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Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
Process Control Systems - VE2013
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Process Control Systems - VE2013

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The industrial control market involves the monitoring and control aspects of both complex and simple processes. Common trends within the industry, notably the drive for increased efficiencies, better …

The industrial control market involves the monitoring and control aspects of both complex and simple processes. Common trends within the industry, notably the drive for increased efficiencies, better robustness, higher channel densities, and faster monitoring and control speeds, subsequently drive new technology advancements for semiconductor manufacturers. This session aims to give a broad overview of the system requirements for both field instruments (sensors/actuators) and control room (analog input/output) modules, and demonstrates a typical I/O module configuration with HART® (highway addressable remote transducer) connectivity.

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  • 1. Process Control Reference Designs and System Applications Derrick Hartmann, Systems Applications Engineer, Wilmington, MA, USA
  • 2. Legal Disclaimer  Notice of proprietary information, Disclaimers and Exclusions Of Warranties The ADI Presentation is the property of ADI. All copyright, trademark, and other intellectual property and proprietary rights in the ADI Presentation and in the software, text, graphics, design elements, audio and all other materials originated or used by ADI herein (the "ADI Information") are reserved to ADI and its licensors. The ADI Information may not be reproduced, published, adapted, modified, displayed, distributed or sold in any manner, in any form or media, without the prior written permission of ADI. THE ADI INFORMATION AND THE ADI PRESENTATION ARE PROVIDED "AS IS". WHILE ADI INTENDS THE ADI INFORMATION AND THE ADI PRESENTATION TO BE ACCURATE, NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND ARE MADE WITH RESPECT TO THE ADI PRESENTATION AND THE ADI INFORMATION, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION ANY WARRANTIES OF ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS. TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS AND OTHER INACCURACIES OR MISTAKES ARE POSSIBLE. ADI DOES NOT WARRANT THAT THE ADI INFORMATION AND THE ADI PRESENTATION WILL MEET YOUR REQUIREMENTS, WILL BE ACCURATE, OR WILL BE UNINTERRUPTED OR ERROR FREE. ADI EXPRESSLY EXCLUDES AND DISCLAIMS ALL EXPRESS AND IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NON-INFRINGEMENT OF ANY THIRD PARTY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS. ADI SHALL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DAMAGE OR LOSS OF ANY KIND ARISING OUT OF OR RELATED TO YOUR USE OF THE ADI INFORMATION AND THE ADI PRESENTATION, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION DATA LOSS OR CORRUPTION, COMPUTER VIRUSES, ERRORS, OMISSIONS, INTERRUPTIONS, DEFECTS OR OTHER FAILURES, REGARDLESS OF WHETHER SUCH LIABILITY IS BASED IN TORT, CONTRACT OR OTHERWISE. USE OF ANY THIRD-PARTY SOFTWARE REFERENCED WILL BE GOVERNED BY THE APPLICABLE LICENSE AGREEMENT, IF ANY, WITH SUCH THIRD PARTY. ©2013 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. 2
  • 3. Today’s Agenda Field Instruments  Introduction  2-wire/4-wire systems—loop-powered vs. non loop-powered  Communications PLC/DCS Systems  Introduction  Analog input module  Analog output module 3
  • 4. Industrial Field Instruments 4 Introduction
  • 5. Industrial Control System 5 Sensing Control Data/ Communication Control Process Visualization Field Control Room Field Instruments Actuators PLC Control
  • 6. High Level System Level Overview Typical Sensor Actuator Network Architecture  Control network options: industrial Ethernet, field buses, RS-485, CAN, …  Field network options: 4 mA to 20 mA, HART®, IO-link, AS-interface, CC- link/LT, CompoNet, RS-485, …  Sensors and actuators available, which support field level and control level connectivity 6
  • 7. Industrial Field Instruments 7 Field Instrument
  • 8. Field Instrument—Sensors Temperature Pressure Flow Level Position Angle Acidity (pH) Oxygen Content Gas Detection Corrosion 8
  • 9. Two Categories of Transmitters Loop-Powered  2-wire connection supplying both power and communication  Power is supplied over the current loop from the control room  Entire transmitter must operate on <3.2 mA for a standard transmitter and <2.7 mA for a HART enabled transmitter Non Loop-Powered  4-wire connection, two for power and two for communication  No power consumption limitations  Used in situations where sufficient power cannot be derived from the current loop 9
  • 10. 2-Wire Connection, 4 mA to 20 mA Loop Current Loop Carries Both:  Information  AND  Power for Instrument Only Low Power Available  Min voltage for instrument  Usually specified as ≥12 V  Min current  ≤4 mA  Total available power <50 mW Low Power Design 10 ADC Rsens ~250 Ω 4–20mA ANALOG INPUT CONTROL SYSTEM FIELD INSTRUMENT 24V DC. POWER SUPPLY 2-WIRE CONNECTION
  • 11. Field Instrument Signal Chain Loop-Powered Pressure Transmitter 11 Σ−∆ ADC MUX DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE (MAIN VALUE MEASURED) STATIC PRESSURE (COMPENSATION) TEMPERATURE (COMPENSATION) Σ−∆ ADC MCU FLASH SRAM CALIBRATION LINEARIZATION COMPENSATION IN-AMP (PGA) ADC (24-BIT) IN-AMP (PGA) ADC (24-BIT) CLOCK DAC (16-BIT) 4mA to 20mA DRIVER DAC COMMUNICATION POWER MANAGEMENT VREF LCD WATCHDOG HART MODEM 4-20 mA +HART VOLTAGE REGULATORS (SPI) (UART) (I2C)DIAGNOSTICS PROCESSING 32-BIT RISC
  • 12. Key Trends to Field Instruments The Housing is Becoming Smaller  Need for smaller parts  Need for more integration  Need for higher temp rated parts  Need for more efficient parts  More safety targeted parts— diagnostics There Is a Trend for More Processing Requirements  Lower power MCU cores  Better processing capability 12
  • 13. Pressure Transmitter (Loop-Powered Instrument) Industrial Field Instruments 13
  • 14. Field Instrument Signal Chain Loop-Powered Pressure Transmitter 14 Σ−∆ ADC MUX DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE (MAIN VALUE MEASURED) STATIC PRESSURE (COMPENSATION) TEMPERATURE (COMPENSATION) Σ−∆ ADC MCU FLASH SRAM CALIBRATION LINEARIZATION COMPENSATION IN-AMP (PGA) ADC (24-BIT) IN-AMP (PGA) ADC (24-BIT) CLOCK DAC (16-BIT) 4 mA to 20 mA DRIVER DAC COMMUNICATION POWER MANAGEMENT VREF LCD WATCHDOG HART MODEM 4-20 mA +HART VOLTAGE REGULATORS (SPI) (UART) (I2C)DIAGNOSTICS PROCESSING 32-BIT RISC
  • 15. Field Instruments—Analog Front End ADI SUCCESS: AD779x Family 15 Σ−∆ ADC MUXDifferential Pressure (Main Value Measured) Static Pressure (Compensation) Temperature (Compensation) Σ−∆ ADC uC CALIBRATION LINEARIZATION COMPENZATION In-AMP (PGA) ADC (24-bit) DIAGNOSTICS In-AMP (PGA) ADC (24-bit) uC COMMUNICATION HART MODEM DAC (16-bit) 4-20mA Driver DAC LINEAR REGULATOR Intrinsic Safety LINEAR REGULATORS 12V..50V 4-20mA POWER MANAGEMENT VREF uC DISPLAY LCD SWITCH MODE REGULATOR >90% efficiency WATCHDOGS ADI’s Success: Low Power Sigma-Delta Cores Fully Integrated System on a Chip
  • 16. Application—Thermocouple Sensor  Application Features  Cold-Junction Compensation  Thermocouple voltage is proportional to the temperature difference  Second sensor needed to measure temperature of the “cold junction”  Low Voltage Signal  −20 mV to +80 mV FS  10 µV/°C to 50 µV/°C  Long Connections  50 Hz/60 Hz interference  Front-End Solution with 16- to 24-Bit Σ-Δ ADC  AD7792/AD7793—low power, in-amp, voltage reference, excitation currents, 50 Hz/60 Hz rejection  AD7708/AD7718—up to 10 AIN channels, gain, 50 Hz/60 Hz rejection  AD7719—2 × ADC, gain, excitation currents,50 Hz/60 Hz rejection 18 VOLTAGE REF. ADC FRONT - END SERIAL INTERFACE CALIBRATIONS DIAGNOSTICS DIGITAL FILTER BIAS VOLTAGE AIN1 AIN2 IEXC MUX CLOCK REFIN RREF RT METAL 1 METAL 2 THERMOCOUPLE TERMINAL BLOCK “COLD JUNCTION” Thermocouple V ~ (T1-T2) Programmable Gain Amplifier > 16-bit Resolution Voltage Reference for Thermocouple Voltage Serial Interface 50 /60Hz Rejection Thermistor or RTD or Diode to measure T2 Excitation Current AIN2 and REFIN to measure RT / RREF Bias Voltage
  • 17. Precision Analog Microcontroller Industrial Field Instruments 19
  • 18. Field Instrument—Example Precision Microconverter 20 Σ−∆ ADC MUX DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE (MAIN VALUE MEASURED) STATIC PRESSURE (COMPENSATION) TEMPERATURE (COMPENSATION) Σ−∆ ADC MCU FLASH SRAM CALIBRATION LINEARIZATION COMPENSATION In-AMP (PGA) ADC (24-BIT) IN-AMP (PGA) ADC (24-BIT) CLOCK DAC (16-BIT) 4mA to 20mA Driver DAC COMMUNICATION POWER MANAGEMENT VREF LCD WATCHDOG HART MODEM 4-20 mA +HART PROCESSING 32-BIT RISC VOLTAGE REGULATORS (SPI) (UART) (I2C)DIAGNOSTICS MUX ADuCM360
  • 19. ADuCM360 Product Description 21
  • 20. IDD:  Cortex™-M3/SRAM/FLASH = 290 µA/MHz  ADC – 70 µA per ADC  PGA G = 4/8/16 = 130 µA  PGA G = 32/64/128 = 180 µA  DAC = 50 µA  CPU = 500 kHz, both ADCs active, both PGAs =16, IDD = 1 mA (max) Analog Performance:  ADCs are 24-bit monotonic up to 500 SPS  ADC ENOB > 21 RMS bits, fADC = 4 Hz  ADC ENOB > 19 RMS bits, fADC = 50 Hz  Simultaneous 50 Hz/60 Hz rejection at fADC=50 SPS, 80 dB  Internal 1.2 V reference, Tempco = 4 ppm typ/15 ppm max  DAC 12-bit monotonic Other Details  Specified for 1.8 V to 3.6 V operation (3.96 V compatible I/O)  Packages: 7 mm × 7 mm, 48-LFCSP (complete system on a chip)  Specified for –40°C to 125°C operation ADuCM36x Key Performance Specs—Low Power High Performance Analog Front End 22
  • 21. Complete Closed-Loop Precision Analog Microcontroller Thermocouple Measurement System With 4 mA to 20 mA Output (CN0300) Description and Benefits:  4 mA to 20 mA loop is the standard interface for communicating measured values from sensors to a controller  The ADuCM360, along with the ADP1720 LDO, provides a complete solution for loop-powered transmitter applications  Improve the overall system reliability and efficiency Inputs:  4 mA to 20 mA loop  Thermocouple  RTD End Market Target Applications Key Parts Used • Industrial • Field instruments • ADuCM360 Available now 23
  • 22. 4-20mA Interface Industrial Field Instruments 24
  • 23. Field Instrument Example— 4 mA to20 mA Outputs 25 Σ−∆ ADC MUX DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE (MAIN VALUE MEASURED) STATIC PRESSURE (COMPENSATION) TEMPERATURE (COMPENSATION) Σ−∆ ADC MCU FLASH SRAM CALIBRATION LINEARIZATION COMPENSATION IN-AMP (PGA) ADC (24-BIT) IN-AMP (PGA) ADC (24-BIT) CLOCK DAC (16-BIT) 4mA to 20mA Driver DAC COMMUNICATION POWER MANAGEMENT VREF RS485 WATCHDOG HART MODEM 4-20 mA +HART PROCESSING 32-BIT RISC VOLTAGE REGULATORS (SPI) (UART) (I2C)DIAGNOSTICS MUX AD5421/20
  • 24. Loop-Powered System Architecture Modem ADC MCU 3.3V FET LOOP IN LOOP OUT 10 V to 45 V supply 4 mA to 20 mA DAC LDO R1 R2 Total Energy Available Under Worst Case 3.3 V at 4 mA Circuit regulates current as appropriate via sense resistor Current is modulated to deliver more or less current from FET as needed I The total system must run from <4 mA. This includes sensor/ADC/MCU/4 mA to 20 mA circuitry power. → Every parts needs to be as low power as possible.. 26
  • 25. AD5421—Integration, Accuracy, Performance, Safety 27
  • 26. AD5421 Enhanced Diagnostic Features AD5421 Fault Detect Features  SPI interface watchdog timer  SPI interface packet error check  Loop current out of range  Overtemperature  Power supply monitor 29
  • 27. HART Communication Industrial Field Instruments 30
  • 28. Field Instrument Example— 4 mA to 20 mA Outputs 31 Σ−∆ ADC MUX DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE (MAIN VALUE MEASURED) STATIC PRESSURE (COMPENSATION) TEMPERATURE (COMPENSATION) Σ−∆ ADC MCU FLASH SRAM CALIBRATION LINEARIZATION COMPENSATION IN-AMP (PGA) ADC (24-BIT) IN-AMP (PGA) ADC (24-BIT) CLOCK DAC (16-BIT) 4mA to 20mA Driver DAC COMMUNICATION POWER MANAGEMENT VREF LCD WATCHDOG HART MODEM 4-20 mA +HART PROCESSING 32-BIT RISC VOLTAGE REGULATORS (SPI) (UART) (I2C)DIAGNOSTICS MUX AD5700
  • 29. What Is HART—Highway Addressable Remote Transducer Global Communication Standard Enhances Measurement Capability Enables Diagnostics Control SystemField Instruments HART DIGITAL DATA HART- ENABLED INSTRUMENTS HART- ENABLED I/O MODULES ANALOG 4 mA TO 20 mA 32
  • 30. Why HART Industry Trends:  Need for more diagnostics  Need for asset management  Need for more communication Traditional Analog 4 mA to 20 mA Interface…  Single direction only  Single channel—single value only  Limited diagnostics—working/failing  Limiting the system evolution HART  “Digital” communication option  Analog 4 mA to 20 mA compatible  Widely accepted, often implemented by field instruments vendors  Recently, wider adoption by PLC/DCS vendors  One of the trends in the process control 33 SENSOR 24 V DC 2-wire connection 4–20 mA DC HART AC
  • 31. AD5700 Integrated HART FSK Modem Simplifying Applications, Saving PCB Space Integrated Receive Band-Pass Filter Integrated Low Power 0.5% Precision Oscillator High Output Drive Capability 34 Minimum External Components Required
  • 32. AD5700: Lowest Power, Smallest Package Outperforming Existing HART Modems on Specifications That Matter Industry-Leading Specifications  Lowest power consumption  178 µA demodulation and reference  Smallest package  24-lead, 4 mm × 4 mm LFCSP  Industry’s widest temperature range  –40°C to +125°C  Widest supply range  VDD of 1.71 V to 5.5 V 38% Reduction in Power 75% Footprint Savings 60% Reduction in External Components 35
  • 33. Field Instrument Demo 36 HART MODEM 50Ω DAC LOOP(–)CIN HART_OUT ADC_IN 3.3V COM 3.3V DEMO – AD5700D2Z AD5421ADuCM360 + – UART REGIN SPI COM AD5700 ADC V-REGULATOR VLOOP ADC 1 Temperature Sensor PT100 TEMP.SENSOR REF Vdd Vdd ADC 0 μC SRAM FLASH Clock Reset Watchdog Iexc COM Watchdog Timer 3.3VPressure Sensor Resistive Bridge 4-20 mA +HART REGOUT
  • 34. Loop-Powered System Architecture—Example  Total Energy Available Under Worst Case 3.3 V at 3.5 mA Modem MCU 10 V to 45 V Supply 4 mA to 20 mA DAC SENSOR Total Current ~2.722 mA Sensors Current Resistive Pressure Sensor/RTD Temp Sensor ~0.8 mA 3.3v ADC Cortex-M3 System on a Chip 2 x 24-Bit ADC Fully Running with Input Buffers 2 x Instrumentation Amplifier 2 (Gain = 16), Fully Running SPI, UART, Timers, Watchdog, Other Circuitry Voltage Reference, RTD Current Source Reference µC Core, FLASH, SRAM (Core Clock = 2 MHz) Clock Generator Total 1.72 mA Hart Modem Current 0.157 mA 37 FET R1 R2 3.3V LDO LOOP IN LOOP OUT 4 mA to 20 mA Output Stage Current 4 mA to 20 mA Output Circuitry, Including LDO ~0.225 mA
  • 35. HART Physical Layer Specification Noise During Silence—System Design Challenging 39
  • 36. Analog Rate of Change—Fastest Analog Signal Settling  Request for analog signaling step change  e.g., 4 mA to 20 mA  HW filter combined with SW algorithm  Change split into  20 steps in 1 ms distance  Simple integer calculation in each step  1× multiplication  1× bit manipulation  1× integer addition  Indexed table  Write_DAC (DAC_previous + (DAC_diff × StepTable[i]) >> 16);  Analog signal settled in ~25 ms 40 LIMIT LIMIT
  • 37. DEMO-AD5700-D2Z—Complete ADI Solution for Industrial HART Communication AD5700 HART Modem SPIADC UART AIN(+) AIN(–) 3.3V DAC LOOP(–)CIN V-REG HART OUT HART IN 3.3V COM 3.3V AD5421ADuCM360 uC CHART CSLEW + – UART REGIN 0-100% SPI REGOUT Analog Input Simulation CFILTER 41
  • 38. HART Stack ADI does not provide HART stack  Plan to publish simplified example code for the demo  ADuCM360 (configuration, PGA, 2× ADC, Vref, … )  AD5421 (SPI)  AD5700 (UART)  One HART command  But not HART stack… HCF does not provide HART stack on commercial basis Some 3rd parties may provide this service 42
  • 39. Communications Industrial Field Instruments 43
  • 40. Field Instrument Example— 4 mA to 20 mA Outputs 44 4-20 mA +HART Σ−∆ ADC MUX DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE (MAIN VALUE MEASURED) STATIC PRESSURE (COMPENSATION) TEMPERATURE (COMPENSATION) Σ−∆ ADC MCU FLASH SRAM CALIBRATION LINEARIZATION COMPENZATION IN-AMP (PGA) ADC (24-BIT) IN-AMP (PGA) ADC (24-BIT) CLOCK DAC (16-BIT) 4mA to 20mA DRIVER DAC COMMUNICATION POWER MANAGEMENT VREF RS485 WATCHDOG HART MODEM PROCESSING 32-bit RISC VOLTAGE REGULATORS (SPI) (UART) (I2C)DIAGNOSTICS MUX PROFIBUS CANBUS MODBUS
  • 41. iCoupler® and isoPower® Isolation Products ® 45
  • 42. Growth through Continuous Innovation and Industry Firsts 46 ® ADuM1100 First iCoupler Digital Isolator ADuM140x 4 Channels in 1 Package ADM248x RS-485 ADuM120x 2 Channels in Narrow SO-8 AD7400 Ʃ-Δ ADC ADuM125x I2C ADuM1220 ½ Bridge Gate Driver ADuM240x 5 kV RMS Isolation ADuM524x isoPower ADuM5230 ½ Bridge Driver with isoPower ADM3251E RS-232 ADuM7410 1 kV rms ADuM4160 USB ADM2582 RS-485 with isoPower ADM305x CumulativeChannelsofiCouplerIsolation[Millions] ADE7913 Isolated Metering AFE ADuM347x Switching Regulator
  • 43. CANOpen Node Customer Pain Complexity of Solution Size of Solution Cost of Solution Reliability of Solution (Optocoupler Wearout) Robustness 47
  • 44. ADM3053 Applications Diagram 48
  • 45. PLC/DCS Systems Programmable Logic Controllers 50
  • 46. Industrial Control System 51 Sensing Control Data/ Communication Control Process Visualization Field Control Room Field Instruments Actuators PLC Control
  • 47. Programmable Logic Controllers 52 Analog Outputs
  • 48. Trends to System Requirements…  Module Size Getting Smaller -> Business Card Sizes  Power Dissipated per module Reduces, Was 5-10W, now 3-5W, Future 2-3W  Channel Density Increasing -> 8/12/16 Channels  Increases Power Dissipation  Increased Speed (Settling) for Factory Automation  Down to 20uS for Analog Output Channels -> Still require Efficiency  Increased Safety Requirements for Process (SIL)  Increased Diagnostics/Robustness 53
  • 49.  FIRST Quad Universal Output Solution  FIRST Integrated Dynamic Power Control  Integrated Functions & Diagnostics  Fully Programmable Outputs Innovation Evolution for Industrial Outputs OP2177 OP2177 OP2177 OP2177 AD5664 Discrete Solution Quad DAC + Ext Gain Amps Vout Iout AD5750 Vout Iout AD5750 Vout Iout AD5750 Vout Iout AD5750 AD5664 Semi-Integrated Solution Quad DAC + 4 Ext Drivers Vout Iout AD5422 Vout Iout AD5422 Vout Iout AD5422 Vout Iout AD5422 Fully Integrated Single Channel Solution Analog Devices Confidential Information Vout Iout Vout Iout Vout Iout Vout Iout AD5755 Fully Integrated Quad Channel Solution  Significant reduction in board area  Minimal external components required  Manages and reduces power & heat efficiently  Decreases TTM and Cost of ownership 54
  • 50. Precision 16-Bit DAC AD5755 Block Diagram Dynamic Power Control Diagnostics I 30V 0-24mA 0 Ω load I 5V 24mA 0Ω load DC-DC Voltage and Power is Dynamically Adjusted Smart and High Efficiency Dynamic Power Control (DPC) 58
  • 51. Programmable Logic Controllers 60 Analog Inputs Trends in Analog Inputs  High Speed/Performance ADC Cores  Better Robustness:  Better Rejection of 50 Hz/60 Hz  Overvoltage Protection
  • 52. PLC/DCS Analog Inputs—Input Signals 10 V  0 V to 10 V  ±10 V 20 mA  Industrial standard  4 mA to 20 mA loop  0 mA to 20 mA loop RTD  Resistive temperature device  Pt100, Ni1000, Cu10, … Thermocouple  Two metals connected together  Low voltage (mV) ~ (T1-T2)  Second temperature sensor (CJC) 10 V DC 0 – 10V AIN SENSOR 24 V DC AIN ADC AIN A ADC ADC DIVIDER EXCITATION ~mA AIN A ADC T1 T2 Metal A Metal B Copper Copper Sens. (CJC) Rsens 61
  • 53. AD7176-2, 24-Bit, 250KSPS, 20us Settling ΣΔ ADC AIN 0 AIN 1 AIN 2 AIN 3 AIN 4 AVSS Crosspoint Multiplexer AVDD Σ-Δ ADC AVSS SERIAL INTERFACE & CONTROL CS SCLK DIN DOUT/RDY SYNC/ERROR I/O CONTROL GPIO 0 GPIO 1 AVDD1 AVDD2 1.8V LDO REGCAP A IOVDD 1.8V LDO REGCAP D DGND Buffered Precision Reference REF+REF- REFOUT XTAL1 CLKIO/XTAL2 XTAL & INTERNAL CLOCK OSCILLATOR CIRCUITRY AD7176-2 INT REF DIGITAL FILTER  Fast & Flexible Output Data Rates 5SPS to 250KSPS  17.2 Noise Free Bits at 250KSPS  Flexible Filter Options  Fastest 50/60Hz Rejection  Fast Settling – 50KSPS/Channel Scan Rate  INL 2.5ppm typical  Integrated 2.5V Reference (2ppm) and Oscillator  Per Channel Configuration & Calibration  Cross Point Mux with Automatic Sequencing Noise Free P-P bits Channel Switch Rate 17.2 50KSPS 18.5 31KSPS 20.2 2.5KSPS 22.1 5SPS
  • 54. Motor Control/Data Acquisition: Faster Speed/ Robotics, Set Point Control 64 ADC Rsens ~250 Ω 4mA to 20mA ANALOG INPUT FIELD INSTRUMENT (SENSOR) 2-WIRE CONNECTION DAC ANALOG OUTPUT 4mA to 20mAFIELD INSTRUMENT (ACTUATOR) 2-WIRE CONNECTION 1K IO MODULE FASTER SETTLING PRODUCTIVITY EFFICIENCY CONTROL
  • 55. Sinc5 + Sinc1 Filter Maximizing Channel Switch Rate  Multichannel applications  Max channel switch rate = 50 kSPS/channel  Single cycle settling at < 10 kSPS ODR -120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 -50 50 150 250 H(f)[dB] f[Hz] Output Data Rate (ODR) (SPS) tSETTLE Switching Rate (SPS) F Notch (Hz) Noise (µV RMS) Resolution (p-p) Noise-Free bits (5 V Vref) 250,000 20 µs 50,000 250,000 9.7 17.25 50,000 36 µs 27,778 50,000 5 18.2 25,000 56 µs 17,857 25,000 3.6 18.7 15,625 80 µs 12,500 15,625 2.7 19.1 10,000 100 µs 10,000 11,905 2.5 19.2 1,000 1.0 ms 1,000 1,016 0.82 20.8 100 10.0 ms 100.0 100.16 0.46 21.7 59.94 16.68 ms 59.94 60.00 0.43 21.7 49.96 20.016 ms 49.96 50.00 0.42 21.8 16.667 60.02 ms 16.66 16.67 0.42 21.8 5 200.02 ms 5.00 5.00 0.32 22.1 66
  • 56. Enhanced Filtering Simultaneous Rejection of 50 Hz and 60 Hz Multichannel 50 Hz/60 Hz Rejection Fastest 50 Hz/60 Hz Rejection on the Market Output Data Rate (SPS) tSETTLE (ms) Ch. Switch Rate =1/tSETTLE (Hz) Rej. Of 50 Hz and 60 Hz (±1 Hz) (dB) AD7176 Noise- Free Bits 27.27 36.67 27.27 47 23.3 25 40.0 25 62 23.3 20 50.0 20 85 23.5 16.667 60.0 16.667 90 23.5 Trading Faster Channel Switch Rates vs. Rejection 66
  • 57.  External Diode Protection  Advantage  Cheap solution  Disadvantage  Not suitable for some applications (i.e. precision)  Variable leakage current  Variable capacitance  Increase in nonlinearity  Need external circuitry  Differential Diode Protection  Advantage  Cheap solution  Constant leakage current and capacitance  Disadvantage  Need external circuitry  Does not work when powered off  Large Rlimit resistance will add noise to the system  ADI OVP Solution  Advantage  Integrated OVP solution  Provides most, if not all protection needed  Saves board area  Defined output behaviour during overvoltage  Disadvantage  Might need extra external protection for OVP beyond the protection limits Surveying Various Internal and External OVP Solutions  Internal ESD Protection  Advantage  Cheap solution  Disadvantage  Not robust enough 70 ADA4096
  • 58. ADA4096-x – 36V OPX96 Performance 36V, RRIO, Precision, µPower, RRIO Op Amp with OVP  Key Features  Internal input overvoltage protection (OVP)  Up to ±32 V beyond the rails  Characterized OVP parametric impact (compared to external OVP solutions)  Low power: 60 µA typical  Unity GBW:800 kHz at Vsy = ±15V typical 550 kHz at Vsy = ±5 V typical 475 kHz at Vsy = ±1.5 V typical  Low offset voltage: 35 µV typical  Applications  Process control (PLC/DSC)  Battery monitoring and current shunt sensing  Sensor conditioning  Portable instrumentation  Wireless base stations 71 Isy GBW Vos Vos Drift Noise IB Voltage Temp Range 75 µA max 800 kHz typ 300 µV max 1 µV/°C typ 27 nV/√Hz typ 25 nA max 3 V to 30 V ˗40°C to 125°C ADA4096-2 Dual Released ADA4096-4 Quad Production  Package: MSOP-8, LFCSP-8 (3 × 3)  List Price: $1.87 at 1k units  Package: TSSOP-14, LFCSP-14 (3 × 3)  List Price: $2.70 at 1k units ADI Advantages With 2× the BW, ½ Vos and 1/3 TcVos, ½ Vn of the closest competition, and 32 V Input OVP; the ADA4096 provides the industry’s highest level of overvoltage protection for robust operation in demanding I&I applications
  • 59. Conclusion What We Covered 79
  • 60. Tweet it out! @ADI_News #ADIDC13 What We Covered Introduction to Industrial Control Understand Field Instruments and PLC/DCS Market Trends and ADI Products to Support This 80
  • 61. Reference Circuits Some Relevant Circuit Notes for Process Control:  Transmitters  Complete 4 mA to 20 mA Loop Powered Field Instrument with HART Interface (CN0267)  Flexible, 4 mA-to-20 mA Pressure Sensor Transmitter with Voltage or Current Drive (CN0295)  Complete closed-loop precision analog microcontroller thermocouple measurement system with 4 mA to 20 mA output (CN0300)  4 mA-to-20 mA, Loop Powered Temperature Monitor Using the Integrated PWM on the ADuCM360 Precision Analog Microcontroller (CN0319)  4 mA to 20 mA loop-powered temperature monitor using the ADuC7060/ADuC7061 precision analog microcontroller (CN0145)  Complete thermocouple measurement system using the AD7793 24-bit Sigma-Delta ADC (CN0206)  EMC Compliant RS-485 transceiver protection circuits (CN0313)  MEMS-Based Vibration Analyzer with Frequency Response Compensation (CN0303) 81
  • 62. Reference Circuits Some Relevant Circuit Notes for Process Control:  PLC/DCS  Precision 24-bit, 250 kSPS single-supply Sigma-Delta ADC system for industrial signal levels, using the AD7176 (CN0310)  Fully Isolated, Single Channel Voltage and 4 mA to 20 mA Output with HART (CN0321)  PLC/DCS Universal Analog Input Using Either 4 or 6 Pin Terminal Block (CN0325)  5 V Regulator Supplies High Transient Current for Dynamic Power Controlled DAC (CN0198)  Software configurable, universal analog front end for industrial and sensor data acquisition (CN0209)  High accuracy multichannel thermocouple measurement solution (CN0172)  4 channels, flexible, configurable, voltage and current output circuit for I/O card and PLC applications (CN0229) 82

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