Unit 16
Spain at the Beginning of
the 20th
Century
Social Studies – ESO-4
2
Spain at the Beginning of the 20th
Century
• Introduction
• Alfonso XIII's constitutional reign (1902-1923)
• The Second...
3
Spain at the Beginning of the 20th
Century
• Introduction
• Cuba, the Philippines and Puerto Rico were lost
• 1898 disas...
4
Spain at the Beginning of the 20th
Century
• Alfonso XIII's constitutional reign (1902-1923)
• 1876 constitution
• Two p...
5
Spain at the Beginning of the 20th
Century
• 1923 Coup d'etat – General Primo de Rivera
• The Constitution was suspended...
6
Spain at the Beginning of the 20th
Century
• The Second Republic
• 12th
April 1931 – local elections
• Supporters of mon...
7
Spain at the Beginning of the 20th
Century
• The 1931 Constitution
• Individual freedom of expression
• Right to divorce...
8
Spain at the Beginning of the 20th
Century
• Bienio Reformista (1931-1933)
• Main reforms:
• Agrarian reform
– Instituto...
9
Spain at the Beginning of the 20th
Century
• Bienio Reformista (1931-1933)
• Opposition to the reforms:
• Wealthy landow...
10
Spain at the Beginning of the 20th
Century
• Bienio Conservador (1931-1936)
• 1933 – center-right parties won
• Lerroux...
11
Spain at the Beginning of the 20th
Century
• Coup d'etat and the division of Spain
• 18th
July 1936
• Accepted by the c...
12
Spain at the Beginning of the 20th
Century
• The Civil War outside Spain
• Divided international public opinion
• Confe...
13
Spain at the Beginning of the 20th
Century
• Evolution of the Spanish Civil War - 3 phases:
• Campaign around Madrid (J...
14
Spain at the Beginning of the 20th
Century
• Evolution of the Spanish Civil War - 3 phases:
• The North Front (April-Oc...
15
Spain at the Beginning of the 20th
Century
• Evolution of the Spanish Civil War - 3 phases:
• The end of the War (Octob...
16
Spain at the Beginning of the 20th
Century
• Evolution of the Spanish Civil War - 3 phases:
• The end of the War (Octob...
17
Spain at the Beginning of the 20th
Century
• Consequences:
• 500,000 casualties
• Many people in exile
• Devastated cou...
18
Spain at the Beginning of the 20th
Century
• Life during the War:
• Years of hunger, death and fear
• Rationing after t...
19
Spain at the Beginning of the 20th
Century
• Pictures from:
• Banco Imágenes ITE, Wikipedia and Wikimedia.
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Unit 16 - Spain at the beginning of the 20th century

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Unit 16 - Spain at the beginning of the 20th century

  1. 1. Unit 16 Spain at the Beginning of the 20th Century Social Studies – ESO-4
  2. 2. 2 Spain at the Beginning of the 20th Century • Introduction • Alfonso XIII's constitutional reign (1902-1923) • The Second Republic • Bienio Reformista (1931-1933) • Opposition to these reforms • Bienio Conservador and the Popular Front (1933-1936) • The Popular Front • The coup d'état and the division of Spain • The Civil War outside Spain • Evolution of the Spanish Civil War • Life during the War
  3. 3. 3 Spain at the Beginning of the 20th Century • Introduction • Cuba, the Philippines and Puerto Rico were lost • 1898 disaster – Frustration, sadness – Rexeneracionismo
  4. 4. 4 Spain at the Beginning of the 20th Century • Alfonso XIII's constitutional reign (1902-1923) • 1876 constitution • Two parties • Conservative party – Maura • Liberal party - Canalejas • Ban of religious orders • 1909 three crisis: • Tragic week in Barcelona • 1917 crisis: political, military & trade unions • Social riots • Defeat in Morocco • 1923 Coup d'etat – General Primo de Rivera
  5. 5. 5 Spain at the Beginning of the 20th Century • 1923 Coup d'etat – General Primo de Rivera • The Constitution was suspended • Dictatorship until 1930 • Criticism after 1927 • King's support was lost in 1930 • New government • Opposition to the king • San Sebastian Pact -1930
  6. 6. 6 Spain at the Beginning of the 20th Century • The Second Republic • 12th April 1931 – local elections • Supporters of monarchy won-caciques • Republicans won in capitals • King into exile • Second Republic - 14th April 1931 • Alcalá Zamora • Democratic Constitution (1931)
  7. 7. 7 Spain at the Beginning of the 20th Century • The 1931 Constitution • Individual freedom of expression • Right to divorce • Universal suffrage • Secular state (any religion, secular education) • Decentralized organization • Other official languages • Welfare state • First democratic constitution • Riots – Azaña was elected president
  8. 8. 8 Spain at the Beginning of the 20th Century • Bienio Reformista (1931-1933) • Main reforms: • Agrarian reform – Instituto de Reforma Agraria • Catalonia got its autonomy • Military reform • Labour reforms • Education reform • Civil marriages and divorce • Opposition to these reforms
  9. 9. 9 Spain at the Beginning of the 20th Century • Bienio Reformista (1931-1933) • Opposition to the reforms: • Wealthy landowners, ecclesiastic and army hierarchy • 1932 – coup d'etat – General Sanjurjo • Anarchists – slow agrarian reform • 1933 - Unpopularity and crisis • CEDA – Gil Robles – Right political parties •
  10. 10. 10 Spain at the Beginning of the 20th Century • Bienio Conservador (1931-1936) • 1933 – center-right parties won • Lerroux – supported by CEDA • October Revolution: • Successful in Asturias • Catalan Republic – Generalitat disolved • February 1936 – elections • Popular Front • Left parties – Popular Front • Falanxe española – fascist party • Riots, burnt churches, • Plan to end the republic • Calvo Sotelo was murdered • Franco's uprising in the North of Africa
  11. 11. 11 Spain at the Beginning of the 20th Century • Coup d'etat and the division of Spain • 18th July 1936 • Accepted by the church, part of the army, carlistas, monarchics, conservatives and nationals • Nationals in: Castille, Galicia, Cáceres, Navarre, parts of Andalusia, Balearics and the Canary Islands • Xunta de Defensa Nacional in Burgos • Republicans in: most of Aragon, North of Spain, Catalonia, Levante, Madrid and most of Andalusia. • Milicias populares
  12. 12. 12 Spain at the Beginning of the 20th Century • The Civil War outside Spain • Divided international public opinion • Conference: France and Britain – no interference • Outside support: • Republicans – USSR • Nationals – fascist Italy and Germany • Many intellectuals supported the Republic • International Brigades
  13. 13. 13 Spain at the Beginning of the 20th Century • Evolution of the Spanish Civil War - 3 phases: • Campaign around Madrid (July 1936- March 1937) • Moroccan army to Madrid • International Brigades – battle of Jarama (Feb 1937) – Battle of Guadalajara (March 1937)
  14. 14. 14 Spain at the Beginning of the 20th Century • Evolution of the Spanish Civil War - 3 phases: • The North Front (April-October 1937): • Franco's army to the North • Cantabrian coast- Guernica • Republicans attacked Brunete and Belchite.
  15. 15. 15 Spain at the Beginning of the 20th Century • Evolution of the Spanish Civil War - 3 phases: • The end of the War (October 1937-April 1939): • East and Teruel • Catalonia was isolated • Battle of Ebro.
  16. 16. 16 Spain at the Beginning of the 20th Century • Evolution of the Spanish Civil War - 3 phases: • The end of the War (October 1937-April 1939): • East and Teruel • Catalonia was isolated • Battle of Ebro. • Barcelona was seized
  17. 17. 17 Spain at the Beginning of the 20th Century • Consequences: • 500,000 casualties • Many people in exile • Devastated country
  18. 18. 18 Spain at the Beginning of the 20th Century • Life during the War: • Years of hunger, death and fear • Rationing after the War • People afraid of bombs • Reprisals in both sides • Imprisoned left-wing leaders • Supporters of nationals killed by republicans (nuns, priests...) • Executions in both sides • Common graves • Refugees • Children of the War
  19. 19. 19 Spain at the Beginning of the 20th Century • Pictures from: • Banco Imágenes ITE, Wikipedia and Wikimedia.

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