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PPT on Secure Socket Layer, common issues.

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  • Ssl

    1. 1. SSL Technology Overview and Troubleshooting Tips
    2. 2. SSL  Secure Sockets Layer, or SSL (pronounced as separate letters), is a protocol which is used to communicate over the Internet in a secure fashion. The following is a brief but comprehensive introduction to SSL technology. To better understand the need for SSL, lets first examine the difficulties of using the Internet if no SSL encryption existed.
    3. 3. Why Use SSL? Transferring sensitive information over a network can be risky due to the following three issues:  You cannot always be sure that the entity with whom you are communicating is really who you think it is.  Network data can be intercepted, so it is possible that it can be read by an unauthorized third party, sometimes known as an attacker.  If an attacker can intercept the data, the attacker may be able to modify the data before sending it on to the receiver. SSL addresses all these issues.
    4. 4. SSL Details  SSL technology relies on the concept of ‘public key cryptography’ to accomplish its tasks. In normal encryption, two communicating parties each share a password or key, and this is used to both encrypt and decrypt messages. While this is a very simple and efficient method, it doesn’t solve the problem of giving the password to someone you have not yet met or trust.  In public key cryptography, each party has two keys, a public key and a private key. Information encrypted with a person’s public key can only be decrypted with the private key and vice versa. Each user publicly tells the world what his public key is but keeps his private key for himself.
    5. 5. How SSL Works
    6. 6.        Client hello - The client sends the server information including the highest version of SSL it supports and a list of the cipher suites it supports. (TLS 1.0 is indicated as SSL 3.1.) The cipher suite information includes cryptographic algorithms and key sizes. Server hello - The server chooses the highest version of SSL and the best cipher suite that both the client and server support and sends this information to the client. Certificate - The server sends the client a certificate or a certificate chain. A certificate chain typically begins with the server's public key certificate and ends with the certificate authority's root certificate. This message is optional, but is used whenever server authentication is required. Certificate request - If the server needs to authenticate the client, it sends the client a certificate request. In Internet applications, this message is rarely sent. Server key exchange - The server sends the client a server key exchange message when the public key information sent in 3) above is not sufficient for key exchange. Server hello done - The server tells the client that it is finished with its initial negotiation messages. Certificate - If the server requests a certificate from the client in Message 4, the client sends its certificate chain, just as the server did in Message 3.
    7. 7.         Client key exchange - The client generates information used to create a key to use for symmetric encryption. For RSA, the client then encrypts this key information with the server's public key and sends it to the server. Certificate verify - This message is sent when a client presents a certificate as above. Its purpose is to allow the server to complete the process of authenticating the client. When this message is used, the client sends information that it digitally signs using a cryptographic hash function. When the server decrypts this information with the client's public key, the server is able to authenticate the client. Change cipher spec - The client sends a message telling the server to change to encrypted mode. Finished - The client tells the server that it is ready for secure data communication to begin. Change cipher spec - The server sends a message telling the client to change to encrypted mode. Finished - The server tells the client that it is ready for secure data communication to begin. This is the end of the SSL handshake. Encrypted data - The client and the server communicate using the symmetric encryption algorithm and the cryptographic hash function negotiated in Messages 1 and 2, and using the secret key that the client sent to the server in Message 8. Close Messages - At the end of the connection, each side will send a close_notify message to inform the peer that the connection is closed.
    8. 8. To set up SSL  Weblogic  Jboss  Websphere
    9. 9. Formats .pem – (Privacy-enhanced Electronic Mail) Base64 encoded DER certificate, enclosed between “ -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----" "-----END CERTIFICATE-----" A .pem format file supports multiple digital certificates (for example, a certificate chain can be included). The order is important (include the files in the order of trust). The server digital certificate should be the first digital certificate in the file. The issuer of that digital certificate should be the next file and so on until you get to the self-signed root certificate authority certificate.   .cer, .crt, .der – usually in binary DER form, but Base64-encoded certificates are common too (see .pem above)  .p7b, .p7c – PKCS#7 SignedData structure without data, just certificate(s) or CRL(s)  .p12 – PKCS#12, may contain certificate(s) (public) and private keys (password protected)  .pfx – PFX, predecessor of PKCS#12  .jks – JAVA Keystore, used to store public/private key pairs, trusted certificates
    10. 10. TOOLS  Keytool  OpenSSL  Portecle ( my favourite)
    11. 11. Keytool  keytool -genkey -alias mykey -keyalg RSA -keysize 1024 -dname ", OU=Customer Support, O=BEA Systems Inc, L=Denver, ST=Colorado, C=US" -keypass mykeypass -keystore identity.jks -storepass mystorepass  keytool -selfcert -v -alias mykey -keypass mykeypass -keystore identity.jks -storepass mystorepass -storetype jks  keytool -export -v -alias mykey -file rootCA.der -keystore identity.jks storepass mystorepass  keytool -import -v -trustcacerts -alias mykey -file rootCA.der -keystore trust.jks -storepass mystorepass
    12. 12. OpenSSL  openssl genrsa -des3 -out server.key 1024  openssl req -config ..confopenssl.cnf -new -key server.key -out localhost  openssl x509 -req -days 730 -in localhost -signkey server.key out server.crt  openssl pkcs12 -export -out faiz.pfx -in privatepublic.pem -name faiz
    13. 13. Portecle  Can be used to view certificates/certificate stores, change certificate formats.
    14. 14. Command line  To debug add the following
    15. 15. Common Issues      Incomplete CA Chains Invalid keys Certificate expiration Required certificate not present in trust keystore Hostname Verification Failure
    16. 16. Stack Traces  PKIX path building failed: unable to find valid certification path to requested target  Illegal key size  the trustAnchors parameter must be non-empty  Signature verification failed because RSA key public exponent [3] is too small  Solutions ??
    17. 17. Questions?