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Unit 8 - Spain in the 19th Century
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Unit 8 - Spain in the 19th Century

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Unit for 4º ESO

Unit for 4º ESO

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  • 1. Unit 8 Spain in the nineteenth century Social Studies – ESO-4
  • 2. 2 Spain in the 19th century • Introduction • Periods • Liberal Triennium (1820-1823) • The Ominous decade (1823-1833) • The Carlist war and the Regencies (1833-1843) • Moderado rule (1844-1854) • Bienio Progresista (1854-1856) • La Gloriosa (1868-1873) • The First Spanish Replublic ( 1873-1874) • The Restoration (1874-1931) • Opposition to the system • Galicia in the 19th century • Economy and society • Goya
  • 3. 3 Spain in the 19th century • Introduction • Ferdinand VII • He didn't accept the Constitution of 1812 • Agreements with nobility, church and cregy • Back to pre-Napoleonic absolutism • He was backed by the Spanish empire in the New World: • 1816-17 – independence of Argentina & Chile • 1819 – indepencence of Colombia • 1821 – independence of Venezuela
  • 4. 4 Spain in the 19th century • Liberal triennium (1820-1823) • Coup d'étal by Rafael del Riego (to restore Constitution of 1812) • Agreement with the King and Progresita government: • 52 provinces • Anticlerical policies • Industrialization → problems with guilds • Progresistas = afrancesados • 100,000 sons of Saint-Louis • Mexico and Peru became independent
  • 5. 5 Spain in the 19th century • The Ominous Decade (1823-1833) • Back to conservative values • Execution of del Riego • Attempt to improve finances after war • His succession had to be solved: • Married 4 times → 4 daughters / no sons • His brother Charles would succeed him • 1830 – Pragmatic Sanction – women → queens → Isabella • Ferdinand VII died – Isabella was 3 → her mother Maria Christina became regent
  • 6. 6 Spain in the 19th century • Carlist war and Regencies (1833-1843) • Maria Christina of Bourbon Two sicilies – regent • Alliance with Progresista faction • Charles wanted the crown • He was backed by the Basque Country, Aragon and Catalonia – control of the north • Espartero – defeated Carlists • Maria Christina accepted a new Constitution (1837), desamortización & freedom of the press • Espartero was regent for 2 years
  • 7. 7 Spain in the 19th century • Moderado rule (1844-1854) • Cortes didn't want another regent – Isabella II (13) became queen • Guardia Civil was established • Main features: • New Constitution (1845) • Successful campaigns in Africa • Desamortización continued • Second Carlist War (1846-1849)
  • 8. 8 Spain in the 19th century • Bienio Progresista (1854-1856) • 1854 Rebellion against the state (O'Donnell) • Espartero was appointed president • Unión Liberal → new policy: • Industry, infrastructure, public works, social improvements • Madoz's desamortización • Liberals and moderates alternated governments • 1866 Isabella's monarchy was in danger – scandalous private life • La Gloriosa revolution ended her reign
  • 9. 9 Spain in the 19th century • La Gloriosa (1868-1873) • Cortes looked for a new king • New Constitution (1869) • Serrano was regent • Italian Amadeo I of Savoy was chosen (1870) • No experience • After 3 years – battle between Carlists and republicans
  • 10. 10 Spain in the 19th century • The First Spanish Republic (1873-1874) • Revolts everywhere – 4 presidents – 3rd Carlist war • The Restoration (1874-1931) • In 1970 Isabella II abdicated – Son Alfonso XII → king • Cánovas and Sagasta alternated control • New Constitution (1876) • Corrupt election system (caciques – pucherazo) • Unstability after Cánovas' death • The Philippines and Cuba independent (1898) • Reduced African colonies • 1898 crisis (Generation of 98) • Opposition (anarchists, socialists, nationalist parties)
  • 11. 11 Spain in the 19th century • Galicia in the 19th century • In 1808 Xunta Suprema do Reino was established • Confrontation between Carlists, clergy and nobles against liberals • Limited economic reform • New provincial division • From 7 to 4 provinces
  • 12. 12 Spain in the 19th century • Economy and society in Galicia • Clergy – lost provileges • Farmers – small properties and common lands • Local nobility – lived on rents • Caciquismo • Bourgeoisie – traders in cities and villages • Massive emigration to America • Galeguismo • Rexurdimento
  • 13. 13 Spain in the 19th century • Goya - 1 • Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828) • Goya studied in Zaragoza,Madrid and Rome • He worked for the Royal Tapestry Factory (42 designs in Royal Palaces)
  • 14. 14 Spain in the 19th century • Goya - 2 • Tapestry – happy scenes with bright colours • Chamber painter for the Royal Family • Portraits for the nobility (The Nude and The Clothed Maja)
  • 15. 15 Spain in the 19th century • Goya - 3 • 1790 he was ill (sight and hearing) • His paintings became sad and dark • Caprichos (1799) → criticism of society • Unhappy about the French invasion (1808)
  • 16. 16 Spain in the 19th century • Goya - 4 • Defeat of the French → problems with Ferdinand VII • Quinta del Sordo → unusual paintings on canvas and walls (Black Paintings) • 1810 – The Disasters of War • Goya moved to France

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