Step by step english communication

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Step by step english communication

  1. 1. Basic Step By Step BY C. K. OGDEN TO THE READER The purpose of this book is to give a general idea of the stages by which Basic English, as outlined in the ABC, may be made part of the teaching system of any country. It is not itself a school book, and is not designed for regular school use in its present form, though it will be of value to learners, or to teachers who have a good working knowledge of the system. Basic is an international language complete in itself, and is at the same time the best First Step for those who are going forward to normal English. Learners in other countries will necessarily have books in their natural languages, as they do for normal English or any other strange tongue; and such books have to be based on the experience of those who are teaching in those countries. For this reason we did not, at the start, make any attempt to give step- by-step material for use in teaching; though from 1918-1928, while the details were being worked out, and the system was being tested, the needs of the school were kept in view from every angle. The ABC was designed as a general guide which would make it possible for any expert teacher to put the material in the best order for his purposes. Much very good work was done in this way, with the help of Basic by Examples, but not all teachers had the time to make the necessary adjustments for themselves, and there was a great desire for more detailed help. Questions about the best way of teaching the words in relation to the structure of the system came in at the rate of more than fifty a week, and it was not possible to give everyone a separate answer. But here is part of the answer which has been given to our representatives, and it is printed in the hope that in book form it may be a guide to others. The printing of the word-list in January, 1929, put us in touch with an increasing number of teachers, whose experience has been of the greatest value. They have sent us their suggestions, and on these, and those of experts in all countries, the present material has been based.
  2. 2. The two things necessary for teaching-material are a grouping of the words in a framework, for the purpose of getting them fixed in the memory, and a development of the system by simple stages. The word-groups here printed are those which have been used in the past ten years at the Orthological Institute for the training of teachers, all of whom have been requested to make the same sort of lists for themselves. The order of the groups was an open question--dependent on special needs; and in the same way different conditions may make different frameworks necessary. But the structure of Basic itself is the best key to the order of the parts. Some learners will be able to get more profit than others out of the short account of the different sorts of words in Basic, which is the natural first step to any language. Those who make the right start will be rewarded at every later stage, and this is specially true of a system as simple as Basic. Here, for the first time, is a chance of getting free from the strange power which words have had over us from the earliest times; a chance of getting clear about the processes by which our ideas become fixed forms of behavior before we ourselves are conscious of what history and society are making us say. Those who take this chance will not only be in a position to get through the work on the different word-groups much more quickly than others, but will make the discovery that they have a new sort of control over their thoughts and their talk. The words will become a help to their thought, and Basic will become an instrument for talking freely. Even the very young may be trained to a sense of these new values; in fact, those with no education are frequently quicker in their reaction than persons who have been through the school machine. On the other hand, there is nothing about Basic as a language to make any new or special form of education necessary. The words in this book are all common words, and they are put before the learner in groups such as would be made in any organization of word-material. If it is desired to get the right words by heart in the right order, as a bit of memory work, for business purposes or as a step to normal English--then these are the best words, and this grouping is as good as any other. There is no need to be troubled about reasons and causes if we are only interested in doing a trick as well as others; and these 30 steps have been chiefly designed as a guide to the art of talking and writing as well as others, by getting
  3. 3. control of the most necessary word-groups in English. They do, however, take us to the top of a building, complete in itself for all the needs of everyday existence; and when we are at the top, we will see that the view is wide enough for those who have reasons for looking further. An interest in the structure of the building, or in the fact that it has a solid base, may be more important for those who go on living in it (possibly after experience with other buildings), than for those who are only on the steps because they have been ordered to go up. C. K. OGDEN. LIST OF PAGES Part I . Introduction -- pages 11 - 18. Part II . The STEPS 1 . The Body 2 . Food 3 . Work 4 . The Weather 5 . The Family 6 . A Building 7 . Fire 8 . The Country 9 . The Sea 10. Time 11 . The Machine 12 . Business 13 . Money 14 . Noise 15 . News 16 . Amusement 17 . Education 18 . Reading 19 . The Earth 20 . History 21 . Invention 22 . Feeling 23 . Art 24 . Trade 25 . Transport 26 . Peace 27 . Language 28 . Society 29 . Government 30 . Science Part III. NOTES. Notes for the Teacher and advanced learner - 40 pages Notes Notes 1-5 6 - 10 11-20 21-30 Pictures A and THE IS AND ON and OFF SUBSTANCE OF TIME WORDS OPERATIONS DIRECTIONS The MACHINE VIEW . PUT UP WITH ACCOUNT . (e) extensions (s) specializations PART I . Introduction For people reading this book
  4. 4. The "Basic" from the title is from "Basic English." Basic English is an independent subset of English created by the Psychologist C. K. Ogden (1889-1957) of England's Cambridge University released in 1930. Sometimes there's a misunderstanding that Basic English is a mere limiting of vocabulary. In this system, while obeying the grammar of English, one uses only a few of the conventional rules. Thus one naturally becomes to talk about everyday things effectively in flourishing, clear English. The correct way to think about Basic English's 850 words is according to their essentialness. From the mass of English vocabulary, the all words that could be removed were removed, and the remaining are these 850 words. To reach these 850 words, Dr. Ogden had to think deeply and try for many years while looking for solutions between various contradictions. At this time one should pay particular attention to each word's ... This part of the textbook is in Japanese and is being translated by Kevin Harris. Page : 12, 13 , 14, 15 , 16, 17 , 18 A Note About the Pictures . Mr. Siragedien and student DariaLuczak have made the pictures more clear. These are larger and take longer ot download, but may be seen by clicking on the pictures shown. PART II . The Steps 1 . THE BODY Things Qualities pictures arm body chest chin ear eye face finger hand head knee leg mouth nose thumb tongue back front part side right -- left straight -- bent opposite Other Words (in connection with the body) :
  5. 5. blood , bone , brain , foot , hair , heart , lip , muscle , neck , nerve , skin , stomach , throat, toe , tooth ; back (special use) , nail (expansion) , side(s) ; breath . 1 . The BODY sound This is my body. This is my head. This is my face. I have a nose and a chin. My mouth is between my nose and my chin. I have a tongue in my mouth. This part is the front. That part is the back. My chest is at the front. This is the right side. The opposite side is the left side. The right arm is at the right side. The left arm is at the left side. This is my right leg. This is my left leg. This is my knee. This is a finger. That is a thumb. I have a thumb and fingers on my hand. This finger is bent. That finger is straight. I put my right hand on my head. I take my right hand off my head. I put my right thumb in my left hand. I put my right hand on myright eye. I put my left hand on my left ear. Questions 1. Where is your head ? 2. Where is your nose ? 3. What is between your nose and your chin ? 4. Where is your tongue ? 5. Where is your right ear ? 6. Where are your knees ? 7. What have I on my hand ? 8. What is the opposite of straight ? 9. What are the parts of the body named here of which you have more than one ? 10. Of which parts have you only one ? Answers 11. (Answer to be given by pointing) 12. (Answer to be given by pointing) 13. My mouth.
  6. 6. 14. In my mouth. 15. (Answer to be given by pointing). My right ear is at the right side. 16. (Answer to be given by pointing) 17. A thumb and fingers. 18. Bent 19. Arm, leg, knee, finger, thumb, hand, eye, ear. 20. Head, face, mouth, nose, chin, tongue, chest. Notes Hint : Change screens to come back to here -- do not link back from notes. 2 . FOOD Things Qualitie s Pictures bread butter cake cheese food meat orange salt soap sugar basin fork knife meal plate seat skin spoon table taste sweet -- bitter acid ready sticky Other Words : apple , berry , drink , egg , fish , fowl , fruit , jelly , milk , nut , paste , potato , rice , water , wine ; roll (e) ; bite , bottle , cook , cork , cup , poison , pot , tray , vessel . Sample of book pages.
  7. 7. 2 . FOOD sound
  8. 8. Some food is on the table. A meal is ready. I go from this seat to a seat at the table. I have some soup in a basin. I take some bread with it. The bread is on a plate. I take my spoon in my hand and put the soup in my mouth. I have some meat. I put salt on my meat. I have a knife and a fork. I put the meat in my mouth with the fork. I take butter on my knife and put it on my bread. This is cake, and that is cheese. The cake is here and the cheese is there. I may have some cake or some cheese. I may not have cake and cheese. I will have some cheese. I will have an orange. I will take the skin off the orange. The skin of an orange is bitter. This orange is acid. I will put somesugar on it. The taste of sugar is sweet. The taste of salt is not bitter, or acid or sweet. Cake is sweet. This cake is sweet and sticky. Questions 21. What do you have at a meal ? 22. Where do you have it? 23. What do you have in a basin ? 24. How do you take your soup ? 25. What do you do with a knife ? 26. What do you put on your meat ? 27. What do you do to an orange before you give it a bite ? 28. What is the reason for doing this ? 29. What foods named here have a sweet taste ? 30. What other taste is named here ? Answers 31. Food. 32. At the table. 33. Soup. 34. I take my spoon in my hand and put the soup in my mouth. 35. I take butter on my knife and put it on my bread. 36. Salt. 37. I take the skin off. 38. The skin of an orange is bitter. 39. Sugar and cake. 40. Acid.
  9. 9. Notes 3 . WORK - - - Things - - - Qualities learning play rest work brain button cloth coat end hole knot needle pin point pull push scissors sort stitch thread good --- bad cut sharp tired Other Words :: apparatus , business , industry , machine , manager , office , operation , process , secretary , servant , teaching , writing ; building (e) , business (s) 3 . WORK sound The learning of Basic English is a sort of work. I do it with my brain. I may do other sorts of work with my hands. I may take some cloth and make a coat. Some cloth and my scissors are on the table. My scissors are sharp. The cloth is cut. I put a pin here and a pin there. I take a needle and a thread. I put the thread through the hole in the needle, and make a knot at the end of it. I put the sharp point of the needle against the cloth. I take it through with a push at one end and a pull at the other end, and I make a stitch. I have not a good needle. This is a bad needle. It is bent. Good
  10. 10. needles are straight. I put a button on the coat. The coat is ready. After work my body is tired, and I have some rest. Tired bodies will not do good work. After my rest I will have some play. Questions 41. What work are you doing now ? 42. What part of your body is used for this work ? 43. What parts are used for making things ? 44. What is one thing which you may do with a needle and thread ? 45. How do you get the cloth cut ? 46. What do you make at the end of the thread ? 47. What three things named here have sharp points ? 48. How do you take the needle through the cloth ? 49. What do you do when your body is tired ? 50. What will you do when you have had a rest ? Answers 51. (The work of) learning Basic English. 52. My brain. 53. My hands. 54. I may make a coat. 55. With scissors. 56. A knot. 57. Pins, needles, and scissors. 58. With a push at one end and a pull at the other. 59. I have some rest. 60. I will have some play. Notes 4 . THE WEATHER - - - Things - - - Qualitie s air cloud ice ball breath cover warm -- cold wet --
  11. 11. rain sky snow summer weather wind winter fall mass road shade umbrella water dry clear Other Words : heat , light , mist , moon , thunder ; blow (e), breath (e), fall (e), spring (e) ; dust , ray. 4 . THE WEATHER sound The weather is warm in the summer, but in the winter it is cold. Rain may come down from the sky in warm weather or in cold weather, but snow will come down only in the winter. Rain is wet. It is water from the sky. Rain and snow do not come from a clear sky. A sky with a cloud in it is not a clear sky. Rain and snow come from clouds. I go out in every sort of weather. In cold weather I put my coat on. In wet weather I get an umbrella and put it over my head. The rain may come down, but only my umbrella will be wet. My coat under it will be dry. In the summer I do not put my umbrella up only in the rain. I may put it between my head and the sun and make a shade.Clouds may make a shade, and I may put my umbrella down. In the winter I see the breath from my mouth in the air. The water in the hole at the side of the road my have a cover of ice on it. In very cold weather I go on the ice. I may have a fall, but I will not go through the ice. I take a mass of snow in my hands and make a ball. In England a north wind or an east wind is a cold wind, but a south wind or a west wind may be warm. The very cold winds of winter are north and east winds. The warm winds of summer are south and west winds. Questions 61. When is the weather cold, and when is it warm?
  12. 12. 62. What may come from the sky in cold weather or in warm weather? 63. What is it which comes only in cold weather? 64. From what sort of sky do we not get rain and snow? 65. What will keep you dry in the rain? 66. What may you see in the air in very cold weather? 67. What may be over the water in the hole at the side of the road in cold weather? 68. What my you do with snow? 69. In England what winds are very cold winds? 70. What winds are warm winds? Answers 71. It is cold in the winter and warm in the summer. 72. Rain. 73. Snow. 74. A clear sky. 75. An umbrella. 76. The breath from my mouth. 77. A cover of ice. 78. I may take a mass of snow i my hands and make a ball. 79. North and east winds. 80. South and west winds. Notes 5 . THE FAMILY Things Qualities birth brother daughter family father mother sister son baby boy foot girl kiss man milk pain smile stomach tooth woman healthy -- ill young -- old married
  13. 13. Other Words (in connection with the body) : relation (e) authority, group, love, person, respect, sex, society. 5 . THE FAMILY sound My father is a young man and my mother is a young woman. Some fathers and mothers are not young. The father of my father is an old man. Every father is a son and every mother is a daughter, but not every son is a father and not every daughter is a mother. I have one sister and one brother. My brother is very young. He is still a baby, with only one tooth. Other teeth will come. Very young babies have not teeth. I am still a boy and my sister is still a girl. Before the birth of the baby boy, she was the baby of the family. My brother is a healthy baby, but he was ill in the summer. Some bodies got a pain in thestomach in warm weather. The baby is ready for a meal. I will get some milk for my baby brother. My sister may not give food to the baby, but I may give it to the baby. I put my hand on the foot of the baby. It is warm. Healthy babies have warm feet. A kiss and a smile make a baby ready for play. The brothers and sisters of my mother and father are men and women. Some are marriedand have sons and daughters. Questions 81. What is a boy to his father and mother? 82. What is he to his sisters and brothers? 83. What is a girl to her father and mother? 84. What is a girl to her brothers and sisters? 85. Is the baby and boy or a girl? 86. What do very young babies not have? 87. What do some babies get in warm weather? 88. What will the boy get for the baby? 89. What will make a baby ready for play? 90. What are the brothers and sisters of the father and mother?
  14. 14. Answers 91. A son. 92. A brother. 93. A daughter. 94. A sister. 95. A boy. 96. Teeth. 97. A pain in the stomach. 98. Some milk. 99. A kiss and a smile. 100. Men and women. Notes 6 . A BUILDING Things Qualitie s building door drain floor house roof room street structure wall base garden light number pipe stage stone support window wood high -- low wide -- narrow complet e Other Words : arch , board , brick , bridge , church , hospital , library , office , school ; lift (e) , step (e) , wing (e) ; design , frame , glass , key , lock , nail , paint , property , screw, steel ; angle (e) . . 6 . A BUILDING sound
  15. 15. My house is at the end of a street. Every building in the street is a house. Some houses in the street are high and some are low, some are of wood and some are of stone. All houses are buildings, but not all buildings are houses. At the back of my house is a garden with a wall. the house is a low building of wood, with a door at the front and a door at the back. The front door is wide but the back door is narrow. Some houses have another door at one side. On the front door is a number. It is the number of the house. My house number is 1. The window in my room is wide. Windows let light and air come into the rooms. Men and women go in and out through the doors. The base of a house is the support for the walls, and the walls are the support for the roof. The roof is the cover of the house. The houses on the opposite side of the street are not complete. Come across the street and we will see the work. the outside of this house is almost complete. The walls are quite complete, but the roof is not on the house. That structure at the front is not a part of the house. It is a stage for the support of workmen. They go up on it and do the work on the high parts of the building. Do not go in. You may see the inside of the house through the windows. The walls and the floor of this room are complete, but the door is not there. These holes in the outside walls of the room are for windows, and those in the inside walls are for doors. That pipe by the house is for a drain. Drains take water from a house, and other pipes take water to it. The drain pipes are wide, but the other pipes are narrow. Some houses have no drains, but such house are not healthy. Questions 101. What is a street? 102. How are the houses in the street different from one another? 103. What is at the back of the house at the end of the street? 104. Why do houses have windows? 105. How do men and women go into the rooms? 106. What are the walls of a house the support for, and what is the support for the walls? 107. What is the structure at the front of the building? 108. What is the lowest part of a room? 109. What is the use of drains?
  16. 16. 110. How are pipes which take water to a house different from drain pipes? Answers 111. A road between houses or other buildings. 112. Some are high and some are low ; some are wood and some are of stone. 113. A garden with a wall. 114. Windows let light and air come into the rooms. 115. Through the doors. 116. The walls are the support for the roof, and the base is the support for the walls. 117. The stage for the support of the workmen. 118. The floor. 119. They take water from a house. 120. They are narrow and drain pipes are wide. Notes 7 . FIRE Things Qualities burn cook fire flame match oven smoke bucket curtain cushion damage kettle paste place pot smell stick thing use bright -- dark great -- small full Other Words : coal , heat, light, steam ; destruction , engine , insurance , oil , wood . 7 . FIRE sound
  17. 17. I have a place for a fire in my room. The fire-place in my room is small, but some of the rooms in the house have great fire- places. Pipes take the smoke from the fire- places up through a hole in the roof. We make houses warm by the use of fires, and fire will do other work. If I have a wet coat and put it before a fire, the fire will get it dry. If I put water in a kettle and put the kettle on the fire, the water will get warm. And I may put food in a pot on the fire in an oven and make a warm meal. If I put paste in an oven, I may get a cake. But this is the work of a cook, and if I am not a good cook the cake will not have a very good taste. Warm cakes have a good smell. In the winter my sister and I come in from play in the snow and get warm before the fire. We get near to the flame, but not very near. If we are far from it we do not get warm enough, but if we get very near we may get a burn Burns give much pain. If the room is dark I put a stick on the fire. The flames come up, and make all part of the room bright with fire-light. My mother and father do not let my sister, who is very young, put sticks on the fire or have amatch. If very young boys and girls have matches, they may get a burn from the flame, or they may put it against a curtain or a cushion and the house will be in danger. IF you see fire on the curtain, go and get water in a bucket and put it on the flames,and the damage may not be great. Flames go from one thing to another. If you do not get a full bucket you may not have enough water. Questions 121. Were does the smoke from a fire in a house go ? 122. How may you get your coat dry when it is wet ? 123. How may you get water warm ? 124. How do cooks make warm meals ? 125. What sort of work is making a cake ? 126. What may you get if you go very near a flame ? 127. What makes the room bright ?
  18. 18. 128. How may young boys and girls put a house in danger if they have matches ? 129. If a thing is in flames what do you put on it ? 130. What do you get if the water in ? Answers 131. Up through a hole in the roof. 132. I may put it before a fire. 133. I may put it in a kettle on a fire. 134. They put food in a pot on a fire or in the oven. 135. The work of a cook. 136. A burn 137. The flames 138. They may put the flame of a match against a curtain or a cushion 139. Water 140. A bucket Part II. 1 . The Body 2 . Food 3 . Work 4 . The Weather 5 . The Family 6 . A Building 7 . Fire 8 . The Country 9 . The Sea 10. Time 11 . The Machine 12 . Business 13 . Money 14 . Noise 15 . News 16 . Amusement 17 . Education 18 . Reading 19 . The Earth 20 . History 21 . Invention 22 . Feeling 23 . Art 24 . Trade 25 . Transport 26 . Peace 27 . Language 28 . Society 29 . Government 30 . Science Notes for the Teacher -- 40 pages (e) extensions (s) specializations 8 . THE COUNTRY Things Qualities animal bird country farm field branch cow egg fowl goat red -- green broken brown safe
  19. 19. flower grass plant tree leaf pig sheep stem town wool Other Words : earth , fruit , garden , insect , mountain , produce , river ; land (s) , waste (e) ; ant , bee , berry , bulb, nut , plow , potato , roof, slope , snake , spade , worm. 8. THE COUNTRY In the summer I go with my family from the town to the country. We go to a farm. At the back of the farm-house is a field, and in it is a great tree with one low branch. It is the only tree in the field. In very warm weather I get up on the branch and have a rest. In the field is an old goat. If I am on the grass, it will come and give my body a push, but up in the tree I am safe. I do not let the goat go from the field, because it will get into the garden. Goats take every flower and leaf from the stem of a plant. A cow is another farm animal and a sheep is another. In some of the fields of the farm are cows, and in others are sheep, and in a low building of wood is a great mother pig with some small baby pigs. I have a fowl at the farm. It is a small brown bird. It is in the fowl- house with the other fowls. If I see an egg in the fowl-house I do not keep it ; I take it to my mother. I do not let it get broken. We get eggs from fowls and wool from sheep. The farm-house is a brown building of stone with a red roof. Near it are the buildings for the animals, and about it in the summer are green trees and green fields with flowers. The country is not green in the winter. The fields are brown and the trees have no leaves, and we do not see any flowers. Some birds go to other places when the weather is still warm, because they do not get enough food in England in cold weather. but after the winter they come again. Questions 1. Where do the boy and his family go in the summer ? 2. What is he field at the back of the farm-house ?
  20. 20. 3. What do goats do to a plant ? 4. What other animals are in the fields ? 5. What is in the low building of wood ? 6. What sort of birds are kept at the farm ? 7. What do we get from flows and what do we get from sheep ? 8. What sort of building is the farm-house ? 9. What do we see about th farm-house in the summer ? 10. Why do the birds go to other places in the winter ? Answers 11. They go (from the town) to a farm in the country. 12. A great tree (with one low branch). 13. They take every flower and every leaf from the stem. 14. Cows and sheep. 15. The great mother pig with some small baby pigs. 16. Fowls. 17. We get eggs from fowls and wool from sheep. 18. A brown building of stone with a red roof. 19. Green trees and green fields with flowers in them. 20. Because they do not get enough food in England in cold weather. Notes 9 . THE SEA Things Qualities boat current fish harbour island sail sand sea ship swim wave edge grain help land mist person shake stretch way smooth -- rough blue deep grey Other Words :
  21. 21. sponge ; mine (e), vessel (e), wash (e) ; canvas , moon , net , salt , star , transport , wind ; wool (e) . 9. THE SEA At the edge of the sea is a town with a harbour and near it is a stretch of sand. In bright weather the sea is blue, but in wet weather it is grey. The taste of sea-water is a salt taste. I go into the water for a swim. After my swim I have a rest on the sand, which is warm. I take it in my hands and put it over my body, but I do not put it on my head. If I get a grain of sand in my eye the pain will be very great. That is why I keep it from my face. After my rest I get up and give my body a shake and get all the sand off again. small boys and girls keep together near the edge of the water where it is not deep. The others go where it is deep enough for a swim, but even they do not go far from the land, because if they get in the current they will be in danger. A person on the sand may see the danger and get a boat and give help, but if they do not get help, they may not get safely to the land again. Near the harbour is a small island with great stones on it, and among the stones are sea plants and sea animals. I go there with my father in a boat with a sail. The boat is small, and a wave may come over the edge and make the inside of the boat wet. If the water is smooth and clear we may see a fish in the sea near the boat. We do not go to the island in a mist. The danger from a mist on the sea is great. In bad weather the sea is rough and all the boats come into the
  22. 22. harbour. The way into the harbour is not wide enough for a great ship. But though they do not come there, we see great ships on the sea. If they are far out, what we see is the smoke. Questions 21. What is the sea ? 22. What sort of taste has sea-water ? 23. What is at the edge of the sea ? 24. Why do you keep sand from your face ? 25. why do the older boys and girls not keep near the edge of the water ? 26. Why do they not go very far out ? 27. What sort of boat does the boy go to the island in ? 28. What is one sort of sea animal ? 29. Why does the boy not go to the island in a mist ? 30. Why do great hips not come into the harbour? Answers 31. A great stretch of water. 32. A salt taste 33. A town with a harbour. 34. Because if I get a grain of sand in my eye the pain will be very great. 35. Because near the edge the water is not deep enough or a swim. 36. Because if they get in the current they will be in danger. 37. A small boat with a sail. 38. A fish. 39. Because the danger from a mist on the sea is great. 40. Because the way into the harbour is not wide enough for a great ship. Notes 10 . TIME Things Qualities clock day hour bath bed early -- late first -- last
  23. 23. minute morning night time today tomorrow week Yesterday brush comb hair shoe sleep soap sock space sponge wash awake Other Words : month , watch , year ; history , rate , rhythm , unit 10 . TIME Morning is the first part of the day, and night is the lastpart of the day. Night is the time for sleep, and a bed is he place for it. My bed and the bed of my brother are in one room. In thespace between the beds is a table with a clock on it. In the morning, if my brother is not ,awake, I put out my hand across the table and give the bed-cover a pull, and say, "Good morning ! Are you awake ? Get up !" I get up and go to the bath. After than, if he is still not awake, I get a wetsponge and put it on the face of my brother. I do not go very near, because he may make my face wet with the sponge. But on some mornings my brother may get up a minuteafter I go from the room, and while I am in the bathroom he may make a knot in my sock or put my shoe far under the bed. On these days, though I am up first, he is ready before I am. Yesterday we were ready together. The first things which I put on are my socks, and the last thing is my coat. When I have on everything but my coat, I take acomb and put it through my hair. If I do it after I have my coat on, a hair may get on my coat. I take hairs off my coat with abrush. I have my morning mean an hour after I get up. In the early part of the morning we do work ; in the late part we have play. That is how the mornings go. Tomorrow we will not do any work. On one day of every week we may have a rest all the day. Tomorrow is the day after this day, and yesterday is the day before this day, and this day is today. Before we go to bed we have a wash with soap. When we come from the bathroom my mother may say, "Are you ready for bed ? When you are in bed I will come and say good night."
  24. 24. Questions 41. Which is the first part of the day and which is the lst ? 42. What is between the beds of the boy and his brother ? 43. What does the boy put on (a) first, (b) last ? 44. What things named here do you make use of for getting clean ? 45. When do the boys (a) do work, (b) have play ? 46. When may the boys have a rest all the day ? 47. In what other way may you say : (a) this day ; (b) the day before this day ; (c) the day after this day ? 48. What do the boys do before they go to bed ? 49. What do they have a wash with ? 50. What will the mother do when the boys are in bed ? Answers 51. Morning is the first part of the day and night is the last. 52. a table with a clock on it. 53. (a) Socks, (b) coat. 54. Bath, brush, soap, sponge. 55. (a) In the early part of the morning ; (b) in the late part of the morning. 56. On one day of every week. 57. (a) Today ; (b) yesterday ; (c) tomorrow. 58. They have a wash. 59. Soap. 60. She will come and say good night. Notes 11 . THE MACHINE - - - Things - - - Qualities machine plough / plow pump blade blow box care crush dress hammer metal move nail oil rod spade steel quick -- slow automatic like separate
  25. 25. join leather wheel Other Words : clock , engine , watch ; industry (e) , plant (e) ; adjustment , apparatus , brake , chain , force , invention , iron , screw , spring , wheel , work ; control (e) , current (e) , driving (e) , nut (e) , power (s). 11 . THE MACHINE When the grass is high in the garden, I get it cut with a machine. The base of the machine has a wheel at he right side and a wheel at the left. Between these wheels are parts which are sharp, like the blade of the knife. When you give the machine a push forward, these blades go through the grass and get it cut. The hand-part of the machine is of wood ; the other parts are ofmetal. Sometimes I put oil on the metal parts. If I do not do this with care, I may give my finger a crush in the machine. Some machines do work only while they have the help of hands, but other machines are automatic. The match-machines in the street are automatic. On the farm we get water from a pump. A pump is a machine with a rod which goes up and down in a pipe. Another machine gets milk
  26. 26. from the cows, and another makes butter. A plough/plow is a machine with a wide blade of steel which does the work of a spade. Machines do almost every sort of work. We see machines which get stones from the road broken, and other machines which give help to workmen who put up houses. In the towns, in great buildings, men and women make things with machines. They make shoes of leather, socks of wool, coats of cloth, and all the other parts of dress. They make clocks, umbrellas, knives, plates, seats, and tables. Hands are not as quick as machines. When a man makes a join in wood, or puts the cover on a box, he gives a separate blow of the hammer to every nail. But a machine may put all the nails in with one move as much work as a man does with a great number of moves. Even if the man is quick, the work which he does will seem slow when we see how very quickly the machine does it. But though men are not as quick as machines, machines are still not as good as men for some things. Questions 61. What is between the wheels of the grass machine ? 62. What does the boy put on the machine ? 63. What sort of machines are match-machines ? 64. What is a pump ? 65. What machines does the work of a spade ? 66. What help do machines dive in making roads ? 67. What are shoes made of? 68. What does a man put into wood when he makes a join in it ? 69. What does he make use of for doing this ? 70. Why does a machine do this work more quickly than a man. Answers 71. Parts which are sharp, like the blade of a knife. 72. Oil 73. Automatic machines 74. A machine with a rod which goes up and down in a pipe. 75. A plough or plow. 76. They get stones broken. 77. Leather. 78. Nails.
  27. 27. 79. A hammer. 80. Because a man gives a separate blow of the hammer to every nail, but a machine may put all the nails in with one blow. Notes 12 . BUSINESS Things Qualities business company manager market office price profit store apple bag basket boot bulb cord drink fruit owner paper parcel servant cheap -- dear common new serious Other Words : advertisement , credit , debt , insurance , money, receipt, trade ; account (s) , branch (e), industry (e) , interest (e) , offer (s) , trade (e), agreement , amount , committee , competition , distribution , exchange , loss , offer , organization , payment , secretary , stamp ; meeting (s) , order (e) 12 . BUSINESS "What is the business of your father ?" "My father does work in a store." "Is he the owner of the store ?" "No. He is only the manager of it. The owner is not one man, the owner is a company.Every person in the company gets a part of the profit of the store." "Does the store make much profit ?" "Yes. My father is a good manager. A store with a bad manager makes little profit." "What does a manager do ?" "He does work in an office almost all the day, but sometimes he goes
  28. 28. through the building and sees the persons who do business with the store. He does not let me go with him." "What sort of store is it ?" "It keeps almost every sort of thing. In one part of it you may get food and drink, in another, a new coat, in another, a clock, in another, fruit, or flowers, or even a bulb in a pot. It is like separate small stores in one building. This sort of store is common in great towns." "Does your mother get everything for the family there ?" "No, she gets almost all our things there, but she does not get fruit there. She says that the fruit at the store is dear. She get it a the market." "Is it cheap at the market ?" "It seems cheap because the market price is not as great as the store price. But my father says that the fruit at the market is as dear as the fruit at the store, because my mother sometimes gets a bad apple or orange among the good fruit, and though the price is not as great, she does not get as much for it. When she gets fruit at the store, the store will send it to the house. But when she gets it at the market, the man there put it in abag, and she takes it with her. If she gets cheese, he put it in paper and makes a parcel with cord, but sometimes the cord comes off or gets broken, and the cheese goes on the road. Then my mother has a serious face. When my mother goes to the market she lets me go with her and take a basket for all the parcels. But she does not go every day. On some days she sends the servant. "What is the business of your father ?" "My father has a farm. He was in business. He was in a boot and shoe store. But the town is not healthy for my brother who was very ill when he was a baby." Questions 1 . What work does the father of the boy do ? 2 . When a company is the owner of a store, what does every person in the company get ? 3 . Give a list of things which are kept in the store. 4 . What does the mother of the boy get at the market ? 5 . What reason does she give for not getting it at the store ? 6 . Why does the fruit at the market seem cheap ? 7 . When the mother gets fruit at the market, what does the man there do with it ? 8 . What does he do when she gets cheese ? 9 . When the boy goes to market with his mother, what does he
  29. 29. take with him ? 10. What is the business of the second father ? Answers 1 . He is the manager of a store. 2 . A part of the profit of the store. 3 . Food and drink, cats, clocks, fruit, flowers, bulbs in pots. 4 . Fruit. 5 . She says that the fruit at the store is dear. 6 . Because the market price is not as great as the store price. 7 . He put it in a bag. 8 . He put it in paper and makes a parcel with cord. 9 . A basket (for all the parcels). 10. He has a farm. Notes 13 . MONEY - - - Things - - - Qualities credit debt money payment receipt amount bit drawer form gold key lock loss name request silver size stamp turn value open -- shut flat poor round Other Words : insurance , price , profit , tax ; account (s) , business (s) , business (e) , change (e) , copper (s) , exchange (e) , gold (s) , interest (e) , silver (s) ; cooper , exchange , market , pocket , reward ; addition (e) 13 . MONEY When you go to a store, you give money for the things which you get. The money is a payment to the store for the things. sometimes the payment is made when the things are got, but sometimes the store gives you credit, and the things may be taken before any payment is
  30. 30. made. The store put down on paper the amount of your debt, and after some time a request for the payment is sent to you. When the store gets the money, a receipt is given to you. This is a bit of paper with your name on it, and the name of the store, and the amount of your debt, and the day on which the payment was made. Business men keep their receipts safe. The loss of a receipt may be as bad as the loss of money. Money may be of silver or gold or some other metal, or it may be of paper. Metal money is commonly round and flat, but not all bits of metal which have this form are money. A stamp is put on all money, from which you may see the value of it. The size of some bits is not as great as the size of other bits. Great bits of any metal will get more things at the store than small bits. But if you have a bit of silver and a bit of gold, the gold will get more than the silver even if it is not as great as the silver, because the value of silver is not as great as the value of gold. Gold has more value than silver, and paper has less value than silver. But though gold has the most value and paper has the least, paper money may have more value than gold money.. A poor man is a man who has no money, or very little. but a man who has no money with him may not be poor. He may have a great amount of it in his house or in another safe place. My mother keeps some of her money in a drawer which has a lock. Before she goes to the store, she gets the drawer open and takes some out. When the drawer is shut again she gives the key a turn from left to right in the lock and takes it out. The drawer is more safe than her bag, but it is not very safe, because some person may get the lock broken while she is out, and if this is done the money will be gone when she comes in again. Men and women get money for work. They go to a store with it and get shoes and coats and butter and bread. The owner of the store gives money to the men who make these things, and these men give it to the men and women who do work for them, and they take it to the store again. Money which is kept in one place and does not go from one person to another does not do the work of money. Questions 1 . When money is given for other things, what do we say that it is ? 2 . When the payment is not made straight away, what does the
  31. 31. store do ? 3 . What is sent to you before you make payment, and what is sent to you after ? 4 . When you get a receipt from a store, what is on it ? 5 . What is commonly the form of metal money ? 6 . If one thing is greater or smaller than another, what do we say is different ? 7 . Why will a bit of silver buy less things at the store than a bit of gold of the same size ? 8 . What sort of man is a man who has no money ? 9 . How does the mother of the boy get the drawer open when she come back ? 10. What is one thing which we may do to get money ? Answers 1 . A payment for them. 2 . It gives credit. 3 . A request for the payment is sent before, and a receipt after. 4 . My name, and the name of the store, and the amount of my debt, and the day on which the payment was made. 5 . It is round and flat. 6 . The size (of the two things.) 7 . Because the value of silver is not as great as the value of gold. 8 . A poor man. 9 . She put the key in the lock and gives it a turn from right to left. 10. Work. Notes 14 . NOISE Things Qualities bell cough hearing music noise sneeze song sound attention board cat dog fly horse rat start hard -- soft quiet -- loud sudden
  32. 32. thunder voice step word Other Words : cry , laugh , rhythm, talk , whistle ; band (e) , crack (e) , harmony (e) , horn (e) , pipe (e) , record (s) , whistle (e) ; burst (e) , note (s) , scale (s) . 14 . NOISE If you are awake in the very early morning, when all the family is in bed, even a small sound, like that of a rat in the wall or afly on the window, seems loud. And if you give a cough or a sneeze, or a board in the floor make a noise when you put your foot on it, the sudden sound goes through the house like thunder. That is because all the house is quiet, and every sound comes clearly to your ears. In the day some noise is in the air all the time, and separate sounds are clear only if we give them our attention. In the country every sound is clearer than in the town because the noise is less. The voice of a man, and even what is said, may be sent to your ears across a field. The sound of a cow-bell, or of the feet of a horse on the road, may come from the other end of the farm. But that is only in quiet weather. The noise of thunder keeps all other sounds from your hearing. And sometimes, in a wind, even if a person is near you, not one word of what he says comes to your ears. In the country after the sun goes down the fields are very quiet. Sometimes the voice of a night-bird comes from the trees, or the dog at the farm makes a noise when any person goes near the house, but at other times the only sounds are those which are made by the wind in the leaves or the rain on the grass. But in some parts of the town our ears have no rest from the start of the day till a late hour in the night. Most of the noises in town are bad, but some worse than others. One of the worst is music outside in the streets. It takes our attention off our work, and if we are ill it may make us tired. One noise which comes to our ears all the day in the town is that made by the feet of men and women in the street. The streets are quiet only after a fall of snow when the snow makes a soft cover over the hard road. A man makes a sound every time he takes a step, even when he has no shoes on. Most animals are quieter than men, but the quietest
  33. 33. animal is a cat. The soft feet of a cat go over even the hardest floor and make no sound, and if the animal is not seen, it may go anywhere and no attention will be given to it. Men are the only animals which make music, though the sounds made by a bird may seem very like a song. Songs are the music which men make with their voices. Questions 1 . What are two small sounds which seem loud in them morning ? 2 . Why do such sounds seem loud at that time ? 3 . When there is a noise in the air, what do we do to get any separate sound clear ? 4 . Give examples of sounds which may come to one's ears from far away in the country. 5 . What is the noise which sometimes comes from the sky when there are dark clouds in it ? 6 . What does the dog at the farm do at night ? 7 . What is one of the worst noises in the town and why ? 8 . Why does a fall of snow make the streets quiet ? 9 . What animal makes no sound in walking ? 10. What sort of music do men make with their voices ? Answers 1 . The sound of a rat in the wall or of a fly on the window. 2 . Because all the house is quiet. 3 . We give it our attention. 4 . The voice of a man ; the sound of a cow-bell ; the sound of the feet of a horse on the road. 5 . Thunder. 6 . He makes a noise when any person goes near the house. 7 . The noise of music in the streets, because it takes our attention off our work, and if we are ill it may make us tired. 8 . Because the snow makes a soft cover over the hard road. 9 . A cat. 10. Songs. Notes 15 . NEWS
  34. 34. - - - Things - - - Qualities account advertisement news bottle brick burst cork cry drop glove jelly lip net poison ring rub shelf smash stocking throat clean -- dirty long -- short tall Other Words : paper (s) ; crime , detail , discovery , event , fact , line , picture , print , reading , statement , story , surprise , weather ; development (e) , representative (e) , shock (e) , society (s) , stage (s). 15 . NEWS "What news is in the newspaper this morning ?" "Here is a long account of what the wind did yesterday. It took part of the roof off one of the buildings in the town and a brickcame down on the head of a man in the street. His lip was cut and his nose was broken by the blow. Another brick went through the front window of a store, and a great hole was made by the smash. A great amount of rain came down in some places. the water-pipes got very full and water from a burst in one of them go into some office buildings." "What does the newspaper say about the weather today ?" "We will have rain again, but not as much wind as we had yesterday." "That is good news. What is that short account there ?" "It is about a small boat which went down in the sea not far fro the land. One man was in it, but when he saw the danger he put on his body the ring of cork which was on the side of the boat, and this kept him up in the water till help came." "Who gave him help ?" "A man who saw him from the harbor. Here is an account of a small boy who took some poison when his mother was not in the room. When she came in and saw him with the bottle at his mouth, she gave a cry and took it quickly fro him. but a small amount of the poison went down his throat, and got into his stomach. It was only a drop, but it made him very ill."
  35. 35. "Why did his mother have poison in the hose ?" "She had a dirty glove, and this sort of poison will get gloves clean if you put some of it on a bit of cloth and give them a rub with it." "Where was the bottle ?" "It was on a high shelf where pots of jelly were kept." "How did he get it ?" "He got on a seat and took it down. Here is another bit of news about a great fish which was taken from the sea in a net. It was as long as a tall man." "What is that on the back of the newspaper ?" "That is an advertisement for coats. They seem good and cheap." "Which seems the best." "This one. it is better than any of the others." "Yes, that is a very good coat. I will go and see it." "I will come with you. I see that this stocking has a hole in it, and if the store has any cheap stockings I will get some." "Have you any money ?" "Yes, I have enough for the stockings." "When will you be ready ?" "I am ready. Let us go." Questions 1 . In what ways was the man in the street damaged by the blow from the brick ? 2 . What other damage did the wind do ? 3 . What made the water get into the office building ? 4 . What kept the man up in the water ? 5 . What did the small boy take from the bottle ? 6 . Why was he ill ? 7 . Where did he take the bottle from ? 8 . What is the use of the poison which the boy took ? 9 . How as the fish taken from the sea ? 10. What other things are there in the pages in addition to news ? Answers 1 . His lip was cut and his nose was broken. 2 . It sent a brick though the window of a store (and made a great hole). 3 . A burst in one of the water-pipes. 4 . A ring of cork (which he put on his body when he saw the
  36. 36. danger). 5 . Some poison. 6 . Because a small amount of the poison went down his throat and got into his stomach. 7 . From a shelf where pots of jelly were kept. 8 . It will get gloves clean if you put some of it on a bit of cloth and give them a rub with it. 9 . In a net. 10. Advertisements. 16 . AMUSEMENT - - - Things - - - Qualities amusement laugh chain collar cup friend hat jump love monkey neck rail run shirt stop tail top trousers twist whip kind -- cruel happy -- sad fat Other Words : smile ; humour (e) ; interest , music , pleasure , song , story ; ball (s) , card (s) , competition (s) , fiction (s), picture (s) , play (e) , record (s) , sage (s) , and (e) . 16 . AMUSEMENT Yesterday my friend and I saw something which gave us great amusement. We were in the garden with a ball when a man came
  37. 37. through the street with a music-box, and on the top of it was a small monkey. The monkey had on red trousers and a blue shirt.On its neck was a collar, and on this was a chain. When the man was opposite the house he made a stop. Some boys and girls were with him, and my friend and I got up on the rail at the front of the house, where we saw everything over their heads. The man took the chain off the collar and the monkey got down with a jump and went to the hand-part of the music box and gave it a turn. After that the man took it, and while he made the music the monkey got up on the box again and took the hat of the man and put it on its head. That made us all give a laugh, because the hat came down over the face of the monkey almost of its chin. After that the monkey did some other things which gave the boys and girls much amusement. After a short time, the man gave a cup to the monkey, and it came and put it out to everyone for money. But when it went near to one boy, he put out his hand and gave thetail of the monkey a twist. That was cruel, and my friend, who is very kind, gave a cry, and said “Please don‟t do that !" The face of the boy got very red, and he let the tail go. The monkey went quickly to the man, who took it in his arms and said kind words to it, till it seemed happy again. Love makes animals happy. My friend is very sad when he sees an animal sad or in pain. Boys and girls are sometimes cruel to animals because they do not see that what they do gives them pain. If a man gives a horse blows with a whip, we all see that that is cruel. But if you have a dog and keep it on a chain and do not ever let it have a run, or if you give it so much food that ii gets fat and slow, that is almost as cruel, though it may seem kind. When we gave my father an account of the monkey he said : “When you two boys are older such things will not give you amusement. Animals are not happy when they are taken about the streets in coats and trousers, even if their owners seem kind to them.” We said that if the monkey came again we would not go and see it, and my father said that he might later give me a dog. Questions
  38. 38. 1 . What came through the street when the two boys were playing in the garden ? 2 . What did the monkey have on ? 3 . What did the two boys do which made it possible for them to see over the heads of the others? 4 . How did the monkey get down from the box? 5 . Why did the boys and girls give a laugh? 6 . What do you have drink in at a meal? 7 . What cruel thing did a by do to the monkey? 8 . What makes animals happy? 9 . What cruel thing may a man do to a horse? 10. How may you be cruel to a dog even if you do not give it blows or keep it on a chain? Answers 1 . A man with a music-box and a small monkey. 2 . Red trousers and a blue shirt, and a collar on in its neck (with a chain on it). 3 . They got up on the rail at the front of the house. 4 . It gave a jump. 5 . Because the monkey put the hat of the man on its head and the hat came down over the monkey‟s face (almost to its chin). 6 . A cup. 7 . He gave its tail a twist. 8 . Love. 9 . He may give it blows with a whip. 10. You may give it so much food that it gets fat and slow. 17 . EDUCATION - - - Things - - - Qualities education knowledge answer berry lift look strong -- feeble important
  39. 39. school bite bone card feather fold kick muscle question toe touch walk wing necessary stiff Other Words : history , learning , science ; history (s) ; attention , behaviour , book , brain , fast , language , law , memory , mind , observation , reading , reason , rule , thought, writing ; reason (e) , though (e) 17 . EDUCATION The business of a school is education,, which is teaching and learning. Education is the way to knowledge, because we get knowledge by learning, and teaching gives us help in learning. Any help which is given to us in our learning is teaching. We go to school for education, but we do not get all our education there. Every sort of learning is part of it, and much of our learning is done outside the school-room. When you are having a walk in the country or in the town, you are seeing new things and getting new knowledge all the time. And if an older person is with you, he is giving you teaching every time he gives an answer to a question about the things which you see. Even if he says only that the bright red berry which you are putting out your hand for is a poison berry, or that you are in no danger of a bite from the bright fly on your hand, all that is education. We get the greatest help from teaching abut such things as plants, or animals, or machines, when we may give them a look and a touch. A country friend may give us an account of thewing or a bird, but till we see a feather our knowledge will not be complete. We may have the knowledge that the help of a muscle is necessary for every move of a finger or a toe, and that other muscles are doing the work when we give
  40. 40. anything a lift or a kick ; but if we did not ever give attention to our arms and legs we would not see how the muscles do these things. And though words may give us help in learning the form and size of every bone in our bodies, they do not give us the knowledge which we get when we see a bone or put our hands on it. Another important part of our education is doing things and making things. We may get much knowledge from seeing something being made, but we get much more when we take the hammer and wood or the needle and cloth in our hands. In most schools this sort of learning comes first. They let the young boys and girls do things for which strong fingers and much knowledge are not necessary, like getting a house or a ship cut from stiff card or making small boats and boxes with bright paper by giving it one fold after another. These things may not seem very important, but by doing them well the feeble fingers are getting stronger and the young brains are getting knowledge which will have a value for more important work. Questions 1 . What are the two processes in education ? 2 . Why is education the way to knowledge ? 3 . When we take a walk in the country with an older person, how may he give us knowledge ? 4 . When do we get the greatest help from teaching about such things as plants and animals ? 5 . What two things do the bodies of birds have which our bodies do not have ? 6 . What is necessary for moving fingers or toes ? 7 . What are the hardest parts of our bodies ? 8 . Why do schools let young boys and girls do and make things ? 9 . Why is work for which strong fingers are necessary not given to young boys and girls at school ? 10. Give two examples of work which they may do. Answers
  41. 41. 1 . Teaching and learning. 2 . Because we get knowledge by learning, and teaching gives us help in learning. 3 . By giving us answers to our questions. 4 . When we may give them a look and a touch. 5 . Wings and feathers. 6 . The help of muscles. 7 . The bones. 8 . Because doing and making things are an important part of their education. 9 . Because the fingers of young boys and girls are feeble. 10. They may get a house or a ship cut from a stiff card or they may make small boats or boxes with bright paper. 18 . READING - - - Things - - - Qualities ink letter page print reading writing book grip mark meeting pen pencil pleasure pocket roll slip skirt snake story surprise tight -- loose beautiful secret yellow Other Words : advertisement , note , prose , verse ; cop;y (e) , fiction (s) , letter (e) , star (e) , stop (e) ; account , hearing , knowledge , list , record , statement ; line (e) , sense (e) 18 . READING
  42. 42. One of the first and most important parts of school teaching is reading, because a book is the shortest way to most of the knowledge necessary for a good education. If men had no knowledge of writing they would have no books for reading. Learning the form of every letter is necessary for writing, but less so for reading at the start. You may get a knowledge of the form of a word before you have a knowledge of the separate letters in it. But you will not get very far till you give attention to the letters, and the sounds which the letters have. Writing on paper may be done with a pencil or with a pen and ink. Very young boys and girls have pencils for writing, because if pens are given to them they may let the ink go on the table when they are taking the pen from the ink-pot, or a slip of the pen may make a dirty mark on a clean page of the writing-book. In early times men had no print, but only writing, and a book did not have the form which it has now. It had no pages then, and no stiff cover. It was a roll. This was before any paper such as we have now was made. The writing was put on something which was very like paper, but stiffer than paper. Reading is more than a way to knowledge ; we may get great pleasure from it. Reading a good story makes most boys and girls happy, even those whose school books give them the least pleasure. Yesterday I saw in a book an old story about a beautiful young girl who had no mother. The woman to whom her father was married was cruel to her, and made her do all the dirty work of the house, and she was very sad. The smooth skin of her hands got rough, and her feet were cut by the stones, because even in the very cold weather she had no shoes. One day when she was coming through some trees after getting wood for the fires, she saw a feeble old woman putting sticks in a basket. “You seem tired,” said the girl. “Let me get your basket full for you, while you have a rest.” “Yes, please do so. I am very tired,” said the old woman, and the girl took the basket. When she came again with the sticks, the old woman said : “You are a kind girl, so I will do something for you.” While she was saying these words she took a small round box from thepocket of her skirt. Inside was a small parcel with
  43. 43. a tight cord round it. When she got it loose the girl saw a bit of bright yellowstone in the paper. “ Take this,” said the old woman, “ and put it in the bed of the woman who is cruel to you, but keep outmeeting secret. Do not say anything about it, even to your father.” Then the girl gave a cry of surprise, because suddenly the old woman was not there, but only a small yellow snake going very quickly over the grass. With the parcel tightly in her grip, the girl went to the house, and that night, before the woman was in bed, she put the stone under the cover. In the morning, the woman was nowhere in the house, and she was not ever seen again. Though the surprise of the father and all the servants was great, they were all much happier when she was gone. And only the girl gave any attention to the account of a small yellow snake which was seen going from the house that morning. Questions 1 . Why is the learning of reading one of the first steps in education ? 2 . What knowledge is necessary for writing ? 3 . What two ways of writing on paper are there ? 4 . How were books in early times different in form from the books we have now ? 5 . Before there was paper, what was writing done on ? 6 . What may reading do for us in addition to giving us knowledge? 7 . What sort of reading gives most boys and girl‘s pleasure ? 8 . Where did the old woman take the box from ? 9 . What was in the parcel ? 10. What did the girl do when she saw a snake in the place of the old woman ? Answers 1 . Because a book is the shortest way to much of the knowledge necessary for a good education. 2 . A knowledge of the forms of the letters.
  44. 44. 3 . With a pencil, and with a pen and ink. 4 . They had no pages or stiff covers they Were rolls. 5 . On something which was very like paper, but stiffer than paper. 6 . It may give us great pleasure. 7 . The reading of a good story. 8 . From the pocket of her skirt. 9 . A bit of bright yellow stone. 10. She gave a cry of surprise. 19 . THE EARTH - - - Things - - - Qualities earth moon mountain star attraction direction distance dust existence growth middle month motion powder quality range root seed substance year thick -- thin fixed physical present Other Words : air , island , land , mine , river , sea , sky , sun ; country (e) ; coal , map , metal , nation , oil , said , sand , stone , system ; space (e) 19 . THE EARTH 1 At one time men said that the earth was flat, and fixed in space like an island in a great sea. But now everyone has the knowledge that the earth has almost the form of an orange and is all the time going round. It has two sorts of motion. Every 24 hours it makes a complete turn, like a ball with a rod through the middle when you give it a push with your
  45. 45. finger. And all the time it has been doing this, it has been going forward, till at the end of a year it has gone completely round the sun. The motion of the earth round the sun gives us summer and winter ; its other motion gives us night and day. The direction of the turn is from west to east, and that is why we see the sun going across the sky from east to west. The earth goes round the sun and not out into space because the distance between the earth and the sun is kept fixed by theattraction of the sun. Every star in the sky is kept in its place by attraction. Our earth is a cold star. It is one of the 8 great stars which go round the sun. All physical things have this quality of attraction for other physical thing The attraction between the earth and the moon keeps the moon going round the earth, and other stars have other moons which are kept near them by their attraction. The moon goes round the earth in a shorter time than the earth goes round the sun. The moon goes round the earth in a month. A very long time before the existence of men, the earth was a mass of fire going round in space. It got colder till some thing like a hard skin came over it, thin at the start, but slowly getting thick, though even now the substance in the middle of our earth has not got cold. At a later time the earth had water all over it. Then, here and there, a mass of land came up through the sea, making amountain or a range of mountains, and the first dry land came into existence. But this new dry land was not like dry land at the present time. It had no plants or animals on it, and not even any earth for theseed or root of a plant. The earliest plants and animals did not have their existence on the land, but in the water, and some books say that all plants and animals have come from a substance like jelly in the sea. The growth of plants was not possible till powder from the stones had made a cover of dust for the land. Then, slowly, some of the animals came from the water on to the land, and from them the first land animals came. But men did not come into existence till much later. ----- 1 . See the Notes on this Step.
  46. 46. Questions 1. What did men say at one time about this earth 2. What are the two motions of the earth? 3. Why does the sun seem to go from east to west? 4. What keeps the earth from going out into space? 5. What sort of body is the earth? 6. What goes round the earth? 7. What was the first dry land? 8. Why were there no plants on the first dry land? 9. What are the first plants and animals said to have come from? 10. What made a cover of dust for the land? Answers 1 . That it was flat and fixed in space. 2 . It makes a turn and it goes round the sun. 3 . Because the turn of the earth is from west to east. 4 . The attraction of the sun. 5 . It is a cold star. 6 . The moon. 7 . Mountains or ranges of mountains which came up through the sea. 8 . Because it had no earth for their seeds or roots. 9 . A substance like jelly in the sea. 10. Powder from the stones. ----- 1 . "The earth," The expansion from earth as a substance to the earth as the star covered by that substance, and on which we are living, is a very natural one, needing only to be pointed out to be quite clear. 20 . HISTORY
  47. 47. - - - Things - - - Qualities event history record addition colour comparison desire expert guide increase judge library line map need opinion position potato process reason past -- future certain frequent probable Other Words : power (e) ; agreement , change , development , discovery , government , nation , peace , religion , society , tendency , trade , war 20 . HISTORY If we make a comparison between the time men have been on the earth and that part of their existence of which we have any record, we see that the start of history was not very early. The only account we have of the time before men had a knowledge of writing, and even of a long time after, is that which has been given by the broken stones of early towns, and bits of metal and other substances which have been taken from them. Then come records on stone and some bits of writing on paper, but these are not frequent till much later, and not one of them give us complete and certain knowledge of any event. Even after the start of history, the records are far from complete. One reason for this may be that much of the knowledge which we have a desire for at the present time may not have seemed important to men of past times, and may not ever have been put in writing. But the most important reason is the loss of most of the old records. Men have not at all times kept such things with care, and a great number of those which would have had value for history are not now in existence. When we come to later times, we have more records, but they do not
  48. 48. all give us certain knowledge. Sometimes they give us two almost opposite accounts of one event. A historyexpert gives attention to all the old accounts and then says which is the most probable one. But though lie may he a good judge, lie is only giving us his opinion, and so our knowledge the event is only probable, not certain. In later years men saw the need for records, and in our time the record of every important event in the history of any country is kept with the greatest care. Every library has shelves of books about the present time. The men of future times will certainly have a good knowledge of the process which has made them what they are. But even with all these books as a guide, some of their experts will probably have opposite opinions about some past events. A map gives great help in the learning of history. The position of any country on the map is frequently a good guide to a knowledge of its history. On some maps of the earth every country has a line round it, and all the land which is part of it has onecolour. If we make a comparison between earlier and later maps, we will see from an increase in the amount of any colour that the country which has that colour has made an addition to its land. Though some countries have not as much land as others, they may be quite as happy, and even happier. History is not only the account of great events. It is the record of the existence of men and women, and things which seem small may sometimes be very important. In Ireland the growth of the first potato was an event in its history, and is as much a part of its record as the growth of its towns. ----- See the Notes on this Step. Questions 1 . What name do we give to the record of past events? 2 . How do we get our knowledge of times before men had a knowledge of writing? 3 . What is the chief reason why the number of early records is
  49. 49. very small? 4 . When different accounts are given of one event, what does the history expert do? 5 . When he does this, what is he giving us? 6 . What need did men see in later times? 7 . What name do we give to a place where books are kept? 8 . What use will the books about the present time have in the future? 9 . What is frequently a good guide lo a knowledge of the history of any country? 10. If we see that there has been an increase of on, colour on the map of the earth, what knowledge does that give us? Answers 1 . History. 2 . From the broken stones of early towns and bits of metal and other substances which have been taken from them. 3 . The loss of most of the old records. 4 . He gives attention to all the old accounts and says which is the most probable one. 5 . His opinion. 6 . The need for records. 7 . A library. 8 . They will give the men of future times a good knowledge of the process which has made them what they are. 9 . Its position on the map. 10. The knowledge that the country which has that colour on the map has made an addition to its land. 21 . INVENTION1 - - - Things - - - Qualities instrument (invention) angle camera chance ray screw spring hollow -- solid able delicate
  50. 50. crack experience fight glass measure plane steam watch wax whistle wire view electric Other Words : -- machine ; apparatus , control , discovery 21 . INVENTION From the earliest times men have been seeing new uses for the substances which the earth gives them, and making new sorts of things for work or pleasure. Every such thing is an invention. Not only the great machines of our time, but things like a knife and a screw and a spring are inventions. The burning of wax for light was no less an invention than electric light. though it was not such a good one. These early inventions do not seem as surprising as those which are nearer to us, but without their help we would not have had the later ones. Without the spring the invention of the watchwould not have been possible, and so on. One of the most important of the older inventions wasglass. To this delicate substance, which at the start was used only for making beautiful things, we are in debt for a great part of our present knowledge. Men early got the knowledge that when a ray of light went through glass, the direction in which it went into the substance sometimes made an angle with the direction in which it came out, and that with a bit of glass which was thin at the edges and thick in the middle, rays might be bent in such a way that they came together at
  51. 51. one point. But it was not till much later that they got a way of taking the measure of these angles, and saw clearly what surprising uses this quality of glass might have. Able men were were hot slow in profiting by this knowledge. One of the first of the new inventions was an instrument for getting a better view of things which are a great distance away, such as the moon and stars Almost at the same time another instrument was made for seeing very small things clearly. It will readily be seen how important these inventions were for making additions to our knowledge. Another invention which was based on the knowledge of light rays was the camera. The little bit of glass at the front sends the rays to the right points on the plate at the back. The bulb which is part of some cameras is another invention. When it is crushed in the hand, it sends a current of air through a pipe to a delicate spring which is in the box. When this spring is moved, the light is let in through the glass. The bulb is hollow like the pipe. If it was solid, it would have no air in it. When there is a crack in the bulb, it will not do the necessary work, because the air gets out and does not go through the pipe. Another sort of bulb is the glass electric light bulb. In these electric bulbs we may see the delicate wire through which the electric current goes. Electric machines are now taking the place of some which are worked by steam, but steam is still one of the most valued servants of man. One of the most Important inventions based on the use of steam is the steamboat. One of the less Important is the steam whistle. The plane which is used to make wood smooth is one of the oldest inventions. The airplane in which we may take a flightthrough the air is one of the newest and most surprising. It is sometimes said that chance has given us some of the most important Inventions, but without the help of experiencechance would have done little for us. ----- 1 . See Notes on this Step.
  52. 52. Questions 1 . What is an invention? 2 . What were five early inventions? 3 . What quality of glass made possible the invention of instruments for seeing very small things and things a great distance away? 4 . For what are these instruments important? 5 . What does the bulb of a camera do when it is crushed in the hand? 6 . Why is it hollow? 7 . Give an example of another sort of bulb. 8 . What is inside an electric bulb. 9 . What two sorts of power are named here as used for working machines? 10. What is the use of a plane? Answers 1 . Any new sort of thing which is made by man. 2 . Knives, Screws. springs. wax-lights, and glass. 3 . The quality of getting rays of light bent when they go through it. 4 . For making additions to our knowledge. 5 . It sends a current of air to a delicate spring which is in the box. 6 . Because if it was solid it Would have no air in it. 7 . An electric-light bulb. 8 . A delicate wire Through which the electric current goes. 9 . Electric (current) and steam. 10. A plane is used for making wood smooth. 22 . FEELING
  53. 53. - - - Things - - - Qualities belief comfort disgust doubt fear (feeling) hope humour impulse interest nerve regret sense shame balance heart horn insect reaction shock normal -— strange angry conscious second Other Words : amusement, approval, desire, hate, hearing, love, pain, pleasure, respect, smell, sound, surprise, taste ; care (e), touch (e) art, colour, harmony, heat, religion; agreement (e), attraction (e). 22 . FEELING Fear sometimes makes us do very surprising things. One night the nerve of one of my teeth was giving me a feeling of pain, and it was certain that I would not be able to go to sleep till the pain was stopped. But I had nothing in the house which would be of use, and the only way of getting anything was by going to the house of a friend. The distance was not long, but the road went through a wood, and there was a story going about that a strange animal with a great horn had been seen there some days earlier. I had no belief that there was such an annual, and no doubt that I would be quite safe in the wood, so I made a start without any fear. But before I had gone very far a strange sound came to my ears It was not like the normal cry of any animal of which I had had
  54. 54. experience, and it sent a wave of fear through me. My reason was quite certain that there was no danger, but I was not as happy as I had been before I even had an impulse to go back, but shame and the hope of stopping the pain in my tooth kept me from doing so, though not from having a feeling of regret that I had come. I went forward more quickly, with every sense awake. The touch of an insect on my face was enough to make my blood go cold. Suddenly a second cry came, much nearer than the first. This time my reaction was to make a complete stop. My heartseemed to come into my throat and my feet to be fixed to the earth. A minute later I was going back as quickly as my legs would take me. The wood was dark, and after only two or three steps I put my foot into a hole. I was unable to keep my balance, and I came down on my face. The shock of the fall sent all the breath out of my body, and my senses went from me for a time. When I was conscious again, my first feeling was a pain in my head. Then my fear came back and I got on my feet. But before I had taken a step, a sound came which sent all fear from me. It was the strange sound again, but this time it was clearly over my head, and there was no doubt that it was the cry of a night bird. With a look of disgust at my trousers covered with wet earth, I went on again. I was angry because I had not had more sense, but when I got to the house of my friend, and was giving an account of my experience in comfort before a bright fire, amusement took the place of my bad humour. Everyone took a great interest In my story, and when they were certain that no serious damage had been done by my fall, they had a good laugh about it. Questions 1 . What did the man in this story go to the house of his friend for? 2 . What was said to have been seen in the wood? 3 . Why did he have no fear at the start? 4 . Why did the sound which came to his ears put fear into him? 5 . What kept him from going back
  55. 55. 6 . What made his blood go cold? 7 . What was his reaction to the second cry? 8 . Why did he have a fall when he put his foot into a hole. 9 . What was his feeling when he saw his dirty trousers 10. What were the feelings of has friends when he gave them an account of his experience? Answers 1 . Something for stopping the pain in (the nerve of) his tooth. 2 . A strange animal With a great horn. 3 . Because he had no belief that there was such an animal. 4 . Because it was not like the normal cry of any animal of which he had had experience. 5 . Shame and the hope of stopping the pain in his tooth. 6 . The touch of an insect on his face. 7 . He made a complete stop. 8 . Because he was unable to keep his balance. 9 . Disgust. 10. Interest and amusement. 23 . ART - - - Things - - - Qualities (art) ornament picture arch brass canvas chalk circle copper copy curve design frame hook jewel paint polish suggestion square vessel black -— white complex —- simple mixed Other Words :
  56. 56. Music, song, verse fiction (s), picture (s), Nay (e), stage (e,) taste (e), touch (s), writing (e) ; attraction, colour, form, line, pleasure, science, value feeling (s). 23 . ART The art of early man was rooted in his physical needs. The first picture was probably a copy of the form of some animal necessary for food, and was made with chalk or paint on the rough stone wall of a hole in the side of a mountain. Such pictures were probably made, not only for pleasure, but because men had the belief that in some way these copies made the animals come when they were needed. Even the first design which was cut on a bit of metal, or painted on a cup or other vessel, was almost certainly not only an ornament, but an instrument for keeping the owner of it safe from danger, or helping him in some other way. But the strange impulse to make copies of things which were needed for existence was the start of a new and very important experience. With it came the pleasure in making and doing beautiful things which has made the growth of art possible. At the start, all the forms which were used by painters and designers in their work were copies of the forms which they saw in things about them, but it is surprising how early they put them together in new ways. They saw very quickly that even simple forms, such as the squareand the circle, might be joined in a great number of complex designs to make pictures which were not copies of anything. The curve of a leaf might give the suggestion for a design which was not at all like leaves, but only a number of forms and colours put together in a way which was pleasing to the eye. The earliest painting was done with only one or two colours. Red, black, and white were very common, because they were the colours of common substances which might be used as paints. The knowledge of more uncommon paints, and of the way to get
  57. 57. them mixed so that they made new colours, did not come till later. Metal-work was one of the earliest of the arts. The metals which have been most used in art are gold, silver, copper, and copper mixed with another metal to make it harder. The brass of which kettles and curtain rods are made, and which we keep bright with polish, is another mixed metal with copper in it, but the one used in art is different. It is brown, not yellow like brass. The growth of the knowledge of building gave man a new sort of art, and at the same time gave a new interest to some of the other arts. Men made the lines of their structures beautiful, and the flat walls gave a chance for paintings and for designs in stone or wood. It was not till quite late in history that a picture was commonly something in a frame which might be put on ahook on a wall and moved from place to place. Before that it was a part of a building. The art of building has given us a number of beautiful forms. One of the most beautiful is the arch, which has been used most in the buildings of Europe. From the start men have all the time been learning new processes of art. One very important invention was that of painting oncanvas with paints mixed with oil. But that is only one of a great number of such inventions, not only in painting, but in all the other arts which make use of physical substances. We sometimes give the name art, not only to the great arts, but to any expert way of doing or making anything. So we may say that cutting a jewel is an art, or that there is an art of cooking. Questions 1 . Where were the earliest pictures made and with what substances 2 . What were they probably copies of? 3 . Why? 4 . Give examples of simple forms winch were early used for making complex designs. 5 . How may natural forms, like the form of a leaf, have been responsible for a new sort of picture? 6 . What were the commonest colours used in early paintings?
  58. 58. 7 . What metals have been most used in the history of art? 8 . Why did the art of building give a new interest to the other arts? 9 . What was one of the most important inventions in the art of painting? 10. Give two examples of processes which are said to be arts in the second sense of the word. Answers 1 . On the rough stone walls of holes in the mountains, with chalk or paint. 2 . The forms of animals necessary for food. 3 . Because early man had the belief that these copies made the animals come when they were needed. 4 . The square and the circle. 5 . They may have given suggestions for designs which were not copies of anything. 6 . Red, black, and white. 7 . Gold, silver, copper, and copper mixed with another metal. 8 . Because the walls gave a chance for paintings and designs in stone or wood. 9 . The invention of painting on canvas with paints mixed with oil. 10. Cutting a jewel and cooking. 24 . TRADE - - - Things - - - Qualities exchange (trade) band coal competition cotton distribution industry insurance mine nut produce rice silk tin tray chief dependent elastic fertile hanging
  59. 59. iron linen wine worm Other Words : market ; business (e), country (e), industry (e), offer (s) agreement, balance, company, credit, debt, government, harbour, loss, manager, money,offer, organization, price, profit, secretary, station, tax, transport; representative (e). 24 . TRADE All business is based on trade, which is the exchange of goods. The simplest form of trade is the exchange of one sort ofproduce for another, but this sort of trade is not very common at the present time. In some parts of the earth men still give the skins of animals and other things it exchange for food, or cloth, or bright ornaments for their bodies but most countries make use of an instrument of exchange, that is, of money. The invention of money made trade a very much more complex thing. Most countries have more than enough of some things for their needs, and not enough of others. In one part of the earth there may be great fields of rice for food but no iron for making machines. In another there may be a great amount of tin for cooking-vessels, but no leather for boots and shoes. So almost every country sends goods to other countries, and with the money which it gets in exchange for them, it makes payment for the goods Which other countries send to it. In this way distribution is made of the things of the earth. In every great country today men and women are dependent on the industry of persons in other lands for some of the things most commonly used. If you are in England, your dress may be of silk which has been made by a small worm in China, or your shirt of cotton which has come from the cotton fields of India. You may keep papers together with a band of an elasticsubstance taken from a plant in South America, or keep your accounts on paper produced in Canada. You may have for
  60. 60. your morning meal, on a tray from Japan, oranges which a shod time before were hanging on the trees in South Africa. If you are in Belgium, the coal you put on your fires may have come from a mine in Wales, and if you are in the United States, the winewhich you have at a meal is probably the produce of France or Spain or Italy. Almost all the produce of the earth has some use. A nut, or the root of a plant, or a small fish, may give substances which are most important to man. So even a country which is not very fertile, and has no mines of metal, may be the producer of something for which other countries will give money. When the produce of one country is like that of another, there is competition between them for trade with other countries.Linen was at one time one of the chief things produced by Europe, but when cotton came into the markets of the West It took the place of linen, because it was cheaper and better for some uses, and the linen trade is now very small. We are in debt to trade for a great Increase in the comforts of existence. One of the things which it has given us, which Is sometimes overlooked, is insurance. The first form of insurance was against the loss of goods on the sea, and it is said to have had its start among the traders of Phoenicia. Questions 1 . What is the simplest form of trade ? 2 . What effect did the invention of money have on trade? 3 . What substances are used for making : (a) machines (b) cooking-vessels (c) boots and shoes 4 . How is money used in trade between countries? 5 . What is one outcome of trade between countries? 6 . Give the names of two substances used for clothing which England gets from other countries with the names of the countries from which they come. 7 . What do we get iron mines? 8 . What takes place between two countries when the produce of one is like that of the other
  61. 61. 9 . What trade has been made less important by the coming of cotton into the markets of the West 10. Give the name of one thing for which we are in debt to trade. Answers 1 . The exchange of one sort of produce for another. 2 . It made trade more complex. 3 . (a) Iron ; (b) tin ; (c) leather. 4 . A country sends goods to others and gets money in exchange for them ; then with that money it makes payment for goods which other countries send to it. 5 . A distribution of the things of the earth. 6 . Silk from China and cotton from India. 7 . Coal and metals. 8 . Competition. 9 . The linen trade. 10. Insurance. 25 . TRANSPORT - - - Things - - - Qualities carriage cart driving journey porter station train (transport) brake bridge change condition engine level power rate river slope ticket weight same -— different parallel possible waiting Other Words :
  62. 62. boat, harbour, road, ship; carriage (e), engine (s), line (e), rail (s), smash (s). vessel (e); air, connection, distance,flight, foot. horse, map, motion, move, parcel, sea, steam, trade, way. 25 . TRANSPORT The transport of men and things over great distances in a very short time is common thing in our day. But this ha been madepossible only by invention little more than a hundred years old. Not till 1801 was an engine used for sending a ship through the water, and this was quite a long time before the first train made its first journey. Up to then the quickest way of going from place to place on land was on horseback, and journey over the sea were made in sailing-ships These sorts of transport seem very slow to us now, in comparison with the rate of a train or a steamship. But they were much quicker and better ways of getting over the earth than men had had in earlier times. The invention of the wheel was a great event in the history of transport. Before that, animals took men and things on their backs, but wheels gave an animal the power of moving a much greater weight. It may readily be seen how important this was for trade. When man had made his first rough cart, he was on the way to the invention of the carriage, in which journeys Were commonly made before the coming of the train. The design of the carriage went on getting better and better. The addition of abrake for keeping it from rolling down slope, and of springs for making the motion less rough, were great comforts. In most countries, carriages of great weight, pulled by four or even more horses, were used for going long distances Achange of horses was made at different stopping-places on the road, and in this way a quicker journey was possible Experts were needed for driving Such carriages, and if the condition of the roads was bad this was very hard work. Some times, if it was necessary to get across a river and there was no bridge, the driver made his horses go through the water. Journeys in those days were frequently full of strange experiences.
  63. 63. But today even a long journey is very simple. A man goes to the station, gets ticket, and takes a seat in the waiting train. His bags and boxes are put in the railway carriage by a porter, and at a fixed time the train goes. Though the rate of motion is very great, the train goes smoothly, and he may have a sleep or do some reading while it is quickly taking him to the end his journey. The two parallel rails of metal which are the road for the wheels of a train go through rough fields and across mountains where a carriage and horses would be unable to go. The power of the engine takes the train up long slopes at almost the samerate as over country which is on a level. There are no stops for rest or food, or because the roads are bad. At present the only form of transport quicker than the train is the airplane. This the newest and quickest form of transport which we have. It does not seem possible now that anything will ever be quicker, but the history of transport has not come to an end, and it may still have some surprises for us. Questions 1 . What makes the old forms of transport seem slow to us? 2 . What invention made a great change to transport 3 . Why was this invention important for trade 4 . By what two additions were carriages given greater comfort? 5 . What was done to make journeys by carriage quicker? 6 . Where do you go to get on a train, and what is it necessary to do before you take your seat? 7 . Who puts the bags and boxes in the carriage 8 . What sort of road is necessary for the wheels of a train? 9 . What power puts a train in motion 10. What is the quickest form of transport? Answers 1 . The rate of trains and steamships. 2 . The wheel.
  64. 64. 3 . Because wheels gave an animal the power of moving a much greater weight. 4 . By the addition of a brake for keeping the carriage from rolling down slopes, and of springs for making the motion less rough. 5 . A change of horses was made at different stopping-places on the road. 6 . To the station it is necessary to get ticket. 7 . A porter. 8 . Two parallel rails of metal. 9 . The power of the engine. 10. The airplane. 26 . PEACE - - - Things - - - Qualities harmony (peace) war army attack attempt church connection death destruction fight flag gun hate hospital lead relation religion waste wound living -— dead military violent wrong Other Words : friend , government , love , order agreement (e) ; cause (e). 26 . PEACE
  65. 65. Even in very early times, when it was almost as common for two countries to have a war as for two men to have a fight there were some who had the feeling that this condition was not right. The love of peace has been a part of the teaching of almost every great religion, and it is clear from this that the men of the past were conscious of the value of working in harmony with one another. But till only a short time back, almost no one, not even those who had belief in religion, had any hope that we would ever be able to put an end to war, and no serious attempt was made to take steps against it. One reason was that war seemed to be a necessary outcome of the competition between countries. Though every war was clearly bad for one side, it seemed to be good for the other ; and it did not seem possible that man would ever give up this violent way of getting profit. So even those who saw that war was bad had the opinion that it was necessary, and that they would have to put up with it. And in the eyes of most men it seemed not only necessary but natural, and their great hope was to see their country‟s flag waving over other countries. But there has been a great change in the relation of war to trade, and so in the feeling about war. In present conditions no country gets any profit from the use of arms, though when a war has been started hate and fear will keep it going. Theconnection between the trade of all countries is so complex that damage to one is damage to all, and the loss to a country in this way is much greater than anything it may have a hope of getting by making an attack on another. Dead men and burned towns are only a small part of the price of war today. The had conditions which come after it seem to have no end, and it is not possible for anyone who has had experience of them not to see that the old view of war as good business is quite wrong. Another point we have to take into account is that the invention of new machines for the destruction of men has made the fear of war greater than it has ever been before. In a present-day war, violent death comes not to hundreds but to thousands, and not only to those in the army, but to persons taking no part in the fight. No one in a country which is at war is safe, even in ahospital or a church. With the help of these new inventions the destruction of every building and
  66. 66. every living thing in a town would be quite possible. And in comparison with the forms of death which are the work of these latest military instruments, awound from a gun gives little pain. Not only lead and steel, hut even crueller instruments of destruction, are now used in war. All these things have made men conscious that wax is not only bad, but completely against reason. War has at all times been a shocking waste of time. of money, and of men. It is now clearly seen to be so, and that gives the greatest hope for peace which there has ever been in history. Questions 1 . What has been part of the teaching of every great religion? 2 . What do we see from this? 3 . Why did men in the past have no hope that there would ever be an end to war? 4 . What has been the cause of a new feeling about war? 5 . What keeps a war going when it has been started 6 . Why does no country now get any profit from the use of army? 7 . What has made war more feared today than ever before 8 . What do these new inventions make possible? 9 . Give the names of two metals which are used for making instruments of war. 10. Why have men a better hope for peace now than they have ever had before? Answers 1 . The love of peace. 2 . We see that the men of the past were conscious of the value of living in harmony with one another. 3 . Because war seemed to be a necessary outcome of the competition between countries. 4 . The change in he relation of war to trade. 5 . Hate and fear.
  67. 67. 6 . Because the connection between the trade of all countries is so complex that damage to one is damage to all. 7 . The invention of new machines for the destruction of men. 8 . The destruction of every building and every living thing in a town. 9 . Steel and lead. 10. Because it is now clearly seen that war is a waste of time, of money, and of men. 27 . LANGUAGE - - - Things - - - Qualities discussion fiction (language) list prose talk verse error fact idea mind order purpose rhythm rule sign statement tendency thought trick true -— false material natural regular Other Words : answer, argument, cry, letter, name, question, reading, voice, word, writing ; observation (e), sense (e) ear, education, mouth, society, song, sound; sign (s). 27 . LANGUAGE The chief purpose of language is the exchange of thought or

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