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Unit 12 - FAscism and Nazism
Unit 12 - FAscism and Nazism
Unit 12 - FAscism and Nazism
Unit 12 - FAscism and Nazism
Unit 12 - FAscism and Nazism
Unit 12 - FAscism and Nazism
Unit 12 - FAscism and Nazism
Unit 12 - FAscism and Nazism
Unit 12 - FAscism and Nazism
Unit 12 - FAscism and Nazism
Unit 12 - FAscism and Nazism
Unit 12 - FAscism and Nazism
Unit 12 - FAscism and Nazism
Unit 12 - FAscism and Nazism
Unit 12 - FAscism and Nazism
Unit 12 - FAscism and Nazism
Unit 12 - FAscism and Nazism
Unit 12 - FAscism and Nazism
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Unit 12 - FAscism and Nazism

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  • 1. Unit 12 Fascism and Nazism Social Studies – ESO-4
  • 2. 2 Fascism and Nazism • The rise of dictatorships • The rise of fascism in Italy • Italy under Mussolini • Positive and negative aspects • Germany between the wars (1919-1939) • The nazis became popular • The rise of the nazis • Life under the nazis • Economic programme • The nazi ideology • The holocaust
  • 3. 3 Fascism and Nazism • The rise of dictatorships • Depression (poverty and need for leaders) • Democracy was blamed for problems • Communism was a threat • France suspected Germany • Disarmament failed (after WW1)
  • 4. 4 Fascism and Nazism • The rise of fascism in Italy • People were poor and unemployed • Economic crisis in the 1930s • Farmers and workers were angry • Mussolini and fascists started to control the country • Mussolini appointed Prime Minister • New election system • Mussolini → il duce
  • 5. 5 Fascism and Nazism • Italy under Mussolini • He wanted glory for Italy • No rival political parties • From 1926 → no Parliament • Fascist Grand Council • Council of Deputies → no real power • Corporate State • Invasion of Abyssinia (=Ethiopia) • Albania was attacked
  • 6. 6 Fascism and Nazism
  • 7. 7 Fascism and Nazism • Mussolini • Negative aspects • OVRA – secret police • Jews were persecuted • Revenge in Abyssinia • Positive aspects • Wheat harvest doubled • Drainage of Pontine Marshes → houses • Houses, hospitals, schools, roads and electrified railways • Laateran Treaty- the Vatican
  • 8. 8 Fascism and Nazism • Germany between the wars (1919-1939) • 1919 – Weimar republic • Friedrich Ebert – first president • Two houses • Reichstag (Congress) • Reichsrat (Upper House)
  • 9. 9 Fascism and Nazism • Problems of the Weimar republic: • Society was divided – peace treaties were unfair • 1919 – Spartacist Revolt – communists tried to take Berlin • 1920 – Kapp Putsh – right wing revolt • 1923 – hyperinflation – money lost its value – prices increased • 1923 – Stresemann – new chancellor – recovery started
  • 10. 10 Fascism and Nazism • Adolf Hitler's nazi party (National Socialist German Worker's Party) tried to take over Munich – defeated – sent to prison • Stredemann's efforts (he won the nobel prize): • Germany joined the League of Nations • Reparations were reduced (58 years to pay) • The 1929 Wall Street Crash made his plans failed and Hitler came back
  • 11. 11 Fascism and Nazism • The Nazis became popular: • The military • Middle classes • Farmers • Anti-semites • People thought the government was weak • The depression hit Germany hard • January 1933 – Hitler was offered the post of Chancellor • March 1933 the Nazis became stronger in the election • They controlled the mass media • Opposition meetings were banned • They used the “SA” to terrorise opponents • The communist party was declared illegal
  • 12. 12 Fascism and Nazism • The night of the long knives • Hitler was called the Führer • Life under the nazis • Germany was reorganised into Gaus • The Reichsleiters advised hitler • Goebbels was in charge of propaganda • Himler was in charge of the SS • Hitler – absolute power • Everything was controlled • Gestapo – could arrest anyone • Jungrolk – children from 10 – taught to support Hitler • Boys joined Hitler Youth • Girls joined the League of German Maidens • Women's role was to make families
  • 13. 13 Fascism and Nazism • Economic programme • Huge plan of public works • National Labour Service – men from 18 to 25 • No strikes – higher wages • Big industries were supported (Thyssen, Krupp, Volkswagen...) • Country re-armed • No unemployment • Political programme: invasion of nearby countries
  • 14. 14 Fascism and Nazism • The nazi ideology • Germans were a super-race • Jews were responsible for most problems • Nuremberg laws – laws against them: – They weren't German citizens – Marriage with Jews was banned – Star of David on their clothes – No jobs for them • Many Jews exiled – the world did nothing • The night of broken glass – Jews were blamed • They were sent to concentration camps
  • 15. 15 Fascism and Nazism • The holocaust • 1940 – Jews were sent to ghettos (Warsaw) • Death camps were built (Mauthasen, Auschwich, Treblinka...) • Gas chambers • Other people sent to Death Camps: – Slavs – Gypsies – Black people – Homosexuals – The disabled – Communists and others • At the end of WW2 they tried to destroy evidence.
  • 16. 16 Fascism and Nazism
  • 17. 17 Fascism and Nazism • Death Camps
  • 18. 18 Fascism and Nazism  Pictures from Banco Imágenes ITE (“Map of Italy” by Joaquín Santamaría Morales, “Mathausen” by Jesús Muñoz Conde, “Auschwitz I” by Celestino Arteta Iribarren, “Marking Code” by Belén Sánchez Esteban), “Mussolini” GGBAin 37518.

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