Traffic congestion


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Traffic congestion

  1. 1.  Presents by :-  ANAND PRAKASH CHATURVEDI
  2. 2.  Traffic congestion is a condition on road networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times.  Congestion is a situation in which demand for road space exceeds supply.  When traffic demand is great enough that the interaction between vehicles slows the speed of the traffic stream, this results in some congestion.
  3. 3. It is understandable that many people consider congestion a significant problem.  Typical urban residents spend more than ten hours a week driving of which 10-30% (one to three hours) occurs in congested conditions.  Traffic congestion reduces travel speeds, creates uncertainly and requires more driver effort. It is a major source of frustration for busy, productive people. Motorists often feel that reducing congestion would make their lives more efficient and satisfied.  As a result, conventional planning considers congestion a major problem and congestion reduction a dominant planning objective. 
  4. 4. It is said that the high volume of vehicles, the inadequate infrastructure and the irrational distribution of the development are main reasons for increasing traffic congestion.  The major cause leading to traffic congestion is the high number of vehicle which was caused by the population and the development of economy.  If you live in an urban area, traffic congestion can be a major daily headache. It's bad enough that there isn't enough road capacity for the increasing numbers of vehicles travelling on them, and rude and aggressive drivers make a bad situation even worse. 
  5. 5.  Traffic Problem in Pakistan is getting worse with every coming day specially in big cities like Karachi , Lahore, Rawalpindi , Islamabad, Quetta, Peshawar and Hyderabad.  Government is doing very little efforts to avoid traffic jams and other traffic problems in Pakistan. Following the major causes of traffic problems and their solutions.
  6. 6.  Small roads for the number of cars and motor cycles.  Rapid growth of the population. As a result of this, the number of cars is increasing annually.  There are more women drivers and younger drivers today than in the past.  The increase in the number of trucks and commercial vehicles also causes traffic congestion, These vehicles move very slowly, sometimes stopping to unload goods, and blocking traffic.  Broken roads – as people don’t like to move from the broken part so traffic increases on rest of the roads.
  7. 7.  Old cars and trucks. Government don’t have a clear policy about old cars and trucks. Even 50 years old cars are still running on roads.  One of the most important is parking problems. People find it difficult to park their cars especially in the city center.  More cars due to bank financing . Now everyone can afford a car so more cars are there on the road.  Lack of traffic sense among the people. People don't have traffic sense. Traffic police and media should play their role in creating traffic sense amongst the people.  Corruption among the traffic police in Pakistan. People know that if they will break the law they will easily be released by giving few rupees to the police man.
  8. 8. Social:    Reduction in transport speeds Reduced travel speeds Infrastructure overload Environmental:    The impact of exhaust emissions on human health Depletion of ozone layer Traffic noise Economic:  Time losses cause direct economic losses
  9. 9.  Reduction in transport speeds
  10. 10.  When we request a police officer, an ambulance or a fire truck and the emergency vehicle is unable to respond in an appropriate amount of time because of traffic congestion it can be a danger to you and your property.
  11. 11.  The first thing many people think of when it comes to congested roadways is the delay. During the morning there is additional stress because delays caused by traffic can make people late for work. And at the end of the day, the afternoon rush hour is again a frustrating time because the workday is done and people want to get home to relax, and traffic is preventing it.
  12. 12. • One beneficial effect of traffic congestion is its ability to encourage drivers to consider other transportation options. In cities with frequent traffic congestion, individuals often choose a subway, light rail or bus service. These options reduce traffic on the roads, have less of an environmental impact and reduce the stress associated with driving in heavy traffic.
  13. 13.  Uncertainty and unreliability in every services  Wasting time of motorists and passengers As a non-productive activity for most people, congestion reduces regional economic health.  Wear and tear on vehicles as a result of idling in traffic and frequent acceleration and braking, leading to more frequent repairs and replacements.
  14. 14.  Road rage Aggressive or angry behavior by a driver of an automobile or other motor vehicle. Such behavior might include rude gestures, verbal insults, deliberately driving in an unsafe or threatening manner, or making threats. Road rage can lead to altercations, assaults, and collisions which result in injuries and even deaths.
  15. 15.  Pollution One of the most harmful effects of traffic congestion is its impact on the environment. Despite the growing number of hybrid vehicles on the road, cars stopped in traffic still produce a large volume of harmful carbon emissions. Besides contributing to global warming, these emissions can cause more short-term and localized problems, such as smog and increased respiratory problems in a community due to poor air quality.
  16. 16.  The stopping and starting in traffic jams burns fuel at a higher rate than the smooth rate of travel on the open highway. This increase in fuel consumption costs commuters additional money for fuel and it also contributes to the amount of emissions released by the vehicles. These emissions create air pollution and are related to global warming.
  17. 17. I. Road Infrastructure II. Urban Planning and Design III. Supply and Demand IV. Traffic management
  18. 18.  Grade separation :- using bridges or tunnel freeing movement from having to stop for other crossing movement.  Ramp signaling:- ‘drip-feeding’ merging traffic via traffic signal onto a congested motorway-type roadway.  Reducing junction:-  Reversible lanes:-where certain section of highway operates  by reducing junction of road. in opposite direction on different times of day to match the demand. Separate lane for specific user group.
  19. 19.    City planning and urban design practices can have a huge impact on levels of future traffic congestion, though they are of limited relevance for short-term change. Grid plans including fused grid road network geometry, rather than tree-like network topology which reduce local traffic, but increase total distances driven and discourage walking by reducing connectivity. Transit-oriented development are residential and commercial areas designed to maximize access to public transport by providing a transit station or stop (train station ,metro station , tram stop, or bus stop).
  20. 20.     Congestion can be reduced by either increasing road capacity (supply), or by reducing traffic (demand). Increased supply can include: Adding more capacity at bottlenecks (such as by adding more lanes at the expense of hard shoulder or safety zones, or by removing local obstacles like bridge supports and widening tunnels) Adding more capacity over the whole of a route (generally by adding more lanes)
  21. 21. Reduction of demand can include: Parking restriction :- making motor vehicle use less  attractive by increasing the monetary and non-monetary costs of parking.  introducing greater competition for limited city or road space.  Road pricing:-  Telecommuting:- encouraged through legislation and charging money for access onto a road/specific area at certain times, congestion levels or for certain road users subsidies.  Online shopping promotion:additional shopping trip. it reduces the
  22. 22. Traffic reporting:-via radio, GPS and mobile apps, to advise road users.  Traffic counter:- to provide real-time traffic counts.  Parking guideline and information:-  systems providing dynamic advice to motorists about free parking.  Identify “pedestrian only” zones.  Building new infrastructure.  One way streets to speed traffic flow.  School opening time. 