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Unit 5 - The Industrial Revolution
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Unit 5 - The Industrial Revolution

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Unit for 4º ESO

Unit for 4º ESO

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  • 1. Unit 5 The Industrial Revolution Social Studies – ESO-4
  • 2. 2 The Industrial Revolution Introduction • Inventions Before the Industrial Revolution Inventions that fuelled the Industrial Revolution • Flying Shuttle • Spinning Jenny • The water frame • The steam engine • The locomotive (train) Life during the Industrial Revolution • Homes of the wealthy • Homes of the poor • Middle class Migration during the Industrial Revolution Working conditions in the Industrial Revolution (Factory Acts) Riots against the Inudstrial Revolution The importance of the railways
  • 3. 3 The Industrial Revolution  Introduction ➔ New inventions for better iron: ➔ Coke ➔ Steam engine ➔ Inventions for textile industry: ➔ Flying Shuttle ➔ Spinning Jenny ➔ Spinning Frame ➔ Towns boomed ➔ Children worked ➔ Importance of the railway
  • 4. 4 The Industrial Revolution  Before the Industrial Revolution ➔ Different types of roads ➔ No trains ➔ Little contact with other areas ➔ Different cities ➔ News spread by travellers ➔ Local products were used ➔ People were mostly farmers ➔ Natural sources of energy (wood, wind...) ➔ Only rich people could study
  • 5. 5 The Industrial Revolution  Key inventions for the Revolution: ➔ Spinning Jenny ➔ Water Frame ➔ Steam Engine ➔ The locomotive (train)
  • 6. 6 The Industrial Revolution  Life during the Industrial Revolution ➔ Only rich people could study ➔ The rich were really wealthy ➔ Large homes and estates ➔ They could study ➔ The poor were very poor ➔ Small, damp houses in crowded streets ➔ Shared toilets ➔ Middle class ➔ Their homes became better
  • 7. 7 The Industrial Revolution  Migration ➔ People tried to find a job ➔ They moved to industrial areas: ➔ Manchester or Liverpool (in England) ➔ Barcelona (in Spain) ➔ Many moved to America ➔ Mainly from Europe to the USA
  • 8. 8 The Industrial Revolution  Working conditions ➔ Working in a factory was dangerous ➔ Long hours ➔ Hot steam engines ➔ Dangerous machinery ➔ Children also worked in factories ➔ High mortality rate ➔ Some reforms (Factory Acts) made working conditions better
  • 9. 9 The Industrial Revolution  Riots against the Industrial Revolution ➔ People were afraid of losing their jobs: ➔ Common land was enclosed: no land ➔ New machines and working methods ➔ Better transport ➔ Wages were low & food was expensive ➔ Soldiers had no job ➔ Luddites started riots
  • 10. 10 The Industrial Revolution  The importance or the railways ➔ In 1785 the first Boulton and Watt rotary engine was used in a factory
  • 11. 11 The Industrial Revolution  The second industrial revolution ➔ From the end of the 19th century to World War I ➔ Where: ➔ Britain ➔ Germany ➔ France ➔ Low Countries ➔ Denmark ➔ the US ➔ Japan
  • 12. 12 The Industrial Revolution  The second industrial revolution ➔ Changes in steel, railroads, electricity & chemicals ➔ Relevant facts: ➔ Bessemer steel from molten iron ➔ Petroleum industry→kerosene ➔ Electricity → assembly line & lighting ➔ Mass production in Ford factory ➔ Cheap electrochemicals ➔ Steel →railroads ➔ Telegraph and telephone lines
  • 13. 13 The Industrial Revolution  The second industrial revolution ➔ Socioeconomic impact: ➔ Better living standards ➔ Cheap food ➔ Crop failures→less relevant ➔ Tractors ➔ Ships could carry more weight→more trade ➔ Lower prices ➔ Social changes ➔ More professional working class ➔ Larger middle class
  • 14. 14 The Industrial Revolution  Alternative answers to the industrial revolution ➔ Utopian, comunitarian socialism (Fourierists) ➔ Communism, Marxistm or Scienfic socialism (Marx and Engels) ➔ Capitalism ➔ Anarchism (Bakunin, Peter Kropottkin)
  • 15. 15 The Industrial Revolution  The second industrial revolution ➔ Final situation: ➔ World industrial leaders→US, Britain, Germany, Russia and France ➔ Most industrial inventions were from this period
  • 16. 16 The Industrial Revolution  Pictures from Banco Imágenes ITE

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