Guar Gum in HydraulicFracturing in Indian ShaleMines-Paper submitted by1Nikhil Jain,2Khushboo Garg,3N. C. Karmakar and4S. K. Palei1I.D.D. (2nd yr.) student, Department of MiningEngineering, I.I.T. (B.H.U.), Varanasi-2210052B. Tech. (2nd yr.) student, Department of ChemicalEngineering, I.I.T.(B.H.U.), Varanasi-2210053Professor and4Assistant Professor, Department of Mining Engineering,I.I.T. (B.H.U.), Varanasi-221005
INTRODUCTIONGuar, a small bean grown in Indian subcontinent hasbecome a prized international commodity, since the rise ofHydraulic Fracturing on international level. Guar plays acrucial role in the fracturing process as fracturing fluidcomponent in extraction of petrochemical deposits ofearth’s crust. Hydraulic fracturing allows the producers tosafely recover oil and gas resources from deep reserves.Considering the vast shale deposit as well as guar inIndia, this efficient Hydraulic Fracturing technology inextraction of shale gas and few oils too, has the potentialto open gateway to vast unassessed energy reserve.The intent of this paper is to introduce and promote thisefficient hydraulic fracturing technology in the extraction ofshale gas and few oils too, considering the vast shaledeposit as well as guar in India, opening the vastunassessed energy reserve.
THREE MAJORCOMPONENTS Hydraulic Fracturing (H.F.) Guar Gum Shale
Hydraulic Fracturing FIGURE: WELL BORE AND FRACTURE CONDITIONS
Hydraulic Fracturing1.History Invented in 1947 by Floyd Farris; J.B. Clark (Stanolind Oil and Gas Corporation) Got popular after two commercial H.F. treatments in Stephens County, Oklahoma, and Archer County, Texas by Halliburton Developed as ‘slickwater fracturing’ in 1997, by Union Pacific Resources, making the demanding shale gas extraction easier. Got in demand due to more energy requirement in world.
Hydraulic Fracturing 2.PHYSICS • With Fluid Pressure. STRESS CREATED • Depending upon- depth of over burden, material toughness and pressure application FRACTURE DEVELOPMENT • Until it hits and obstruction or intersects ground surface. • Until rate of fluid loss from fracture = Rate of injection. FRACTURE PROPAGATION
Hydraulic Fracturing 3.PRINCIPLE 1. Pumping of 2. Release of Fluid Fluid pressure 3. Recovery • Fracture closes • Along with onto of Fluid proppant. fluid/propppant • To avoid • At high mixture. formation pressure, • Proppant keeps damage. creating the fracture open fractures. for extraction.
Hydraulic Fracturing 4.MECHANISM Fracturing fluid, pumped down into wellbore at optimum rate, increasing down-hole pressure, exceeding fracture gradient of rock. Process done by injection of proppant in injected fracturing fluids. Thus allowing formation fluid(oil, gas, water, fluids) to flow into the well.
Hydraulic Fracturing 5.WELL TYPES Vertical Wells Horizontal Wells • Conventional Wells • Hydraulic requiring low fracturing volume hydraulic performed, known fracturing. as ‘well simulation’ • Unconventional in highly Wells requiring permeable high volume reservoirs. E.g.- hydraulic Sandstone based fracturing. wells.
Hydraulic Fracturing 6.FRACTURING FLUIDS 1.Factors for Selection 2. Different Components of fluids 3. Typical Fluid Types
Hydraulic Fracturing 6.1.Factors for selection Low leak-off rate, Ability to carry the propping agent, Low pumping friction loss, Easy to remove from the formation, Compatible with the natural formation fluids, Minimum damage to the formation permeability, Break back to a low viscosity fluid for clean up after the treatment.
Hydraulic Fracturing 6.2.Different Components of Fluids Fracturing fluids are generally classified into three types: Aqueous based- finds large application in oil and gas wells due to: low cost, high performance, greater suspension power, environmentally acceptable and ease of handling. Oil. Foam fluids. Typically fracturing fluids are composed of 90% water, 9.5% proppant, 0.5% chemicals. Guar gum, present in fracturing fluid as water soluble gelling agents, increase viscosity and efficiently deliver
Hydraulic Fracturing 6.3.Typical Fluid Types Conventional linear gels. Borate-cross linked fluids. Organometallic-cross linked fluids. Aluminium phosphate-ester oil gels. Other fluids also used are as follows: Viscosifiers. Breakers. Biocides. Surfactants. Oxidizers. Enzyme breakers. pH modifiers.
Hydraulic Fracturing 7.USES Production of natural gas and oil from deeper rock formation (generally 5,000–20,000 feet (1,500–6,100 m)). Creates conductive fractures in rock, pivotal to shale gas extraction. Used to enhance waste remedial processes, usually hydrocarbon waste and spill. To increase injection rates for geologic sequestration of CO2. Used as a method to measure the stress in the earth.
Hydraulic Fracturing 8.Environmental Impacts CONCERNS Migration of gasesGround water Risk to air Methane and chemicals tocontamination quality Leakage surface
GUAR GUM Properties High molecular weight polymer. Thickens spontaneously without the application of heat. Guar gum is highly dispersible into cold and hot water and brines of various types and salinity. Its water suspension exhibit non- Newtonian viscosity. Can also be cross linked by different boron and zirconium complexes to high strength gels.
GUAR GUM Structure Consists of D-mannose monomer units linked to each other by β-(1→4) linkage forms backbone. Branches of D-galactose joined by α-(1→6) bonds. On the average, the galactose branches occur on every other mannose unit.
GUAR GUM Cross linking agent Increase in polymer Method of concentration increment in viscosity By cross linking of polymer Mainly used cross linkers Boron Zirconium Mechanisms of cross linking by Zr Interaction of Hydrogen Covalent colloidal bonding bonding particles
GUAR GUMHydrogen bonding mechanism for Zirconium-GuarCovalent bonding mechanism for Zirconium-Guar
GUAR GUM EXPORT SCENARIO Since largest producer of Guar gum in the world, India accounts for 80% of world’s total cultivation. India is the major exporter of guar gum to the world, exporting 7, 07,326.42 MT of guar gum to the world for the worth of Rs.16, 523.83 crores during the year 2011-12.Figure : Major Exporting Countries of Guar gum.(Ref: agriexchange.apeda.gov.in)
SHALE Shale Shale gas is natural gas formed from being trapped within shale formations. ‘Shale oil’ means crude oil, generated in- situ, retained in shale matrix storage, obtained there from through boreholes. Prospects in India ◦ According to estimates by EIA, India has 63 trillion cubic feet (tcf) of recoverable shale gas reserves. ◦ Limited explorations have been carried so far.
SHALENeed of Shale gas extraction In FY12 , around 38% of the gas demand was unmet. Consequences: ◦ Increased dependence on LNG imports. ◦ Underutilization of gas-consuming industries, particularly in the power and fertilizer sectors
BENEFITS Key method for extraction of unconventional oil and gas resources. Helps in accessing deeper shale reserves of India. Recent studies by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Ground Water Protection Council (GWPC), confirmed no direct link between hydraulic fracturing operations and groundwater contamination, thus promoting it as safer gas extraction technology. Fracturing makes it possible to produce oil and natural gas in places where conventional technologies are ineffective.
CONCLUSION India, largest producer of guar. Advent and Development of Hydraulic fracturing in India Combination of above two factors, helping India to take a giant leap in Energy sector. Easing burden and reliance on foreign fuel imports of India