Programming languages
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Programming languages



Types of Programming Languages such as High Level Languages, Low Level Languages...

Types of Programming Languages such as High Level Languages, Low Level Languages...



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  • The Presentation On Programming Language

Programming languages Programming languages Presentation Transcript

  • The Presentation On Programming Languages Project Work 2008 Presented By: Archana Maharjan Bishnu Rajbhandari Manish Tamrakar Ranju Silwal BE Computer, III rd Semester, Group-3 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
    • an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer.
    • used to facilitate communication about the task of organizing and manipulating information
    • to express algorithms precisely
  • Programming Languages
    • Machine Languages/First generation
    • Assemble Languages/Second generation
    • Procedural Languages/Third generation
    • Problem Oriented languages/Fourth
    • Natural Languages/Fifth
  • Machine Languages
    • Uses binary system
    • 0s and 1s for electricity on / off
    • 0s is off and 1s on
    • Alphabet A as 1000001
    • To convert decimal to binary
    • 24 divided by 2
    • 11000
    • Early age machines like ENIAC uses vacuum tubes where tubes lit up or unlit which corresponds 10 binary state
    • Early age there was no software, they uses switches, 3000 switches where they used to on and off for one program they used to take one week.
    • Machine code has one advantages as its runs fast and efficient as it is machine language itself.
    • Disadvantages : There is no one standard machine language
  • Assembly Languages
    • For more standardization, assembly languages developed
    • Also known as symbolic languages
    • Machine languages
    • 11110010 01110011 11010010 00010000 01110000 00101011
    • Assembly languages
    • Pack 210(8,13), 02B(4,7)
    • Pack 218(8,13), 02F(4,7)
    • MP 212(G,13), 21D(3,13)
    • Multiply hours worked by pay rate
    • In order to execute assemble languages need to change into machine language. 15 assemble statement need to translate 15 machine standard.
    • Advantages
    • More standardize and easier than machine languages
    • Operate efficiently not so efficient than machine languages
    • Easy to debug programs
    • Disadvantages
    • Very long
    • Complex
    • Dependant with machine languages
  • High Level Languages
    • More Standard Language in text like “Calculate gross Pay”
    • Types of High level languages
    • Procedural-Oriented Languages
    • Problem Oriented languages
    • Natural or fifth generation
  • Procedural Oriented languages
    • General purpose programming languages are called procedural languages or third generation languages e.g.. Pascal, Cobol, Fortran, Basic etc.
    • Advantages
    • Statements are in English, easy to work
    • English language so it takes less time to program
    • Once coded easy to understand and modify
    • Languages are machine independent
    • Disadvantages
    • Execute slow
    • Less efficient
  • Problem Oriented Languages & Application
    • It is designed to solve specific problems or develop specific application by enabling what you want rather than step by step procedures
    • It is fourth generation language
    • Application tools
    • Personal computer application software: word-process, spreadsheet, database, PowerPoint etc.
    • Query languages and report generators: QBE, SQL, answer/database QMF, RPGIII etc.
    • Decision support systems and financial planning languages: Express, FCS, IFPD, System W etc.
  • Natural language
    • Still in development stage
    • It is the natural more human like
    • Allow the computer to become smarter
    • Most popular natural language are LISP and Prolog.
  • Difference between 3 GLs and 4 GLs
    • Third GLs
    • Intended for use by professional programmers
    • Requires specification of how to perform task
    • All alternatives must be specified
    • Require large number of procedural instructions
    • Code may be difficult to read, understand and maintain.
    • Language developed for batch operations
    • Can be difficult to learn
    • Difficult to debug
    • Typically file oriented
    • Fourth GLs
    • May be used by a non programming end user as well as a professional programmer.
    • Requires specification of what task is to be performed (system determines how to perform the task)
    • Default alternatives are built in; an end user need not specify these alternatives
    • Require far fewer instructions
    • Code is easy to understand and maintain because of English-like commands
    • Language developed primarily for on line user
    • Easy to learn
    • Easy to debug
    • Typically database-oriented
  • Compilers and Interpreters
    • There are two types of translators.
    • Compilers
    • Interpreters
    • High level languages are called compiler language or interpreters language
    • Compiler language
    • A translation program is run to convert the programmer’s entire high-level program, which is called the source code, into a machine language. It is called compilation
    • Machine code is called object code and can be saved and either run immediately or later. E.g.. COBOL, C, C++, FORTRAN etc.
    • Interpreters
    • A translation program converts each program statement into machine code just before the program statement is to be executed.
    • Translation and execution occur immediately.
    • One after another and one statement at a time.
    • Compiler languages are better than interpreted languages as they can be executed faster and more efficiently once the object code has been obtained.
    • Consolidation and growth
    • Measuring language usage
    • Taxonomies
    • Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2007
    • Computer Concepts
    • httpprogramminglanguages