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Mrsa ppt

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MRSA

MRSA

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  • 1. MRSA
  • 2. <ul><li>Staphylococcus aureus or “staph” bacteria commonly live on the skin and in noses of healthy people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually staph bacteria are harmless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staph bacteria may cause an infection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>if they enter the body through a break in the skin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These infections can usually be treated with </li></ul></ul><ul><li>antibiotics </li></ul>What is MRSA?
  • 3. What is MRSA <ul><li>MRSA is a type of staph bacteria that has become resistant to methicillin and other antibiotics commonly used to treat staph infections </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MRSA stands for: M ethicillin R esistant S taphylococcus a ureus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MRSA infections can range from very minor to life-threatening </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>MRSA bacteria can live on surfaces for several days </li></ul>
  • 4. Basic Characteristic of S. aureus <ul><li>Gram Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Non-motile </li></ul><ul><li>Spherical </li></ul><ul><li>Grows in chains </li></ul><ul><li>Resembles clumps of grapes </li></ul><ul><li>Golden color </li></ul><ul><li>Hemolytic pattern on blood agar </li></ul><ul><li>Produces coagulase and catalase enzymes </li></ul>
  • 5. <ul><li>Cell Wall </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasmic membrane- Osmotic barrier prevents disequilibrium of ionic content. Preventing cell osmotic instability and susceptibility to lysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Polysaccharide capsule-slime layer; adhesin, Inhibits phagocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>Peptidoglycan- Allows bacteria to attach to host’s cell membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Protein A-Immunological disguise. </li></ul>Virulence Factors: Avoiding Host Defenses
  • 6. History of S. aureus resistance
  • 7. How is MRSA diagnosed? How is MRSA diagnosed?
  • 8. How is infection or indee colonization with MRSA diagnosed? <ul><li>To identify a MRSA infection, samples of skin, blood, urine, pus, other fluids are taken from the patient. Samples are determined on what area of the body the infection is emanating. </li></ul><ul><li>These are then sent to a microbiology laboratory, where any bacteria present in the sample is placed in a Petri dish  - a round shallow covered dish used for the culture of bacteria etc. </li></ul>How is infection or indeed colonization with MRSA diagnosed?
  • 9. What does a MRSA infection look like? <ul><li>These organisms have been termed &quot;flesh-eating bacteria&quot; because of their occasional rapid spread and destruction of human skin </li></ul><ul><li>Most commonly, MRSA causes skin infections that may look like : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spider bites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large, red, painful lumps under the skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A cut that is swollen, hot and filled with pus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In rare cases, MRSA can causes pneumonia and infections in the blood, bones and urine </li></ul>
  • 10. How is MRSA Spread? <ul><li>MRSA spreads through direct contact with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The skin of someone who has MRSA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal items of someone who has MRSA such as towels, clothing and razors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects that have MRSA bacteria on them such as desks, door knobs or phones </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Who is at risk for MRSA? <ul><li>ANYONE can get MRSA – those most at risk: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spend a lot of time in crowded places such as hospitals, schools or dorms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share sports equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share personal hygiene items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Play contact sports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overuse or misuse antibiotics </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Can Healthy People Get MRSA? <ul><li>Yes. MRSA skin infections are showing up more frequently in healthy people, with none of the usual risks factors. This type of MRSA - called community-associated MRSA (CA MRSA) - has been reported among athletes, prisoners, and military recruits. Outbreaks have been seen at schools, gyms, day care centers and other places where people share close quarters. </li></ul>Can Healthy People Get MRSA?
  • 13. MRSA in Dogs and Cats <ul><li>It looks like MRSA has jumped from humans to household pets, where it can linger without obvious symptoms - and possibly reinfect the pet owners. Only community-acquired strains have been found in cats and dogs so far. </li></ul>MRSA in Dogs and Cats

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