></ul>C Module Input & Ou...
Nonimpact Printers <ul><li>inkjet  </li></ul><ul><li>laser  </li></ul><ul><li>thermal transfer </li></ul><ul><li>dye subli...
Additional Output Devices <ul><li>plotters </li></ul><ul><li>sound cards and speakers </li></ul><ul><li>tactile feedback <...
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  1. 1. Chapter 2
  2. 2. Chapter Module 2A Inside the System Unit Module 2B Data Storage Module 2C Input and Output 2
  3. 3. Inside the System Unit <ul><li>Talking about Computer Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>The System Unit: Looking Under the hood </li></ul><ul><li>How Modern Computers Represent data </li></ul><ul><li>The CPU: The Computer’s “Brain” </li></ul><ul><li>Microprocessors: Computers on a Chip </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing CPUs </li></ul><ul><li>Memory: The CPU’s Electronic Scratchpad </li></ul><ul><li>Buses: Freeways for Data </li></ul>A Module
  4. 4. Talking about Computer Hardware Computer and peripherals Inside the System Unit A Module
  5. 5. The System Unit: Looking Under the Hood The system unit, exposed Inside the System Unit A Module
  6. 6. How Modern Computers Represent Data Inside the System Unit A Module <ul><li>Digital versus Analog Representation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>digital: high and low power signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>analog: continuous variable scale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Numbering systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>every numbering system has a base </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Binary Numbers A binary number is called a binary digit, or bit. A bit is the smallest unit of information that a computer can work with. Inside the System Unit A Module
  8. 8. Counting Inside the System Unit A Module
  9. 9. ASCII & EBCDIC Inside the System Unit A Module <ul><li>Originally used a total of 7 bits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>encodes a total of 128 characters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>included letters, numbers & punctuation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Looking for a wider market </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM and Apple expanded to 8 bits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extended character sets not standardized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macintosh and PC versions differ </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Inside the System Unit A Module <ul><li>Unicode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>expanded to 16 bits (65,000 characters) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can represent most languages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>extra bit added to coding systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used to ensure code stored correctly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>odd and even parity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Representing numbers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>floating point notation </li></ul></ul>Representing Data
  11. 11. The CPU: Looking Under the Hood Inside the System Unit A Module <ul><li>System Clock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>determines speed of the system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instruction set </li></ul><ul><ul><li>list of instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four-step process (machine/processing cycle) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arithmetic-Logic Unit (ALU) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>arithmetic & logical operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>registers are temporary storage </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Microprocessors: Computers on a Chip Inside the System Unit A Module CPUs in most computers designed for individuals are microprocessors, which are complete CPUs (control unit and ALU) fabricated on a single chip of silicon.
  13. 13. CPU Compatibility Inside the System Unit A Module <ul><li>Compatibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a program that can run on a computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Downwardly Compatible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>run programs designed for earlier chips </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CPU Sockets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physically holds chip on motherboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>established electrical connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>upgrade socks allow upgrading processors </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Comparing CPUs Inside the System Unit A Module <ul><li>Data Bus Width & Word Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>number of bits in bus determines word size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16-bit CPU works with 16 bit word size </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CISC (complex instruction set computer) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>many instructions & special-purpose circuits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RISC (reduced instruction set computer) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bare-bones instruction set </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>less expensive, more efficient </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Comparing CPUs Inside the System Unit A Module <ul><li>Multitasking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>processor runs more than one program </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pentium MMX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contains 57 sets of multimedia instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more quickly run games & multimedia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benchmarks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provides basis of comparison </li></ul></ul>Pentium MMX
  16. 16. Memory: CPU’s Electronic Scratchpad Inside the System Unit A Module <ul><li>Memory Capacities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>kilobyte (K or KB), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>megabyte (M or MB), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gigabyte (G or GB) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Random-Access Memory (RAM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>store programs & data being used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>each memory location has an address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>volatile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cache Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allows maximum speed </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Random Access Memory Inside the System Unit A Module In RAM, each memory location has an address, just like a post office box. data
  18. 18. Memory Inside the System Unit A Module <ul><li>Read-Only Memory (ROM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>non-volatile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ROM BIOS, flash BIOS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CMOS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>used to store startup configuration options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>each memory location has an address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>volatile </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Buses: Freeways for Data Inside the System Unit A Module Circuits that carry data from one component to another are called busses . The wider the bus, the more quickly the data can flow
  20. 20. Plug and Play Inside the System Unit A Module Microsoft and Intel created the Plug and Play (PnP) standard. This standard requires special chips on the motherboard, compatible hardware that is expressly compatible with the Plug and Play standard, and a system BIOS that supports Plug and Play.
  21. 21. <ul><li>Storage Concepts: The Basics </li></ul><ul><li>Disks and Disk Drives: Putting a Spin on it </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic Tape: Still Useful </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Storage Media: Seeing the Light </li></ul><ul><li>Storing Data in Files </li></ul><ul><li>File Systems in Business: Minding the Store </li></ul>Data Storage B Module
  22. 22. Storage Concepts: The Basics Data Storage B Module Memory versus Storage
  23. 23. Storage Devices Data Storage B Module <ul><li>Sequential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>go through fixed sequence to get data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>example: tape backup unit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Random Access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>can go directly to requested data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>faster, more expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>example: disk drive </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Disks & Disk Drives: Putting a Spin on it Data Storage B Module Before a disk can be used for storage, it must be formatted sectors cluster tracks
  25. 25. Floppy Disks Data Storage B Module A 3 1/2 inch disk plastic casing read/write opening sliding metal shutter write protection tab liner disk spindle hole sector hole
  26. 26. <ul><li>How Hard Disks Work </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Capacities </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Disk Caches </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Disk Interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Disk Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Backup Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Removable Hard Disks </li></ul>Hard Disks B Module Data Storage
  27. 27. Hard Disk Interfaces Data Storage B Module
  28. 28. Removable Hard Disk Data Storage B Module Many new computers come equipped with a Zip drive, a removable hard disk that uses 100MB cartridges. The cartridges cost about $10 each.
  29. 29. Magnetic Tape: Still Useful Data Storage B Module Quarter-inch cartridge (QIC) tape drives work with cartridges that can hold more than 10MB of data
  30. 30. Optical Storage Media: Seeing the Light Data Storage B Module CD-ROM disks are prerecorded and cannot be altered. CD-ROM provides an excellent way to distribute large amounts of data at little cost. <ul><li>CD-ROM </li></ul><ul><li>CD-R </li></ul><ul><li>CD-RW </li></ul>
  31. 31. Optical Storage Media: Seeing the Light Data Storage B Module DVD-ROM drives are expected to replace CD-ROM drives as the standard personal computer equipment in the near future <ul><li>DVD </li></ul><ul><li>DVD-ROM </li></ul><ul><li>DVD-RAM </li></ul>
  32. 32. Storing Data in Files Data Storage B Module Files are always named and can be organized into directories. Just as a filing cabinet has different drawers to organize information, different file directories store related types of files <ul><li>Program Files </li></ul><ul><li>Data Files </li></ul>files directory
  33. 33. <ul><li>Configuration files </li></ul><ul><li>Text files </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics files </li></ul><ul><li>Database files </li></ul><ul><li>Sound files </li></ul><ul><li>Backup files </li></ul>Types of Data Files B Module Data Storage
  34. 34. Naming Files Data Storage B Module File names can contain up to 255 characters as well as spaces and some punctuation. The characters / : * ? “ < > | cannot be used. Microsoft Windows 95, 98, and NT File names have a 31-character limit. This limitation allows a more descriptive name than with MS-DOS or Windows 3.1, but not as descriptive as Windows 95. Macintosh
  35. 35. Organizing Files into Folders (Directories) Data Storage B Module By viewing the directory, you can get information about the files stored on the disk. This information includes the file name, the file size, and the date and time of the file’s creation and last update
  36. 36. Organizing Files into Folders (Directories) Data Storage B Module In Microsoft Windows 95 & 98, the root directory contains several subdirectories, including a Windows directory and a Program Files directory
  37. 37. The Data Storage Hierarchy Data Storage B Module The data storage hierarchy 8 bits = A Last name field Four fields = 1 record Records combined = file
  38. 38. <ul><li>Transaction file </li></ul><ul><ul><li>batch processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>real-time processing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Master file </li></ul><ul><li>Report file </li></ul>Types of Files in Data Processing Applications B Module Data Storage
  39. 39. Sequential File Organization Data Storage B Module The computer processes a sequential file in the order in which the data was encoded in the file 0452 0453 0454 data data Key field
  40. 40. Direct (Random) File Organization Data Storage B Module Records in a direct access file are stored according to a position in the file. Every location in primary & secondary storage is assigned a unique address. Location of record on disk
  41. 41. Indexed Sequential File Organization Data Storage B Module With indexed sequential files, records can be accessed either directly (randomly) or sequentially.
  42. 42. <ul><li>Understanding Input: Not Just Data Entry </li></ul><ul><li>Input Devices: The Computer’s “Senses” </li></ul><ul><li>Input Devices in Business & Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Feedback Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Detectors </li></ul><ul><li>Output Devices: Engaging Our Senses </li></ul><ul><li>Printers </li></ul><ul><li>Sound Cards & Speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Tactile Feedback </li></ul>Input and Output C Module
  43. 43. <ul><li>Keyboards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>numeric keyboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>function keys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>toggle keys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caps Lock key </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>status indicators </li></ul></ul>Input Devices: The Computer’s “Senses” C Module Input & Output
  44. 44. <ul><li>Cursor & Cursor Movements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>insertion point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cursor movement keys (arrow keys) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>repetitive strain injury (RSI) /cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) </li></ul></ul>Input Devices: The Computer’s “Senses” C Module Input & Output Ergonomic keyboards help prevent CTD
  45. 45. <ul><li>Mouse operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clicking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dragging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double-Clicking </li></ul></ul>Pointing Devices C Module Input & Output click click click
  46. 46. Pointing Devices <ul><li>Trackball </li></ul><ul><li>Trackpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Touchpad </li></ul><ul><li>Touch-Sensitive Screens </li></ul><ul><li>Pen-Based Systems </li></ul>C Module Input & Output
  47. 47. Additional Input Devices <ul><li>Soundcards </li></ul><ul><li>Microphones & Speech Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Video Capture Cards </li></ul><ul><li>Cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Scanners </li></ul>C Module Input & Output Handheld scanner
  48. 48. Input Devices in Business & Industry <ul><li>source data automation </li></ul><ul><li>image processing systems </li></ul><ul><li>magnetic ink character recognition (MICR) </li></ul><ul><li>bar code readers </li></ul><ul><li>universal product code </li></ul><ul><li>mark sense character recognition </li></ul><ul><li>optical mark reader (OMR) </li></ul>C Module Input & Output
  49. 49. Additional Input Devices <ul><li>Biological feedback devices </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical detectors </li></ul>C Module Input & Output Virtual reality programs use helmets to enable users to “move” through a simulated “world.”
  50. 50. <ul><li>Video Adapters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>video RAM (VRAM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>video graphics adapter (VGA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>super VGA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>refresh rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>flicker </li></ul></ul>Output Devices: Engaging Our Senses C Module Input & Output
  51. 51. Video Graphics Adapter C Module Input & Output Common PC resolutions 640 x 480 800 x 600 1024 x 768 1600 x 1200
  52. 52. Video Graphics Adapter C Module Input & Output Common color depth Color Depth Number of colors VGA (4 bits) 16 256 Color Mode (8 bits) 256 High Color (16 bits) 65,536 True Color (24 bits) 16,777,216
  53. 53. Monitors <ul><li>cathode ray tube (CRT) </li></ul><ul><li>liquid crystal display (LCD) </li></ul>C Module Input & Output Laptop color LCD display Desktop computers use a CRT
  54. 54. Screen Size C Module Input & Output Quoted Size and Actual Viewable Area Monitor Size Viewable Area 21 inches 20 inches 17 inches 16 inches 15 inches 14 inches
  55. 55. Additional Monitor Characteristics <ul><li>dot pitch </li></ul><ul><li>interlaced monitors </li></ul><ul><li>noninterlaced monitors </li></ul><ul><li>multiscan monitors </li></ul>C Module Input & Output
  56. 56. Impact Printers <ul><li>Line </li></ul><ul><li>letter-quality </li></ul><ul><li>dot-matrix </li></ul>C Module Input & Output
  57. 57. Nonimpact Printers <ul><li>inkjet </li></ul><ul><li>laser </li></ul><ul><li>thermal transfer </li></ul><ul><li>dye sublimation </li></ul><ul><li>snapshot </li></ul><ul><li>multifunction </li></ul>C Module Input & Output
  58. 58. Additional Output Devices <ul><li>plotters </li></ul><ul><li>sound cards and speakers </li></ul><ul><li>tactile feedback </li></ul>C Module Input & Output <ul><ul><li>For the latest news on haptics, see the Haptics Community Web Page </li></ul></ul>

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