History Ones upon a time there was the static Map:
Static maps were: Created by experts Users and creators were not coinciding Created by using expensive or time consuming methodologies They were a mere representation of the physical space
the last quarter of the 20th century: computer based maps From the last quarter of the 20th century, the indispensable tool of the cartographer has been the computer. Much of cartography, especially at the data-gathering survey level, has been subsumed by Geographic Information Systems (GIS).
GIS Maps: Allow for the superimposition of spatially located variables onto existing geographical maps. Needs a variety of computer graphics programs to generate new maps (expertise) Interactive, computerised maps are commercially available, allowing users to zoom in or zoom out (respectively meaning to increase or decrease the scale), sometimes by replacing one map with another of different scale, centered where possible on the same point.
From GIS to Neogeography: 2003-2005 The three core drivers of this change are the increasingly available and accessible of: (1) open-source, dynamic mapping tools; (2) mobile data collection technologies; (3) the development of new methodologies.
Neogeography: 2005 In 2005 Google rolled out Google Earth. The application marks an important milestone in Neogeography because the free, user-friendly platform drastically reduced the cost of dynamic and interactive mapping—cost in terms of both availability and accessibility.
From GIS to Neogeography: 2003-2005 “Neogeography,” is essentially about “people using and creating their own maps, on their own terms and by combining elements of an existing toolset.” The revolution in applications for user-generated content and mobile technology provides the basis for widely distributed information collection and crowdsourcing. Don’t require expensive software or training Are created by the users Allow for more data sharing than proprietary data Allow for more real time data Allow to analyze sub-national and inter-annual variations for patterns
The development of Crisis Mapping: 2007-2008 Automated Crisis Mapping (ACM), real-time and automated information collection mechanisms using natural language processing (NLP) that allow for the automated and dynamic mapping of disaster and health-related events.
Mobile crowdsourcing platforms designed for the dynamic mapping of conflict and human rights data
Participatory GIS preceded by the recognition that social maps and conflict maps can empower local communities and be used for conflict resolution.
Use of social media and up-to-date satellite imagery as a source of information
The rise of online volunteers engaged in crisis mapping The Standby Task Force
Combination crowdsourcing with crowdfeeding to create a crowdsourcing “market place” that matches needs with resources.
Ability to process large volumes of geo-data in real time: automated data-mining, entity-extraction, geo-location, categorization and language translation combined with human-driven curation tools and the application of “Mechanical Turk” services.
The growing availability of mobile phones and smart phones, driven by the increase use of social media
USING SMS TO DO CROWDSOURCING AND CROWDFEEDING FrontlineSMS is a free, open source software that turns a laptop and a mobile phone into a central communications hub. Once installed, the program enables users to send and receive text messages with groups of people through mobile phones. FLSM does not require an Internet connection and it can store all phone numbers and records all incoming and outgoing messages. The software also allows to send messages to individuals or large groups, and reply individually.
WHAT FLSM CAN DO ? Create and manage all of your SMS-related contact groups Send and receive messages via special on-screen consoles Provides incoming and outgoing message history for each contact Engage with your contact groups – run surveys, competitions etc. via the SurveyManager Run your own text-based information service via the automated ReplyManager Export data to Excel and other programs
: CROWDSOURCING, MAPPING, AND CROWDFEEDING TOOL Ushahidi, which means “testimony” in Swahili, began as a one-off deployment for mapping reports of election violence after the December 2007 Kenyan elections. Ushahidi is a crowdsourcing mapping system that people to report into the platform by web submission, SMS, Twitter or e-mail. The Ushahidi platform is right now being used in more than 30 countries and 60 projects, from electoral monitoring in Burundi to violence in Congo to Early Warning system in the Rift Valley.
Problems and challenges Using the Crowdsourcing methodology The sustainability of new technologies The need to preserve traditional knowledge The risks associated with using crisis mapping in Repressive regime The need to preserve privacy and sensitive information when using mobile phones in health related issues The excessive enthusiasm created by the availability of new technologies and social media