Gerunds and InfinitivesGerunds and infinitives are forms of verbs that act like nouns.They can follow adjectives and other verbs. Gerunds can alsofollow prepositions..A gerund (often known as an -ing word) is a noun formed from averb by adding -ing. See also Nouns/Gerund. Not all wordsformed with -ing are gerunds.An infinitive is to + the verb.When a verb follows a verb it either takes the gerund or infinitiveform.Some verbs can take either the gerund or the infinitive with noloss of meaning.
Using GERUNDSA gerund is an -ing form of a verb that is used as a nounrather than as a verb. Because it is used as a noun, it canappear in any sentence position that any noun can occupy. GERUND = swimming SENTENCE POSITION Swimming is good SUBJECT of the sentence exercise. She likes swimming every DIRECT OBJECT of the day. VERB like She is crazy about OBJECT of the swimming in the ocean. PREPOSITION about
Many common verbs are followed by gerunds. Theseverbs may be one-word verbs or two-word verbs.Examples: GERUND = swimming VERB TYPE She investigated swimming One-word investigated with the team. She looked into swimming Two-word looked into with the team.
Many common adjectives (and prepositions) are followedby gerunds. Make note of the preposition that follows eachadjective.Examples: GERUND = joining PREPOSITION She is interested in in joining the team. She is excited about about joining with the team.
In the negative form, the word not comesbefore the gerund.Examples: GERUND = cycling VERB TYPE She considered cycling up the affirmative mountain. She considered not cycling up the negative mountain.
Using INFINITIVESAn infinitive is the word to and theSIMPLE/BASE/DICTIONARY form of a verb.Examples: INFINITIVE = to swim It is good to swim every day. She likes to swim in the morning.
Infinitive Use Certain words are followed by an infinite verb with or without ‘to’.Use and Word Lists Exampleas the subject of a clause To know you is to love you.after certain expressions (without ‘to’) Why not go to the cinema?after certain verbs (without ‘to’) I can swim.after certain verbs (with ‘to’) He wants to swim.after certain verbs with interrogatives They don’t know how to swim.(infinitive constructions)after certain verbs with objects He made her swim.(without ‘to’)after certain verbs with objects (with They wanted him to swim.‘to’)after certain adjectives and their It’s easier to swim downstream.comparisonsafter nouns deriving from the verbs We made a promise to swim.mentioned above (derived from the verb ‘to promise’)