INDEX1. Chronology and origin of “Impressionism”.2. Main features.3. Main artists and works: 1. Precursor: Édouard Manet. 2. Claude Monet. Series of Rouen Cathedral. 3. Pierre- Auguste Renoir. 4. Edgar Degas. 5. Alfred Sisley and Camille Pissarro. 6. Joaquín Sorolla.l Explanation of works: 1. The Luncheon on the grass. 2. Impression, Sunrise. 3. Luncheon at the Boating Party. 2l Sources.
CHRONOLOGY AND ORIGIN OF “IMPRESSIONISM”Impressionism is the plastic movementdeveloped in the 2nd half of the 19thcentury, mainly in France. The word “Impressionism” comes from “impression”, the name of Monet’s painting, Impression, Sunrise. The critic Louis Leroy used for the first time this word in 1874. He used it in a pejorative way to refer to the paintings of group of artists in Paris, whose independent exhibitions opposed to conventional art in France. 3
MAIN FEATURES Landscape: the Impressionists usually represented the contact with nature and light. These paintings also represent natural elements such as water, sky or ice. Fast technique with large brushstrokes. Colours: they didn’t use the black colour. As for the white colour, they also thought it doesn’t exist. They used pure colours and they could mix them on canvas. Monet’s garden, Claude Monet • Light is the most important thing. • No use of vanishing point they made flat and two-dimensional compositions. • Main themes: portraits, landscapes, urban life scenes, an optimistic vision of the world, society and they usually painted the life in Paris. • They usually painted in the open air. 4 Poppies, Claude Monet
MAIN ARTISTS Pierre- Auguste RenoirAND WORKS Édouard Manet Claude Monet 5Joaquín Sorolla Alfred Sisley Edgar Degas Camille Pissarro
Édouard Manet was the precursor of Impressionism The Luncheon on the grass A bar at the Folies Bergére The balconyMusic in the Tuilleries Olympia 6 The fifer
Claude Monet was interested on how light could change a landscape The word “Impressionism” comes from Nympheas Houses of Parliament 7Rouen Cathedral Poplars Impression, Sunrise
Rising Sun Dawn CATHEDRALFoggy Light Full Sunlight SERIES OF ROUENLate Afternoon Afternoon Sun 8Night Light Morning Light
Pierre- Auguste Renoir Luncheon at the Boating Party The Swing Girls at the piano Dance at the Moulin de la Galette 9 The Large Bathers
Edgar Degas used to focus on human figure and movement. He painted scenes of dancers and horse races. The TubDancer with a Bouquet of Flowers The dance class Ballet rehearsal L’ Absinthe 10
Alfred Sisley and Camille Pissarro painted scenes in the open air. Flood at Port- Marly Boulevard Montmartre 11
Joaquín Sorolla was the most important painter in Spain. Beach at Castile Valencia Wife and Daughters in the Garden Sad Inheritance Walk on 12 the Beach
The Luncheon on the grass Artist: Édouard Manet. Chronology: 1863. Material used: Oil on canvas. Present location: Orsay Museum, Paris. Description: It represents a naked woman with two men. The woman is completely illuminated and is looking to the viewer. In front of them, we can see the woman’s clothes, a fruit’s basket and bread. In the background a woman with a white dress appears and she is bathing in a stream. Explanation: Declaration in favour of the artist’s individual freedom. Manet portrayed his wife (Suzanne), and his favourite model (Meurent). Both women posed for the naked woman: the face belongs to Meurent and the body to Suzanne. The two men are Manet’s brother (Gustave) and his brother in law (Ferdinand). Influence: Manet influenced Claude Monet, who also painted his own Luncheon on the grass. Interesting information: The painting’s style wasn’t common in that period. For that reason there were several critiques. He didn’t try to eliminate the brushstrokes. In fact, the painting seems unfinished in some parts of the scene. It can be interpreted as a modern version of Pastoral concert from the 14 Renaissance painter, Titian.
Impression, Sunrise Artist: Claude Monet. Chronology: 1872. Material used: Oil on canvas. Present location: Monet´s Marmottan (Monet’s )Museum, Paris. Description: The landscape is represented as a snapshot impression. Monet painted an impression from his window in Le Havre, the sun in the fog and some boats on the background. Explanation: To focus the impression that the rising sun produces and to provoke an impression on the person who is watching it. The sun has the same illumination as the sky, so it suggests damp. He used complementary colours and several colour tones. The brushstrokes are free, fast and direct. Importance: It’s very important, because it gave name to the Impressionist movement. Considered from Impressionism: Try to capture the light. Interesting information: It was stolen by Philippe Jamin and Khimoun Youssef and it was recovered again in 1990. 15
Luncheon at the Boating Party Artist: Pierre- Auguste Renoir. Chronology: 1881. Material used: Oil on canvas. Bought by: Paul Durand- Ruel and later from his son by Duncan Phillips. Present location: Phillips Collection, Washington DC. Description: A group of friends relaxing in the Maison Fournaise’s balcony on the Seine River in Chatou, France. On the right, we can see Renoir and the patron, Gustave Caillebote, sitting down. On the left, Aline Charigot, Renoir’s wife, is playing with a dog. Explanation: Renoir captured a big quantity of light. Most of the light comes from the back of the painting; the men’s t-shirts from the background and the tablecloth reflect most of the light. Interesting information: This is an ordinary life scene, one of the Impressionist painters’ favourite themes. 16
SOURCES:WEBSITES: Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 26 March 2012,<http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Le_D%C3%A9jeuner_sur_l%27Herbe> Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 1 March 2012, < http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impresi%C3%B3n,_sol_naciente> Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 21 February 2012, <http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Almuerzo_de_remeros> Emagister, 13 December, < http://grupos.emagister.com/debate/claude_monet_1840_1926/1040-7608 >BOOKS: Cristina Blanco Carrasco and Paqui Pérez Fons. 2011.SOCIAL SCIENCES HISTORY 4º ESO. Campo de Criptana. 17