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Process Control (Design Conference 2013)
 

Process Control (Design Conference 2013)

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The industrial control market involves the monitoring and control aspects of both complex and simple processes. Common trends within the industry, notably the drive for increased efficiencies, better ...

The industrial control market involves the monitoring and control aspects of both complex and simple processes. Common trends within the industry, notably the drive for increased efficiencies, better robustness, higher channel densities, and faster monitoring and control speeds, subsequently drive new technology advancements for semiconductor manufacturers. This session aims to give a broad overview into the system requirements for both field instruments (sensors/actuators) and control room (analog input/output) modules, and demonstrates a typical I/O module configuration with HART (highway addressable remote transducer) connectivity.

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    Process Control (Design Conference 2013) Process Control (Design Conference 2013) Presentation Transcript

    • Process ControlReference Designs and System Applications
    • Legal Disclaimer Notice of proprietary information, Disclaimers and Exclusions Of WarrantiesThe ADI Presentation is the property of ADI. All copyright, trademark, and other intellectual property andproprietary rights in the ADI Presentation and in the software, text, graphics, design elements, audio and allother materials originated or used by ADI herein (the "ADI Information") are reserved to ADI and its licensors.The ADI Information may not be reproduced, published, adapted, modified, displayed, distributed or sold inany manner, in any form or media, without the prior written permission of ADI.THE ADI INFORMATION AND THE ADI PRESENTATION ARE PROVIDED "AS IS". WHILE ADI INTENDS THEADI INFORMATION AND THE ADI PRESENTATION TO BE ACCURATE, NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND AREMADE WITH RESPECT TO THE ADI PRESENTATION AND THE ADI INFORMATION, INCLUDING WITHOUTLIMITATION ANY WARRANTIES OF ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS. TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS ANDOTHER INACCURACIES OR MISTAKES ARE POSSIBLE. ADI DOES NOT WARRANT THAT THE ADIINFORMATION AND THE ADI PRESENTATION WILL MEET YOUR REQUIREMENTS, WILL BE ACCURATE, ORWILL BE UNINTERRUPTED OR ERROR FREE. ADI EXPRESSLY EXCLUDES AND DISCLAIMS ALL EXPRESSAND IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NON-INFRINGEMENT OF ANY THIRD PARTY INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS. ADI SHALL NOT BERESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DAMAGE OR LOSS OF ANY KIND ARISING OUT OF OR RELATED TO YOUR USEOF THE ADI INFORMATION AND THE ADI PRESENTATION, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION DATA LOSSOR CORRUPTION, COMPUTER VIRUSES, ERRORS, OMISSIONS, INTERRUPTIONS, DEFECTS OR OTHERFAILURES, REGARDLESS OF WHETHER SUCH LIABILITY IS BASED IN TORT, CONTRACT OR OTHERWISE.USE OF ANY THIRD-PARTY SOFTWARE REFERENCED WILL BE GOVERNED BY THE APPLICABLE LICENSEAGREEMENT, IF ANY, WITH SUCH THIRD PARTY.©2013 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved.2
    • Today’s AgendaField Instruments Introduction 2-wire/4-wire systems—loop-powered vs. non loop-powered CommunicationsPLC/DCS Systems Introduction Analog input module Analog output moduleDemo Update Circuits from the Lab® reference circuits3
    • Industrial Field Instruments4Introduction
    • Industrial Control System5SensingControl Data/CommunicationControlProcessVisualizationFieldControl RoomFieldInstrumentsActuators PLCControl
    • High Level System Level OverviewTypical Sensor Actuator Network Architecture Control network options: industrial Ethernet, field buses, RS-485, CAN, … Field network options: 4 mA to 20 mA, HART®, IO-link, AS-interface, CC-link/LT, CompoNet, RS-485, … Sensors and actuators available, which support field level and control levelconnectivity6
    • Industrial Field Instruments7Field Instrument
    • Field Instrument—SensorsTemperaturePressureFlowLevelPositionAngleAcidity (pH)Oxygen ContentGas DetectionCorrosion8
    • Two Categories of TransmittersLoop-Powered 2-wire connection supplying both power and communication Power is supplied over the current loop from the control room Entire transmitter must operate on <3.2 mA for a standard transmitter and<2.7 mA for a HART enabled transmitterNon Loop-Powered 4-wire connection, two for power and two for communication No power consumption limitations Used in situations where sufficient power cannot be derived from thecurrent loop9
    • 2-Wire Connection, 4 mA to 20 mA LoopCurrent Loop Carries Both: Information AND Power for InstrumentOnly Low Power Available Min voltage for instrument Usually specified as ≥12 V Min current ≤4 mA Total available power <50 mWLow Power Design10ADCRsens~250 Ω4–20mAANALOGINPUTCONTROLSYSTEMFIELDINSTRUMENT24V DC.POWER SUPPLY2-WIRE CONNECTION
    • Field Instrument Signal ChainLoop-Powered Pressure Transmitter11Σ−∆ADCMUXDIFFERENTIALPRESSURE (MAINVALUE MEASURED)STATIC PRESSURE(COMPENSATION)TEMPERATURE(COMPENSATION)Σ−∆ADCMCUFLASHSRAMCALIBRATIONLINEARIZATIONCOMPENSATIONIN-AMP(PGA)ADC(24-BIT)IN-AMP(PGA)ADC(24-BIT)CLOCKDAC(16-BIT)4mA to 20mADRIVERDACCOMMUNICATIONPOWER MANAGEMENTVREFLCDWATCHDOGHARTMODEM4-20 mA+HARTVOLTAGEREGULATORS(SPI)(UART)(I2C)DIAGNOSTICSPROCESSING32-BIT RISC
    • Loop-Powered System ArchitectureModemADC MCU3.3VFETLOOP INLOOP OUT10 V to 45 V supply4 mA to 20 mADACLDOR1 R2Total Energy Available Under Worst Case 3.3 V at 4 mACircuit regulates currentas appropriate via sense resistorCurrent is modulatedto deliver more or lesscurrent from FET asneededIThe total system must run from <4 mA.This includes sensor/ADC/MCU/4 mA to 20 mAcircuitry power.→ Every parts needs to be as low poweras possible..12
    • Key Trends to Field InstrumentsThe Housing is BecomingSmaller Need for smaller parts Need for more integration Need for higher temp ratedparts Need for more efficient parts More safety targeted parts—diagnosticsThere Is a Trend for MoreProcessing Requirements Lower power MCU cores Better processing capability13
    • Pressure Transmitter(Loop-Powered Instrument)Industrial Field Instruments14
    • Field Instrument Signal ChainLoop-Powered Pressure Transmitter15Σ−∆ADCMUXDIFFERENTIALPRESSURE(MAIN VALUE MEASURED)STATICPRESSURE(COMPENSATION)TEMPERATURE(COMPENSATION)Σ−∆ADCMCUFLASHSRAMCALIBRATIONLINEARIZATIONCOMPENSATIONIN-AMP(PGA)ADC(24-BIT)IN-AMP(PGA)ADC(24-BIT)CLOCKDAC(16-BIT)4 mA to 20 mADRIVERDACCOMMUNICATIONPOWER MANAGEMENTVREFLCDWATCHDOGHARTMODEM4-20 mA+HARTVOLTAGEREGULATORS(SPI)(UART)(I2C)DIAGNOSTICSPROCESSING32-BIT RISC
    • Field Instruments—Analog Front EndADI SUCCESS: AD779x Family16Σ−∆ADCMUXDifferential Pressure(Main Value Measured)Static Pressure(Compensation)Temperature(Compensation)Σ−∆ADCuCCALIBRATIONLINEARIZATIONCOMPENZATIONIn-AMP(PGA)ADC(24-bit)DIAGNOSTICSIn-AMP(PGA)ADC(24-bit)uCCOMMUNICATIONHARTMODEMDAC(16-bit)4-20mADriverDACLINEARREGULATORIntrinsic SafetyLINEARREGULATORS12V..50V4-20mAPOWERMANAGEMENTVREFuCDISPLAYLCDSWITCH MODEREGULATOR>90% efficiencyWATCHDOGSADI’s Success:Low Power Sigma-Delta CoresFully Integrated System on a Chip
    • Application—Thermocouple Sensor Application Features Cold-Junction Compensation Thermocouple voltage is proportional tothe temperature difference Second sensor needed to measuretemperature of the “cold junction” Low Voltage Signal −20 mV to +80 mV FS 10 µV/°C to 50 µV/°C Long Connections 50 Hz/60 Hz interference Front-End Solution with 16- to 24-BitΣ-Δ ADC AD7792/AD7793—low power, in-amp, voltagereference, excitation currents, 50 Hz/60 Hz rejection AD7708/AD7718—up to 10 AIN channels, gain, 50 Hz/60 Hz rejection AD7719—2 × ADC, gain, excitation currents,50 Hz/60 Hz rejection19VOLTAGEREF.ADCFRONT - ENDSERIALINTERFACECALIBRATIONSDIAGNOSTICSDIGITALFILTERBIASVOLTAGEAIN1AIN2IEXCMUXCLOCKREFINRREFRTMETAL 1METAL 2THERMOCOUPLETERMINALBLOCK“COLDJUNCTION”ThermocoupleV ~ (T1-T2)ProgrammableGain Amplifier> 16-bitResolutionVoltage Reference forThermocouple VoltageSerialInterface50 /60HzRejectionThermistoror RTDor Diodeto measure T2ExcitationCurrentAIN2 and REFINto measure RT / RREFBiasVoltage
    • Precision Analog MicrocontrollerIndustrial Field Instruments20
    • Field Instrument—ExamplePrecision Microconverter21Σ−∆ADCMUXDIFFERENTIALPRESSURE(MAIN VALUEMEASURED)STATICPRESSURE(COMPENSATION)TEMPERATURE(COMPENSATION)Σ−∆ADCMCUFLASHSRAMCALIBRATIONLINEARIZATIONCOMPENSATIONIn-AMP(PGA)ADC(24-BIT)IN-AMP(PGA)ADC(24-BIT)CLOCKDAC(16-BIT)4mA to 20mADriverDACCOMMUNICATIONPOWER MANAGEMENTVREFLCDWATCHDOGHARTMODEM4-20 mA+HARTPROCESSING32-BIT RISCVOLTAGEREGULATORS(SPI)(UART)(I2C)DIAGNOSTICSMUXADuCM360
    • ADuCM360 Product Description22
    • IDD: Cortex™-M3/SRAM/FLASH = 290 µA/MHz ADC – 70 µA per ADC PGA G = 4/8/16 = 130 µA PGA G = 32/64/128 = 180 µA DAC = 50 µA CPU = 500 kHz, both ADCs active, both PGAs =16, IDD = 1 mA (max)Analog Performance: ADCs are 24-bit monotonic up to 500 SPS ADC ENOB > 21 RMS bits, fADC = 4 Hz ADC ENOB > 19 RMS bits, fADC = 50 Hz Simultaneous 50 Hz/60 Hz rejection at fADC=50 SPS, 80 dB Internal 1.2 V reference, Tempco = 4 ppm typ/15 ppm max DAC 12-bit monotonicOther Details Specified for 1.8 V to 3.6 V operation (3.96 V compatible I/O) Packages: 7 mm × 7 mm, 48-LFCSP (complete system on a chip)ADuCM36x Key Performance Specs—Low PowerHigh Performance Analog Front End23
    • Complete Closed-Loop Precision AnalogMicrocontroller Thermocouple MeasurementSystem With 4 mA to 20 mA Output (CN0300)Description and Benefits: 4 mA to 20 mA loop is the standardinterface for communicatingmeasured values from sensors to acontroller The ADuCM360, along with theADP1720 LDO, provides a completesolution for loop-powered transmitterapplications Improve the overall system reliabilityand efficiencyInputs: 4 mA to 20 mA loop Thermocouple RTDEnd MarketTargetApplicationsKey PartsUsed• Industrial• Fieldinstruments• ADuCM360 Available now24
    • 4-20mA InterfaceIndustrial Field Instruments25
    • Field Instrument Example—4 mA to20 mA Outputs26Σ−∆ADCMUXDIFFERENTIALPRESSURE(MAIN VALUEMEASURED)STATICPRESSURE(COMPENSATION)TEMPERATURE(COMPENSATION)Σ−∆ADCMCUFLASHSRAMCALIBRATIONLINEARIZATIONCOMPENSATIONIN-AMP(PGA)ADC(24-BIT)IN-AMP(PGA)ADC(24-BIT)CLOCKDAC(16-BIT)4mA to 20mADriverDACCOMMUNICATIONPOWER MANAGEMENTVREFRS485WATCHDOGHARTMODEM4-20 mA+HARTPROCESSING32-BIT RISCVOLTAGEREGULATORS(SPI)(UART)(I2C)DIAGNOSTICSMUXAD5421/22
    • AD5421—Integration, Accuracy, Performance,Safety27
    • AD5421 Enhanced Diagnostic FeaturesAD5421 Fault Detect Features SPI interface watchdog timer SPI interface packet error check Loop current out of range Overtemperature Power supply monitor29
    • HART CommunicationIndustrial Field Instruments30
    • Field Instrument Example—4 mA to 20 mA Outputs31Σ−∆ADCMUXDIFFERENTIALPRESSURE(MAIN VALUEMEASURED)STATICPRESSURE(COMPENSATION)TEMPERATURE(COMPENSATION)Σ−∆ADCMCUFLASHSRAMCALIBRATIONLINEARIZATIONCOMPENSATIONIN-AMP(PGA)ADC(24-BIT)IN-AMP(PGA)ADC(24-BIT)CLOCKDAC(16-BIT)4mA to 20mADriverDACCOMMUNICATIONPOWER MANAGEMENTVREFLCDWATCHDOGHARTMODEM4-20 mA+HARTPROCESSING32-BIT RISCVOLTAGEREGULATORS(SPI)(UART)(I2C)DIAGNOSTICSMUXAD5700
    • What Is HART—Highway Addressable RemoteTransducerGlobalCommunicationStandardEnhancesMeasurementCapabilityEnablesDiagnosticsControl SystemField InstrumentsHART DIGITAL DATAHART-ENABLEDINSTRUMENTSHART-ENABLEDI/OMODULESANALOG 4 mA TO 20 mA32
    • Why HARTIndustry Trends: Need for more diagnostics Need for asset management Need for more communicationTraditional Analog 4 mA to 20 mAInterface… Single direction only Single channel—single value only Limited diagnostics—working/failing Limiting the system evolutionHART “Digital” communication option Analog 4 mA to 20 mA compatible Widely accepted, often implemented byfield instruments vendors Recently, wider adoption by PLC/DCSvendors One of the trends in the process control33SENSOR24 V DC2-wire connection4–20 mA DCHART AC
    • AD5700 Integrated HART FSK ModemSimplifying Applications, Saving PCB SpaceIntegrated ReceiveBand-Pass FilterIntegrated Low Power0.5% Precision OscillatorHigh OutputDrive Capability34Minimum External Components Required
    • AD5700: Lowest Power, Smallest PackageOutperforming Existing HART Modems onSpecifications That MatterIndustry-LeadingSpecifications Lowest powerconsumption 178 µA demodulationand reference Smallest package 24-lead, 4 mm × 4 mmLFCSP Industry’s widesttemperature range –40°C to +125°C Widest supply range VDD of 1.71 V to 5.5 V38%Reductionin Power75%FootprintSavings60%Reduction inExternalComponents35
    • Loop-Powered System Architecture—Example Total Energy Available Under Worst Case 3.3 V at 3.5 mAModemMCU10 V to 45 V Supply4 mA to 20 mADACSENSORTotal Current ~2.722 mASensors CurrentResistive PressureSensor/RTD TempSensor ~0.8 mA3.3vADCCortex-M3 System on a Chip2 x 24-Bit ADC Fully Running with Input Buffers2 x Instrumentation Amplifier 2 (Gain = 16), FullyRunningSPI, UART, Timers, Watchdog, Other CircuitryVoltage Reference, RTD Current Source ReferenceµC Core, FLASH, SRAM (Core Clock = 2 MHz)Clock GeneratorTotal 1.72 mAHart ModemCurrent0.157 mA36FETR1 R23.3VLDOLOOP INLOOP OUT4 mA to 20 mA OutputStage Current4 mA to 20 mA OutputCircuitry, IncludingLDO ~0.225 mA
    • Field Instrument Demo37HART MODEM50ΩDACLOOP(–)CINHART_OUTADC_IN3.3VCOM3.3VDEMO – AD5700D2ZAD5421ADuCM360+–UART REGINSPICOMAD5700ADCV-REGULATORVLOOPADC 1TemperatureSensorPT100TEMP.SENSORREFVddVddADC 0 μCSRAMFLASHClockResetWatchdogIexcCOMWatchdogTimer3.3VPressureSensorResistiveBridge4-20 mA+HARTREGOUT
    • HART Physical Layer Specification NoiseDuring Silence—System Design Challenging39
    • Analog Rate of Change—Fastest AnalogSignal Settling Request for analog signaling stepchange e.g., 4 mA to 20 mA HW filter combined with SWalgorithm Change split into 20 steps in 1 ms distance Simple integer calculation in eachstep 1× multiplication 1× bit manipulation 1× integer addition Indexed table Write_DAC (DAC_previous + (DAC_diff ×StepTable[i]) >> 16); Analog signal settled in ~25 ms40LIMITLIMIT
    • DEMO-AD5700-D2Z—Complete ADI Solution forIndustrial HART CommunicationAD5700HARTModemSPIADCUARTAIN(+)AIN(–)3.3VDACLOOP(–)CINV-REGHART OUTHART IN3.3VCOM3.3VAD5421ADuCM360uCCHARTCSLEW+–UARTREGIN0-100%SPIREGOUTAnalogInputSimulationCFILTER41
    • HART StackADI does not provide HART stack Plan to publish simplified example code for the demo ADuCM360 (configuration, PGA, 2× ADC, Vref, … ) AD5421 (SPI) AD5700 (UART) One HART command But not HART stack…HCF does not provide HART stack on commercial basisSome 3rd parties may provide this service42
    • CommunicationsIndustrial Field Instruments43
    • Field Instrument Example—4 mA to 20 mA Outputs444-20 mA+HARTΣ−∆ADCMUXDIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE(MAIN VALUE MEASURED)STATIC PRESSURE(COMPENSATION)TEMPERATURE(COMPENSATION)Σ−∆ADCMCUFLASHSRAMCALIBRATIONLINEARIZATIONCOMPENZATIONIN-AMP(PGA)ADC(24-BIT)IN-AMP(PGA)ADC(24-BIT)CLOCKDAC(16-BIT)4mA to 20mADRIVERDACCOMMUNICATIONPOWER MANAGEMENTVREFRS485WATCHDOGHARTMODEMPROCESSING32-bit RISCVOLTAGEREGULATORS(SPI)(UART)(I2C)DIAGNOSTICSMUXPROFIBUSCANBUSMODBUS
    • iCoupler® and isoPower®Isolation Products®45
    • Growth through Continuous Innovation andIndustry Firsts46®ADuM1100FirstiCouplerDigitalIsolatorADuM140x4 Channels in1 PackageADM248xRS-485ADuM120x2 Channelsin NarrowSO-8AD7400Ʃ-Δ ADCADuM125xI2CADuM1220½ BridgeGate DriverADuM240x5 kV RMSIsolationADuM524xisoPowerADuM5230½ BridgeDriver withisoPowerADM3251ERS-232ADuM74101 kV rmsADuM4160USBADM2582RS-485 withisoPowerADM305xCumulativeChannelsofiCouplerIsolation[Millions]ADE7913IsolatedMetering AFEADuM347xSwitchingRegulator
    • CANOpen NodeCustomer PainComplexity of SolutionSize of SolutionCost of SolutionReliability of Solution(Optocoupler Wearout)Robustness47
    • ADM3053 Applications Diagram48
    • PLC/DCS SystemsProgrammable Logic Controllers50
    • Industrial Control System51SensingControl Data/CommunicationControlProcessVisualizationFieldControl RoomFieldInstrumentsActuators PLCControl
    • Market Trends—Smaller/FasterModules/Increased Channel DensityIntelligent IntegrationSmaller form factorMore channels in same areaIntelligent Power MgmtSmaller housing = heatIntegrated power control52Channel 4Channel 3Channel 2Channel 1Channel 1Analog O/P Analog I/PChannel 1Channel 2Channel 3Channel 4Analog I/PAnalog O/PChannel 1Channel 2Channel 3Channel 4Channel 2Channel 3Channel 4Self-Heating IssueLower Power Designs
    • Programmable Logic Controllers53Analog OutputsIntegrationPower EfficiencyPerformance
    • Trends to System Requirements…Module Size Getting Smaller → Business Card Sizes Power dissipated per module reduced: was 5 W to 10 W, now 3 W to 5 W,future 2 W to 3 WChannel Density Increasing → 8/12/16 Channels Increases power dissipationIncreased Speed (Settling) for Factory Automation Down to 20 µS for analog output channels → still require efficiencyIncreased Safety Requirements for Process (SIL) Increased diagnostics/robustness50
    • Innovation Evolution for Industrial Outputs55 First Quad Universal Output Solution First Integrated Dynamic Power Control Integrated Functions and Diagnostics Fully Programmable OutputsOP2177OP2177OP2177OP2177AD5664Discrete SolutionQuad DAC + Ext Gain AmpsVoutIoutAD5750VoutIoutAD5750VoutIoutAD5750VoutIoutAD5750AD5664Semi-Integrated SolutionQuad DAC + 4 Ext DriversVoutIoutAD5422VoutIoutAD5422VoutIoutAD5422VoutIoutAD5422Fully IntegratedSingle-Channel SolutionVoutIoutVoutIoutVoutIoutVoutIoutAD5755Fully IntegratedQuad Channel Solution NEW Significant reduction in board area Minimal External Components Required Manages and Reduces Power and HeatEfficiently Decreases TTM and Cost of Ownership
    • Universal Output Module with EmbeddedDynamic Power Control Technology4 Channels Enabled Driving 20 mA into Zero Ohm Load: Case 1: without dc-to-dc control enabled (pink) Case 2: with dc-to-dc control enabled (blue)On-Chip Die Temperature Low When DC-to-DC Regulation Enabled56AD5755Change in Temperature calculations-500501001502002500 5 10 15 20 25 30Time (s)delatT(°C)DC/DC 0 Ohm VBOOST 30V 200OhmsIn Production
    • System Outputs—Most Common ArchitectureMainMicroBUSSystem Power -24 V NomDACSignalIsolationDC-DC IsolatedPower Stage28V3.3VADP2441-28V5VADUM2485WatchdogSupervisorDACDACDAC....20ma @ 1KAnalog Outputs:Driving 20 ma into 1 K load needs 20 V compliance.Adding headroom supply for DAC; Supply ~ 24 V.Including output regulation of the power stage agood estimate is 28 V.A short is a valid condition. This is mainly becauseADC modules can be terminated with resistor valuesas low as 20 Ω for sensing.Therefore, an 8-channel module can dissipate up to4 W from the analog portion alone.Include power losses from the dc-to-dc stage (say80%) power loss can reach >6 W for the analogportion alone.58
    • Precision 16-Bit DACAD5755 Block Diagram Dynamic Power ControlDiagnosticsI30V0-24mA0 Ω loadI5V24mA0Ω loadDC-DCVoltage andPower isDynamicallyAdjustedSmart and High EfficiencyDynamic Power Control(DPC)59
    • Dynamic Power ControlDACMainMicroBUSSystem Power -24 V NomLSignalIsolationDC-DC IsolatedPower Stage15V3.3VADP2441-15V5VADUM2485WatchdogSupervisor20mA at0ΩDC-DCC LDACL20mA at0ΩDC-DCC LAD5755QUAD DACThe addition of a per dc-to-dc to implementdynamic power control allows for individualpower losses per channel to be minimized.Under a short condition for eight channels, thedc-to-dc regulates the output to 7.5 V, therebylimiting both on-chip power dissipation andmodule power dissipation.Assuming a dc-to-dc isolated stage of 80%, thetotal power dissipated using the dynamic powercontrol for the 8-channel module is 3 W.60
    • AD5755/AD5757 Output Ripple Waveform ofoutput ripple Yellow = IOUT Blue = VBOOST(at 20 mA dc, 1 kΩload)Per Channel DC-to-DC Circuitry Circuitry at IOUT Example ofsettling “shape”(0 mA to 20 mA, 1 kΩload) With 0 nF capacitor at IOUT 7.6 mVp-p output ripple at 20 mA dc ≈ 580 µs settling time With 1 nF capacitor at IOUT 4.24 mV p-p output ripple at 20 mA dc ≈ 580 µs settling time With 10 nF capacitor at IOUT 1.68 mVp-p output ripple at 20 mA dc ≈ 660 µs settling time61
    • Programmable Logic Controllers62Analog InputsTrends in Analog Inputs Better Robustness: Overvoltage Protection Better Rejection of 50 Hz/60 Hz High Speed/Performance ADC Cores
    • PLC/DCS Analog Inputs—Input Signals10 V 0 V to 10 V ±10 V20 mA Industrial standard 4 mA to 20 mA loop 0 mA to 20 mA loopRTD Resistive temperature device Pt100, Ni1000, Cu10, …Thermocouple Two metals connected together Low voltage (mV) ~ (T1-T2) Second temperature sensor (CJC)10 V DC0 – 10VAINSENSOR24 V DC AINADCAINAADCADCDIVIDEREXCITATION ~mAAINA ADCT1 T2Metal AMetal BCopperCopperSens.(CJC)Rsens63
    • ADA4096-x – 36V OPX96 Performance 36V, RRIO,Precision, µPower, RRIO Op Amp with OVP Key Features Internal input overvoltage protection (OVP) Up to ±32 V beyond the rails Characterized OVP parametric impact(compared to external OVP solutions) Low power: 60 µA typical Unity GBW:800 kHz at Vsy = ±15V typical550 kHz at Vsy = ±5 V typical475 kHz at Vsy = ±1.5 V typical Low offset voltage: 35 µV typical Applications Process control (PLC/DSC) Battery monitoring and current shunt sensing Sensor conditioning Portable instrumentation Wireless base stations64Isy GBW Vos Vos Drift Noise IB Voltage Temp Range75 µA max 800 kHz typ 300 µV max 1 µV/°C typ 27 nV/√Hz typ 25 nA max 3 V to 30 V ˗40°C to 125°CADA4096-2 Dual Released ADA4096-4 Quad Production Package: MSOP-8, LFCSP-8 (3 × 3) List Price: $1.87 at 1k units Package: TSSOP-14, LFCSP-14 (3 × 3) List Price: $2.70 at 1k unitsADI AdvantagesWith 2× the BW, ½ Vos and 1/3 TcVos, ½ Vn ofthe closest competition, and 32 V Input OVP; theADA4096 provides the industry’s highest level ofovervoltage protection for robust operation indemanding I&I applications
    •  External Diode Protection Advantage Cheap solution Disadvantage Not suitable for someapplications(i.e. precision) Variable leakage current Variable capacitance Increase in nonlinearity Need external circuitry Differential Diode Protection Advantage Cheap solution Constant leakagecurrent andcapacitance Disadvantage Need external circuitry Does not work when powered off Large Rlimit resistance will add noise to thesystem ADI OVP Solution Advantage Integrated OVP solution Provides most, if not allprotection needed Saves board area Prevents phase inversion beyond IVR Disadvantage Might need extra external protection forOVP beyond the protection limitsSurveying Various Internal and External OVPSolutions Internal ESD Protection Advantage Cheap solution Disadvantage Not robust enough65ADA4096
    • ADI’s OVP Op AmpsOvervoltage protection op amps: The most robust solution available Effects are included in data sheet specifications No phase inversion to the protection limits(beyond the IVR) No external circuitry required Protects indefinitely and with power on or offIt is able to protect op amps and entire circuitry from: Input voltages above supply rails Manufacturing shorts Human error Transducers which produce voltages higher than supply railsOVP is able to protect circuits from various unexpected errors,which in turns saves $$66ADA4091 ADA4096
    • Analog to Digital ConverterProgrammable Logic Controllers67
    • AD7176Flexible Filter OptionsSinc3Sinc5+Sinc1EnhancedFiltersAD7176  Maximize 50 Hz/60 Hz rejection Reduced settling time Improved channel switch rates 50 Hz and 60 Hz combined Standard SD ADC filter Best noise performance and resolution Best choice for single channel high resolution Performs best at lower speeds New filter design Fast channel switching with quickest settling Best performance at higher speeds68
    • Improved Interface RobustnessCS rising edge resets the serial interface into a known state No reset required if interface synchronization is lostWriting to AD7176 Reading from AD7176CRC checksum prevents data corruption on digital interface Work on both reads and writesInternal register checksum Validation of ADC configuration69
    • Enhanced Filtering Simultaneous Rejectionof 50 Hz and 60 HzMultichannel 50 Hz/60 Hz RejectionFastest 50 Hz/60 Hz Rejection on the MarketOutputDataRate (SPS)tSETTLE(ms)Ch. Switch Rate=1/tSETTLE (Hz)Rej. Of50 Hz and60 Hz(±1 Hz) (dB)AD7176 Noise-Free Bits27.27 36.67 27.27 47 23.325 40.0 25 62 23.320 50.0 20 85 23.516.667 60.0 16.667 90 23.5Trading Faster Channel Switch Rates vs. Rejection70
    • Motor Control/Data Acquisition: Faster Speed/Robotics, Set Point Control71ADCRsens~250 Ω4mA to 20mAANALOGINPUTFIELDINSTRUMENT(SENSOR)2-WIRE CONNECTIONDACANALOGOUTPUT4mA to 20mAFIELDINSTRUMENT(ACTUATOR)2-WIRE CONNECTION1KIO MODULEFASTER SETTLINGPRODUCTIVITYEFFICIENCYCONTROL
    • Sinc5 + Sinc1 FilterMaximizing Channel Switch Rate Multichannel applications Max channel switch rate = 50 kSPS/channel Single cycle settling at < 10 kSPS ODROutput DataRate (ODR) (SPS)tSETTLESwitching Rate(SPS)F Notch(Hz)Noise (µV RMS)Resolution (p-p)Noise-Free bits(5 V Vref)250,000 20 µs 50,000 250,000 9.7 17.2550,000 36 µs 27,778 50,000 5 18.225,000 56 µs 17,857 25,000 3.6 18.715,625 80 µs 12,500 15,625 2.7 19.110,000 100 µs 10,000 11,905 2.5 19.21,000 1.0 ms 1,000 1,016 0.82 20.8100 10.0 ms 100.0 100.16 0.46 21.759.94 16.68 ms 59.94 60.00 0.43 21.749.96 20.016 ms 49.96 50.00 0.42 21.816.667 60.02 ms 16.66 16.67 0.42 21.85 200.02 ms 5.00 5.00 0.32 22.166
    • AD7176-2, 24-Bit, 250 kSPS, 20 µs Settling Σ-Δ ADC Fast and Flexible Output DataRates 5 SPS to 250 kSPS 17.2 noise-free bits at 250 kSPS Flexible filter options Fastest 50 Hz/60 Hz rejection Fast settling—50 kSPS/channel scan rate INL 2.5 ppm typical Integrated 2.5 V reference (2 ppm) andoscillator Per channel configuration and calibration Cross point mux with automatic sequencingAIN 0AIN 1AIN 2AIN 3AIN 4AVSSCrosspointMultiplexerAVDDΣ-Δ ADCAVSSSERIALINTERFACE& CONTROLCSSCLKDINDOUT/RDYSYNC/ERRORI/OCONTROLGPIO 0 GPIO 1AVDD1 AVDD21.8VLDOREGCAP A IOVDD1.8VLDOREGCAP DDGNDBufferedPrecisionReferenceREF+REF- REFOUTXTAL1 CLKIO/XTAL2XTAL & INTERNALCLOCK OSCILLATORCIRCUITRYAD7176-2INTREFDIGITALFILTERNoise-FreeP-P BitsChannelSwitch Rate17.2 50 kSPS18.5 31 kSPS20.2 2.5 kSPS23.5 20 SPS73
    • Process Control DemoDemo Station74
    • Demonstration Overview75
    • Loop-Powered, 4 mA to 20 mA + HART Interfacewith AD5421 + AD5700 (CN0267)Description and Benefits: 4 mA to 20 mA loop is the standardinterface for communicatingmeasured values from sensors to acontroller HART (Highway AddressableRemote Transducer) protocol is theglobal standard for sending andreceiving digital information acrossanalog wires The HART communication enablesbetter diagnostic capabilities andasset management Improve the overall system reliabilityand efficiencyInputs: 4 mA to 20 mA loop Standard resistive pressure sensorEndMarketTargetApplicationsKey PartsUsed• Industrial• Fieldinstruments• Smarttransmitter• AD5700• AD5421• ADUCM360Availablenow76This demo board is available for purchase:www.analog.com/DC13-hardware
    • DEMO-AD5700-D2Z—Complete ADI Solutionfor Industrial HART Communication(Transmitter Side)AD5700HARTModemSPIADCUARTAIN(+)AIN(–)3.3V50ΩDACLOOP(–)CINV-REGHART OUTHART IN3.3VCOM3.3VAD5421ADuCuCCHARTCSLEW+–UARTREGIN0-100%SPIREGOUTAnalogInputSimulationCFILTER77
    • Isolated, Single Channel Universal Analog Input(Voltage, Current, Thermocouple, RTD) withOvervoltage Protection (CN0325)Description and Benefits: Single channel analog front endfor process control systems Overvoltage protection Universal analog input Channel-to-Channel isolationInputs: Voltage Current Temperature (thermocouple + RTD)End Market TargetApplicationsKey PartsUsed• Industrial • PLC/DCS • AD7795• ADuM3471• ADT7310Available now78This demo board is available for purchase:www.analog.com/DC13-hardware
    • Isolated (ADUM347x), Single Channel, Voltageand Current Output (AD5422) with HART(AD5700) Suitable for Channel-to-ChannelIsolated Systems (CN0321)Description and Benefits: Single channel analog output forprocess control systems HART enabled Current and voltage output ranges Channel-to-Channel isolationInputs: Digital inputsEnd MarketTargetApplicationsKey PartsUsed• Industrial • PLC/DCS• ADUM3471• AD5422• AD5700Available now79This demo board is available for purchase:www.analog.com/DC13-hardware
    • Tweet it out! @ADI_News #ADIDC13What We CoveredIntroduction to Industrial ControlUnderstand Field Instruments and PLC/DCSMarket Trends and ADI Products to Support ThisDemo of ADI Process Control Boards80
    • Reference CircuitsSome Other Relevant Circuit Notes for Process Control: Transmitters Complete closed-loop precision analog microcontroller thermocouplemeasurement system with 4 mA to 20 mA output (CN0300) 4 mA to 20 mA loop-powered temperature monitor using theADuC7060/ADuC7061 precision analog microcontroller (CN0145) Complete thermocouple measurement system using the AD7793 24-bitSigma-Delta ADC (CN0206) EMC Compliant RS-485 transceiver protection circuits (CN0313) PLC/DCS Precision 24-bit, 250 kSPS single-supply Sigma-Delta ADC system forindustrial signal levels, using the AD7176 (CN0310) Software configurable, universal analog front end for industrial and sensordata acquisition (CN0209) High accuracy multichannel thermocouple measurement solution (CN0172) 4 channels, flexible, configurable, voltage and current output circuit for I/Ocard and PLC applications (CN0229)81