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OLED report 2014 OLED report 2014 Document Transcript

  • OLED CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Imagine having high definition TV that is 80 inches wide and less than a quarterinch thick, consumes less power than most TVs on the market today and can be rolled up when you're not using it. What if you could have a "heads up" display in your car? How about a display monitor built into your clothing? These devices may be possible in the near future with the help of a technology called organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Figure 1.1: Samsung's prototype 40-inch OLED TV OLEDs are solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity. OLEDs can provide brighter, crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today.[3] 1.1 WHAT IS OLED? An OLED is a solid state device or electronic device that typically consists of organic thin films sandwiched between two thin film conductive electrodes. When electrical current is applied, a bright light is emitted. OLED use a carbon-based designer molecule that emits light when an electric current passes through it. This is called electrophosphorescence. Even with the layered system, these systems are thin . usually less than 500 nm or about 200 times smaller than a human hair.[3] DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 1
  • OLED When used to produce displays. OLED technology produces self-luminous displays that do not require backlighting and hence more energy efficient. These properties result in thin, very compact displays. The displays require very little power, ie, only 2-10 volts.[6] OLED technology uses substances that emit red, green, blue or white light. Without any other source of illumination, OLED materials present bright, clear video and images that are easy to see at almost any angle. Enhancing organic material helps to control the brightness and colour of light, i.e, the brightness of an OLED is determined by how much power you supply to the system. 1.2 LITERATURE SURVEY The first observations of electroluminescence in organic materials were in the early 1950s by A. Bernanose and co-workers at the Nancy-Université, France. They applied high-voltage alternating current (AC) fields in air to materials such as acridine orange, either deposited on or dissolved in cellulose or cellophane thin films. The proposed mechanism was either direct excitation of the dye molecules or excitation of electrons. In 1960, Martin Pope and co-workers at New York University developed ohmic dark-injecting electrode contacts to organic crystals. They further described the necessary energetic requirements (work functions) for hole and electron injecting electrode contacts. These contacts are the basis of charge injection in all modern OLED devices. Pope's group also first observed direct current (DC) electroluminescence under vacuum on a pure single crystal of anthracene and on anthracene crystals doped with tetracene in 1963 using a small area silver electrode at 400V. The proposed mechanism was fieldaccelerated electron excitation of molecular fluorescence.[5] Pope's group reported in 1965 that in the absence of an external electric field, the electroluminescence in anthracene crystals is caused by the recombination of a thermalized electron and hole, and that the conducting level of anthracene is higher in energy than the exciton energy level. Also in 1965, W. Helfrich and W. G. Schneider of the National Research Council in Canada produced double injection recombination electroluminescence for the first time in an anthracene single crystal using hole and electron injecting electrodes, the forerunner of modern double injection devices. In the same year, Dow Chemical researchers patented a method of preparing electroluminescent cells using high voltage (500–1500 V) AC-driven (100–3000 Hz) electrically-insulated one millimetre thin layers of a melted phosphor consisting of ground anthracene powder, DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 2
  • OLED tetracene, and graphite powder. Their proposed mechanism involved electronic excitation at the contacts between the graphite particles and the anthracene molecules.[4] Device performance was limited by the poor electrical conductivity of contemporary organic materials. This was overcome by the discovery and development of highly conductive polymers. For more on the history of such materials, see conductive polymers.[1] Electroluminescence from polymer films was first observed by Roger Partridge at the National Physical Laboratory in the United Kingdom. The device consisted of a film of poly(n- vinylcarbazole) up to 2.2 micrometres thick located between two charge injecting electrodes. The results of the project were patented in 1975 and published in 1983. The first diode device was reported at Eastman Kodak by Ching W. Tang and Steven Van Slyke in 1987.This device used a novel two-layer structure with separate hole transporting and electron transporting layers such that recombination and light emission occurred in the middle of the organic layer. This resulted in a reduction in operating voltage and improvements in efficiency and led to the current era of OLED research and device production.Research into polymer electroluminescence culminated in 1990 with J. H. Burroughes et al. at the Cavindish laboratory in Cambridge reporting a high efficiency green light-emitting polymer based device using 100 nm thick films of poly(p-phenylene vinylene).[2] DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 3
  • OLED CHAPTER 2 FEATURES OF OLED Organic LED has several inherent properties that afford unique possibilities  High brightness is achieved at low drive voltages/current densities.  Operating lifetime exceeding 10,000 hours.  Materials do not need to be crystalline, so easy to fabricate.  Possible to fabricate on glass and flexible substrates.  Self luminescent so no requirement of backlighting.  Higher brightness.  Low operating and turn-on voltage. Low cost of materials and substrates of OLEDs can provide desirable advantages over todays liquid crystal displays(LCDs)  High contrast  Low power consumption  Wide operating temperature range  Long operating lifetime  A flexible, thin and light weight  Cost effective manufacturability  Increased brightness  Faster response time for full motion video Conventional semiconductor components have become smaller and smaller over the course of time. Silicon is the base material of all microelectronics and is eminently suited for this purpose. However, the making of larger components is difficult and therefore costly. The silicon in semiconductor components has to be mono crystalline; it has to have a very pure crystal form without defects in the crystal structure. This is achieved by allowing melted silicon to crystallize under precisely controlled conditions. The larger the crystal, the more problematic this process is. Plastic does not have any of these problems, so that semiconducting plastics are paving way for larger semiconductor components. DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 4
  • OLED CHAPTER 3 WORKING OF OLED 3.1 OLED COMPONENTS Figure 3.1:OLED components include organic layers that are made of organic molecules or polymers. Like an LED, an OLED is a solid-state semiconductor device that is 100 to 500 nanometers thick or about 200 times smaller than a human hair. OLEDs can have either two layers or three layers of organic material; in the latter design, the third layer helps transport electrons from the cathode to the emissive layer. An OLED consists of the following parts: Substrate (clear plastic, glass, foil) - The substrate supports the OLED. Anode (transparent) - The anode removes electrons (adds electron "holes") when a current flows through the device. Organic layers - These layers are made of organic molecules or polymers. Conducting layer - This layer is made of organic plastic molecules that transport "holes" from the anode. One conducting polymer used in OLEDs is polyaniline. DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 5
  • OLED Emissive layer - This layer is made of organic plastic molecules (different ones from the conducting layer) that transport electrons from the cathode; this is where light is made. One polymer used in the emissive layer is polyfluorene. Cathode (may or may not be transparent depending on the type of OLED) - The cathode injects electrons when a current flows through the device. 3.2 MANUFACTURING OF OLED The biggest part of manufacturing OLEDs is applying the organic layers to the substrate. This can be done in three ways:  Vacuum deposition or vacuum thermal evaporation (VTE) - In a vacuum chamber, the organic molecules are gently heated (evaporated) and allowed to condense as thin films onto cooled substrates. This process is expensive and inefficient.  Organic vapor phase deposition (OVPD) - In a low-pressure, hot-walled reactor chamber, a carrier gas transports evaporated organic molecules onto cooled substrates, where they condense into thin films. Using a carrier gas increases the efficiency and reduces the cost of making OLEDs. Figure 3.1:OVPD  Inkjet printing – With inkjet technology, OLEDs are sprayed onto substrates just like inks are sprayed onto paper during printing. Inkjet technology greatly reduces the cost of OLED manufacturing and allows OLEDs to be printed onto very large films for large displays like 80-inch TV screens or electronic billboards. DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 6
  • OLED 3.3 HOW DO OLEDs EMIT LIGHT? Figure 3.3:OLED light is created through a process called electrophosphorescence.. OLEDs emit light in a similar manner to LEDs, through a process called electrophosphorescence. The process is as follows: 1. The battery or power supply of the device containing the OLED applies a voltage across the OLED. 2. An electrical current flows from the cathode to the anode through the organic layers (an electrical current is a flow of electrons). The cathode gives electrons to the DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 7
  • OLED emissive layer of organic molecules. The anode removes electrons from the conductive layer of organic molecules. (This is the equivalent to giving electron holes to the conductive layer.) 3. At the boundary between the emissive and the conductive layers, electrons find electron holes. When an electron finds an electron hole, the electron fills the hole (it falls into an energy level of the atom that's missing an electron). When this happens, the electron gives up energy in the form of a photon of light. 4. The OLED emits light. 5. The color of the light depends on the type of organic molecule in the emissive layer. Manufacturers place several types of organic films on the same OLED to make color displays. 6. The intensity or brightness of the light depends on the amount of electrical current applied: the more current, the brighter the light. 3.4 SMALL MOLECULE OLED VS. POLYMER OLED The types of molecules used by Kodak scientists in 1987 in the first OLEDs were small organic molecules. Although small molecules emitted bright light, scientists had to deposit them onto the substrates in a vacuum (an expensive manufacturing process called vacuum deposition -- see previous section). Since 1990, researchers have been using large polymer molecules to emit light. Polymers can be made less expensively and in large sheets, so they are more suitable for large-screen displays. DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 8
  • OLED CHAPTER 4 TYPES OF OLED There are six types of OLEDs:  Passive-matrix OLED  Active-matrix OLED  Transparent OLED  Top-emitting OLED  Foldable OLED  White OLED 4.1 PASSIVE-MATRIX OLED (PMOLED) Figure 4.1:Passive-matrix OLED(PMOLED). PMOLEDs have strips of cathode, organic layers and strips of anode. The anode strips are arranged perpendicular to the cathode strips. The intersections of the cathode and anode make up the pixels where light is emitted. External circuitry applies current to selected strips of anode and cathode, determining which pixels get turned on and which pixels remain off. Again, the brightness of each pixel is proportional to the amount of applied current. DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 9
  • OLED PMOLEDs are easy to make, but they consume more power than other types of OLED, mainly due to the power needed for the external circuitry. PMOLEDs are most efficient for text and icons and are best suited for small screens (2- to 3-inch diagonal) such as those you find in cell phones, PDAs and MP3 players. Even with the external circuitry, passive-matrix OLEDs consume less battery power than the LCDs that currently power these devices. 4.2 ACTIVE-MATRIX OLED (AMOLED) Figure 4.2:Active-matrix OLED (AMOLED) AMOLEDs have full layers of cathode, organic molecules and anode, but the anode layer overlays a thin film transistor (TFT) array that forms a matrix. The TFT array itself is the circuitry that determines which pixels get turned on to form an image. AMOLEDs consume less power than PMOLEDs because the TFT array requires less power than external circuitry, so they are efficient for large displays. AMOLEDs also have faster refresh rates suitable for video. The best uses for AMOLEDs are computer monitors, large-screen TVs and electronic signs or billboards. 4.3 TRANSPARENT OLED Transparent OLEDs have only transparent components (substrate, cathode and anode) and, when turned off, are up to 85 percent as transparent as their substrate. When a transparent OLED display is turned on, it allows light to pass in both directions. A DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 10
  • OLED transparent OLED display can be either active or passive matrix. This technology can be used for heads up displays. Figure 4.3: Transparent OLED 4.4 TOP-EMITTING OLED Top-emitting OLEDs have a substrate that is either opaque or reflective. They are best suited to active-matrix design. Manufacturers may use top-emitting OLED displays in smart cards. Figure 4.4: Top-emitting OLED DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 11
  • OLED 4.5 FOLDABLE OLED Foldable OLEDs have substrates made of very flexible metallic foils or plastics. Foldable OLEDs are very lightweight and durable. Their use in devices such as cell phones and PDAs can reduce breakage, a major cause for return or repair. Potentially, foldable OLED displays can be attached to fabrics to create "smart" clothing, such as outdoor survival clothing with an integrated computer chip, cell phone, GPS receiver and OLED display sewn into it. 4.6 WHITE OLED White OLEDs emit white light that is brighter, more uniform and more energy efficient than that emitted by fluorescent lights. White OLEDs also have the true-color qualities of incandescent lighting. Because OLEDs can be made in large sheets, they can replace fluorescent lights that are currently used in homes and buildings. Their use could potentially reduce energy costs for lighting. DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 12
  • OLED CHAPTER 5 ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS OF OLED 5.1 ADVANTAGES 5.1.1 LOW POWER Figure 5.1: Lower power consumption of OLED In this picture we have structures of LCD and OLED. Since in LCDs we have a gray scale shutter i.e polarizer for light this makes the structure more complex whereas in OLEDs the organic layers themselves produce colors and thus the structure which leads to low cost of OLED. DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 13
  • OLED 5.1.2 HIGH POWER EFFICIENCY As we can see in the first picture that for same amount of luminance, we are getting a better display. For producing the same amount of brightness as shown in the second picture, OLED will need comparatively lesser luminance. Figure 5.2: Comparing OLED and LCD pictures 5.1.3 LESS POWER CONSUMPTION Figure 5.3: Power ratings of different lights DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 14
  • OLED Organic light emitting diode, or OLED, displays seem to have it all: energy, efficiency and a beautiful, crisp picture that refreshes rapidly. But it’s difficult to make them on large scale, so OLED televisions remain very expensive. DuPont Displays announced the development of a manufacturing process that the company says can be used to print large, high performance OLED televisions at volumes that should bring down costs. Figure 5.4: Power consumption by different displays. 5.1.4 BETTER DISPLAYS Figure 5.5: Brightness and Contrast of OLED and LCD display Compared to LCDs, todays dominant flat panel display (FCD) technology, OLEDs are capable of markedly better performance feature. Thinner, lighter and more attractive, OLEDs offer much faster response times, wider viewing angels, higher contrast DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 15
  • OLED rations and brighter, more saturated colors for a more enjoyable viewing experience. With operating lifetimes now in the tens of thousands of hours, OLEDS with Universal Displays proprietary PHOLEDTM technology, can also be more energy efficient than LCDs. OLEDs also have the potential to be cost effective. They have fewer processing steps and are also less materials and equipment intensive than today’s LCDs. As OLED manufacturing technologies mature, OLED production yields should continue to improve and larger scale equipment be brought on line. As a result, production costs will continue to decrease ultimately enabling OLEDs to outperform LCDs on a basis. 5.2 DISADVANTAGES Figure 5.6: Effects of OLED display While these screens have many advantages but there are some disadvantages also associated with these screens. Check those OLED disadvantages below: Short Lifetime: OLEDs biggest disadvantage is that these screens are not for long use. Compared with LCD, these screens are not designed to last as long. So life time may be critical issue and of course a biggest disadvantage of OLED screens. However, these screens may find good use as mobile phone displays as most people don’t keep phone for more than a year Sunlight Effect: Another disadvantage of OLED display is that they are hard to see in direct sunlight. So if you have open lobbies where sunlight reaches directly, you will not get benefit of viewing these screens. DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 16
  • OLED Highly Water prone: OLED screens are highly prone to water. This adds to another disadvantage as these screens are less susceptible to water damage. High Cost: As mentioned above, current cost is quite high which adds to another OLED disadvantage. 5.3 APPLICATIONS 5.3.1 LIGHT SOURCE Figure 5.7: Light source using White OLED Starting with light source, not only OLEDs are super-efficient, but these ‘lamps’ do not contain any ‘bad’ metals such as mercury, which is present in efficient CFL lamps. So OLEDs are really the future lighting source, when all things are considered. Figure 5.8: Light source using transparent OLED DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 17
  • OLED In the race to win the display prize, OLEDs, have emerged as a leading contender for the next generation. As stake sales of billions of cellular phones for both voice and visual communication as wireless Internet access is forecast to exceed wired connections in the next couple of years. Plus, in five years retail sales for PDAs alone will increase by a factor of five, surpassing the 80 million mark. As the list of potential OLED based displays handheld, digital cameras, camcorders, automotive displays, computers and TV screens continue to grow, so does the list of companies getting involved with OLED research, production and commercialization. Experts predict that during the next few years OLED displays will explode, with the market increasing in leaps of around 60% per year. Currently, more than 80 companies worldwide have OLED development programs and over a third of them are gearing up for volume production. 5.3.2 OLED TV Figure 5.9: Sony OLED TV Lighting manufacturers are constantly looking for ways to distinguish themselves in an industry comprised of light bulbs and fluorescent tubes that sell mostly on price. Potential differentiators might include the initial price paid, but for conventional products these are now so low that it is unlikely that any new technology could offer an improvement. With this in mind, lighting producers are seeking other ways to stand out in the marketplace mostly through improved aesthetics, energy efficiency and improved lifetimes. DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 18
  • OLED One such technology that could offer these distinct characteristics is organic lightemitting diodes (OLEDs). According to a report recently published by NanoMarkets, OLED Lighting Markets 2008, the OLED lighting market will grow from about $2.8 m this year to around $6 billion in 2015. 5.3.3 KEYBOARD Figure 5.10: Typical Keyboard with OLED display This keyboard looks like any other keyboard but on a closer view, we find that each key has a movable cap,a microchip and an OLED which can be configured using user configurable software. His enables multiple usage of the keyboard. Each key is a stand-alone display that shows the function currently assigned to it. Optimus’s customizable layout allows convenient use of any language²Cyrillic, Ancient Greek, Georgian, Arabic, Quenya, hiragana, etc, as well as of any other character set: notes, numerals, special symbols, HTML codes, math functions and so on to infinity. In order to extend the service life of the displays and avoid using cables that may be vulnerable to wear, the screens embedded in the keytops are fixed-its only the transparent caps that are pressed. DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 19
  • OLED Figure 5.11: Acer Keyboard with OLED lights Every button of the keyboard (or, more precisely, a module consisting of a moving cap, a microchip and a display) can be easily removed to clean or replace. 5.3.4 FLEXIBLE DISPLAYS Flexible displays have advantage of Low weight which is important for mobile applications. They are very sturdy and strong. Cost production is very less due to R2R manufacturing technology. Figure 5.12: Prototype flexible OLED display DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 20
  • OLED A flexible cell phone display can be unfurled and then rolled back up into a cylinder case. An early prototype show above shows E ink technology at work, what is absolutely amazing is that the display retains its image even when the power is turned off. An OLED consists of an emissive organic material, that when supplied with an electrical current, can produce a superior full color flat panel display. OLED stands for organic light emitting diode. OLED or flexible displays do not use crystals the way smart phone LCD screen uses crystals. OLED is much better than both the LCD and CRT technology. Organic light emitting diode is so incredibly thin; it can be placed on a substrate such as plastic film or glass. Not only is it thin, but OLED is so light weight, it is an advantage for hand-held devices, smart phones, cell phones, laptops and notebooks. Compared to traditional or old CRT displays, OLED is brighter, sharper and even has a better contrast than LCD. The OLED imaging quality certainly surpasses that of LCD screens. What is also incredible is that OLED can be viewed at any angle, a full 170 degrees. OLED consists of super thin layers that are sandwiched together. An organic compound is inserted between two electrodes layers which are arranged like a grid of ways very much like your patio screen door that keeps mosquitoes away. Electricity goes to one wire on one layer. More electricity goes to another wire of the grid on the second layer. When the two charged wires meet, an organic layerlights up. The colors you see on flexible display are created by lighting up sub pixels within each pixel. This causes what you call electroluminescent light. Without getting too complex, a chemical arrangement of the organic material dictates which colors of light are being produced. When you look at an OLED display, it's like you're looking at your mosquito screen door itself not the filtered light coming through it. This is why you can view the OLED screen from any angle without distorting the image. 5.4 CURRENT RESEARCHES Since the discovery of OLEDs an amazing development could be realized. The first patterns of the new displays already offer a brightness of 150 candela per square meter and contrasts above 100:1. Thus, the new technology starts at the level of present high-value TFT monitors. The initially only weakly glowing layers in laboratories became bright shining components which achieve luminosities of up to 200.000 candela per square meter - a brightness for which you need sun glasses. DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 21
  • OLED While fixed organic displays slowly enter the market, flexible displays still cause some problems. They must be encapsuled carefully since light emitting polymers react sensitive to air humidity and oxygen. In flexible construction concepts this is still a problem since the film compound is exposed to extreme mechanical stress. The combination of organic LEDs with electronic circuits could allow completely flexible displays which may be bent or rolled in at will. Today, every pixel must be wired with conventional technology and must be triggered separately. The goal is to print the electronic circuit directly onto the back. Thus, displays become carrier systems and even with a film computer behind them they will measure only millimeters. Experts predict an OLED display market of up to 2 billion dollars by 2007. In the future many consumer devices such as mobile phones, digital cameras, PDAs, and DVD players are going to be developed with the OLED technology. Roll to Roll Manufacturing. Figure 5.13: A R2R Process for Manufacturing Active Matrix Backplanes Based on Plasma Processing and Self-Aligned Imprint Lithography DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 22
  • OLED 5.5 FUTURE USES 5.5.1 FLUID LENSES Figure 5.14: Fluid lenses The tiny fluid lenses will give you the freedom to create astounding photographs with your camera cell phone are smart phone. No one will know that this picture was taken from your mobile phone. Camera phone users are certainly not thrilled with the quality of the pictures they take with their 1.3 or 2.0 mega pixel camera phone. But there are the rare moments when kayaking through a tropical paradise of Fuji Island, snowboarding and North Pole or checking out the forbidden Palace in China: when we wish we had a digital camera close at hand. The premise of taking snapshots is that all of us have images that carry an internal narrative that we rarely get to share. The reason for the poor quality picture produced by most camera phones on the market today is the flash is nonexistent, as well as the camera lens assembly. Camera phones have lenses of extremely limited focal length giving you results of the list to be desired for. DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 23
  • OLED 5.5.2 PORTABLE PICTURES Figure 5.15: Portable Picture using OLED The cell phone projector technology developed by Siemens communications in Samsung respectively, can detect PDA stylus presses as well as a finger taps on the projected image. The technology is already in development and soon you can projector your tiny cell phone screen onto a nearby flat surface and enjoy a larger reading area. If you happen to be a gamer, and the cell phone projector technology has a special treat to offer you. This will solve the problem for many cell phone users that are becoming nearsighted because they have to squint and decipher the small printing on a 2x2 inch cell phone screen. For professional and hobby photographers, cell phone projector technology allows you to show your portfolio with just a cell phone and a projector 5.5.3 NANO EMISSIVE DISPLAYS The whole family would gather round the radio to listen to entertainers and stories sunday night after dinner. The classic cathode ray tube CRT displays require an electronic gun mounted to the back firing electrons, the way a soldier would fire a machine gun onto a phosphor coated glass. What really is amazing is that Motorola recently developed a prototype nano emissive display (NED) containing thousands of guns, for each pixel. DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 24
  • OLED 5.5.4 SCROLLING LAPTOPS Figure 5.16: Foldable laptop prototype by Nokia The novel and truly exciting features of Universal Displays proprietary FOLED® flexible technology have the potential to engender a wide variety of new display and lighting products. With FOLED technology still under development today, the first commercial FOLED displays are targeted for use in portable electronics and lighting tiles leveraging their advantages in ruggedness, thinness and light weight. Based on Universal Display's FOLED technology roadmap, the next generation of FOLEDs may provide added functionality through increased conformability. This feature may open up a wide range of new product opportunities ± ranging from new shaped cell phone designs to novel communication devices that are wearable, for example, on the cuff of your shirtsleeve or your backpack. Figure 5.17: Scrollable laptop prototype DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 25
  • OLED Continued progress in Universal Display's FOLED roadmap may, then, enable the realization of Universal Displays innovative product concept, the Universal Communication Device (UCD). Envisioned as a truly portable, cell phone-like communication device, the UCD is designed to offer advanced voice and data communication capabilities via a roll-out, full-color, full-motion video display thats as flexible as it is energy-efficient. DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 26
  • OLED CONCLUSION OLEDs offer many advantages over both LEDs and LCDs. They are thinner, lighter and more flexible than the crystalline layers in an LED or LCD. They have large fields of view as they produce their own light. Research and development in the field of OLEDs is proceeding rapidly and may lead to future applications in heads up displays, automotive dash boards, billboard type displays etc. Because OLEDs refresh faster than LCDs, a device with OLED display could change information almost in real time. Video images could be much more realistic and constantly updated. DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 27
  • OLED BIBILIOGRAPHY [1] Delnet online http://www.mdpi.com/109-4300/15/6/2277 [2] http://www.jgateplus.com/KohnoT, Kuranaga T, Kasai N, Akimoto H,”AMOLED Display for thin film”, Proceedings of IEEE Transactions on Electron,devices, Vol-60,No11,Nov 2013,pp-378-396 [3] S. Yamazaki, J. Koyama, Y. Yamamoto, K. Okamoto,”Overview of OLED Display Technology.” Proceedings of.SID Symp. Dig. Tech, Vol 183,Nov 2011,pp-15-23 [4] S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B.Lussem, K.Leo, ”Better displays with organic display”,Proceedings of Nature,Vol 459,Nov 2009, pp-234-287 [5] S.-H. Pieh, M.-S. Kim, C.-J. Sung, J.-D. Seo, H.-S. Choi,C.-W. Han, Y.-H. Tak, SID,”AMOLED materials and OLED displays”,Proceedings of Symposium Digest,Vol 40,Dec 2009, pp-903-1888 [6] M. W. Lee, O. K. Song, Y. M. Koo, Y. H. Lee, H. K.Chung, and S. S. Kim, SID” Sensitive film in OLED”,Proceedings of Symposium Digest ,Vol 41,Jan 2010, pp1800-1888 [7] C.-L. Lin, W.-Y. Chang, C.-C. Hung, and C.-D. Tu,”Kodak first OLED camera”, Proceedings of IEEE Electron devices,Vol 33,Nov 2010,pp-700-900 [8] C. W. Kim, J. G. Jung, J. B. Choi, D. H. Kim, C. Yi, H.D. Kim, Y. H. Choi, and J.Im,SID, ”Sony readies OLED”, Proceedings of Symp. Dig. Tech,Vol 11,Dec 2011,pp-862-889 DEPT OF ECE, CBIT, KOLAR 2014 Page 28