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# Simple techniques of separating mixtures

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### Simple techniques of separating mixtures

1. 1. Simple techniques of separatingSimple techniques of separating mixturesmixtures AKM B- FormAKM B- Form
2. 2. Lesson PlanLesson Plan  To see the lesson plan ,please click on theTo see the lesson plan ,please click on the following linkfollowing link CLICK
3. 3. AudienceAudience  Grade: 9Grade: 9  Age Group: 15 yearsAge Group: 15 years  Learner profiles –Different abilitiesLearner profiles –Different abilities [intelligent, mediocre and slow learners][intelligent, mediocre and slow learners]  Their learning styles are differentTheir learning styles are different
4. 4. Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives By the end of this session:By the end of this session:  Students will be able to select the appropriateStudents will be able to select the appropriate method to separate the given mixtures based uponmethod to separate the given mixtures based upon the information available about the components ofthe information available about the components of the mixture.the mixture. Students will understand the following terms:Students will understand the following terms: sedimentation & decantation, filtration, evaporation,sedimentation & decantation, filtration, evaporation, distillation and crystallization.distillation and crystallization. Students will develop skills of using variousStudents will develop skills of using various techniques to separate mixtures.techniques to separate mixtures.
5. 5. Sedimentation and decantationSedimentation and decantation Separating an insoluble solid/liquid mixture.Separating an insoluble solid/liquid mixture.  Let us see how we can separate a mixture ofLet us see how we can separate a mixture of sand and water.sand and water. Click
6. 6. FiltrationFiltration  We will see now how we can separate aWe will see now how we can separate a mixture of sulphur and water.mixture of sulphur and water. Click
7. 7. EvaporationEvaporation  Separating a solute from a solute/solventSeparating a solute from a solute/solvent mixturemixture  This method is used to separate a solid soluteThis method is used to separate a solid solute from a solventfrom a solvent Click
8. 8. DistillationDistillation  During evaporation or boiling, the liquidDuring evaporation or boiling, the liquid solvent is lost to the air. If the solvent issolvent is lost to the air. If the solvent is important it can be separated from the mixtureimportant it can be separated from the mixture using a process called distillation.using a process called distillation.
9. 9. DistillationDistillation CLICK
10. 10. CrystallisationCrystallisation  To separate a solute from its solvent, we heatTo separate a solute from its solvent, we heat the solution gently. The solvent evaporates andthe solution gently. The solvent evaporates and the concentration of the solute rises until thethe concentration of the solute rises until the solution is saturated. If the heat is removedsolution is saturated. If the heat is removed this at this time and the solution is left to cool,this at this time and the solution is left to cool, the solid will form crystals.the solid will form crystals.  Let us see this pictureLet us see this picture
11. 11. CrystallisationCrystallisation Copper sulphate crystals can be obtained from itsCopper sulphate crystals can be obtained from its solution by crystallization process.solution by crystallization process.
12. 12. SublimationSublimation  When a sublimable substance is mixed with otherWhen a sublimable substance is mixed with other substances which do not sublime, separation bysubstances which do not sublime, separation by heating is possible.heating is possible.  Sublimable substances are Iodine crystals,Sublimable substances are Iodine crystals, Ammonium chloride and camphor.Ammonium chloride and camphor.  They change directly into gas when heated andThey change directly into gas when heated and change back to solid on cooling, without changing tochange back to solid on cooling, without changing to the intermediate liquid state.the intermediate liquid state.
13. 13. SublimationSublimation  We will see how can we separate a mixture ofWe will see how can we separate a mixture of ammonium chloride and sand.ammonium chloride and sand. Click
14. 14. Separating FunnelSeparating Funnel  When two immiscible liquids are mixedWhen two immiscible liquids are mixed together they eventually form layers, if left totogether they eventually form layers, if left to stand.The less dense liquid forms a layerstand.The less dense liquid forms a layer above the more dense liquid.above the more dense liquid. Click
15. 15. Separation of two immiscible liquidsSeparation of two immiscible liquids using a seaparting funnelusing a seaparting funnel
16. 16. Fractional DistillationFractional Distillation  Two miscible liquids with quite close boilingTwo miscible liquids with quite close boiling points, such as water(100points, such as water(10000 C) and ethanolC) and ethanol (78(7800 C) can be separated by fractionalC) can be separated by fractional distillation.distillation.  The separation occurs in the fractionatingThe separation occurs in the fractionating coulmn.This is filled with glass beads. Duringcoulmn.This is filled with glass beads. During the fractionating process the liquids condensethe fractionating process the liquids condense and evaporate from the beads many times.and evaporate from the beads many times.
17. 17. Fractional DistillationFractional Distillation Click
18. 18. ChromatographyChromatography  A pure dye contains only one colour.Black inkA pure dye contains only one colour.Black ink is made from two or more coloured dyes.is made from two or more coloured dyes.  Separating substances like this is calledSeparating substances like this is called chromatography.chromatography.  The pattern of colours you get is called aThe pattern of colours you get is called a chromatogram.chromatogram.
19. 19. Paper chromatographyPaper chromatography CLICK
20. 20. Spreading at different speedsSpreading at different speeds  Chromatography is used to split up a mixtureChromatography is used to split up a mixture of substances that dissolve in the sameof substances that dissolve in the same liquid.The substances spread across the paperliquid.The substances spread across the paper at different speeds.at different speeds.  Brown ink is made from a mixture ofBrown ink is made from a mixture of yellow,blue and red inks.They can also beyellow,blue and red inks.They can also be separated by paper chromatography.separated by paper chromatography. For more techniques click here
21. 21. Centrifugation/ChurningCentrifugation/Churning  Centrifugation is the method of separatingCentrifugation is the method of separating solids from a liquid where the mixture issolids from a liquid where the mixture is homogeneous. The sedimentation ofhomogeneous. The sedimentation of suspended particles in a liquid takes place verysuspended particles in a liquid takes place very slowly. The mixture is taken in two speciallyslowly. The mixture is taken in two specially designed test tubes known as the centrifugedesigned test tubes known as the centrifuge tubes. They are placed in two separate holders.tubes. They are placed in two separate holders. The holders are then rotated rapidly with theThe holders are then rotated rapidly with the help of a handle.help of a handle.
22. 22. Centrifugation/ChurningCentrifugation/Churning  After some time the rotation is stopped and theAfter some time the rotation is stopped and the centrifuge tubes are taken out. It is seen thatcentrifuge tubes are taken out. It is seen that solid particles have settled down at the bottomsolid particles have settled down at the bottom of the tubes. The supernatant liquid above theof the tubes. The supernatant liquid above the solid is collected by decantation.solid is collected by decantation.  If the density of solid is lighter than liquid ,itIf the density of solid is lighter than liquid ,it comes in the upper layer.comes in the upper layer.  These days electric churners are used.These days electric churners are used.
23. 23. ApplicationsApplications  It is used forIt is used for  Separating cream from milk and butter fromSeparating cream from milk and butter from curd in dairies or at home.curd in dairies or at home.  In washing machines to squeezing out waterIn washing machines to squeezing out water from wet clothes.from wet clothes.  In diagnostic laboratories for testingIn diagnostic laboratories for testing blood/urine.blood/urine.
24. 24. Electric churner and SeparationElectric churner and Separation
25. 25. By Solvent extractionBy Solvent extraction  It is the process of dissolving one of theIt is the process of dissolving one of the components in a particular liquid either watercomponents in a particular liquid either water or any other solvent in which it gets dissolvedor any other solvent in which it gets dissolved and the other component does not dissolve.and the other component does not dissolve.  For example , a mixture of iron filings andFor example , a mixture of iron filings and sulphur is separated by using carbon disulphidesulphur is separated by using carbon disulphide as solvent.as solvent.  A mixture of sodium chloride and chalk canA mixture of sodium chloride and chalk can also be separated by using water as the solventalso be separated by using water as the solvent for sodium chloride.for sodium chloride.
26. 26. Home AssignmentHome Assignment  For assignment on “Simple techniques ofFor assignment on “Simple techniques of Separation of mixtures", click on the linkSeparation of mixtures", click on the link given below.given below. Assignment