MODAL  AUXILIARIES
What are modal verbs? <ul><li>Modal verbs  are verbs that are used  to express the speaker’s  opinion  about  an action or...
<ul><ul><li>Look at the following sentences: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John  may   be  sick.   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
<ul><ul><li>John  can   speak  Spanish .   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The speaker is not saying that Spanish </li></ul></u...
<ul><ul><li>John  must   be  in class on time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The speaker is not saying that John is in class ...
<ul><li>When using modals, the speaker is giving information about another verb, so there are at least two verbs in the ve...
<ul><li>Since modals are giving information about  </li></ul><ul><li>another verb, they are  auxiliary verbs.  They  </li>...
<ul><li>Modals  are a special type of auxiliary verbs because they do not change form with respect to the  subject .  </li...
<ul><li>Notice also that the  verb  that comes after the  modal  will come in the  base form , just the  verb  as it is fo...
<ul><li>When making questions with  modal auxiliaries , they are placed in front of the  subject : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><...
<ul><li>In the negative, the adverb  not  is added after the  modal auxiliary  or contracted with it: </li></ul><ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>When making a negative question, the position of the not is after the subject unless it is contracted.  </li></ul>...
<ul><li>When contracted, it is a part of the modal auxiliary, so it is found in front of the subject as well. </li></ul><u...
When are modal verbs used? <ul><li>Modals are used to express many different attitudes which include  ability, obligation,...
<ul><li>As a result, modals are used in many different social interactions, in many set phrases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May...
<ul><li>What complicates the use and comprehension of modal verbs is that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the same modal may be use...
<ul><ul><li>a given attitude may be described by different modals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The sky is very cloudy. </li...
<ul><li>there are phrases that will have a meaning corresponding to a  modal  verb and that can be used instead of the  mo...
<ul><li>Phrasal modals  or  modal phrases , sometimes called  modal-like expressions , are used because you can only use o...
<ul><li>For example, you may use  might  to express possibility in: </li></ul><ul><li>She  might  come. </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>In addition, some modals do not have a past modal form.  Although you may change  can  in: </li></ul><ul><li>I  ca...
<ul><li>The sentence: </li></ul><ul><li>I  must  study for the test. </li></ul><ul><li>refers to a present/future obligati...
<ul><li>In fact, by using modal-like expressions, we can be very exact about the time we are referring to because modal-li...
<ul><li>Understanding and knowing how to use modals and phrasal modals  </li></ul><ul><li>well is  essential </li></ul><ul...
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Modal Auxiliaries Overview

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Modal Auxiliaries Overview

  1. 1. MODAL AUXILIARIES
  2. 2. What are modal verbs? <ul><li>Modal verbs are verbs that are used to express the speaker’s opinion about an action or state. They show the form (mode), or way, the speaker is thinking about that action or state, not on the fact of the action or state itself. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Look at the following sentences: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John may be sick. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The speaker is not saying that John is sick. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He is giving his opinion that it is a </li></ul><ul><li>possibility that John is sick. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>John can speak Spanish . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The speaker is not saying that Spanish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is John’s language. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The speaker’s opinion is that John has the ability to speak Spanish. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>John must be in class on time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The speaker is not saying that John is in class on time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The speaker’s attitude is that John has the obligation to be in class on time. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>When using modals, the speaker is giving information about another verb, so there are at least two verbs in the verbal phrase. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John may be sick. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John can speak Spanish . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John must be in class on time. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Since modals are giving information about </li></ul><ul><li>another verb, they are auxiliary verbs. They </li></ul><ul><li>need to accompany or refer to the verb that </li></ul><ul><li>is the action or state being looked at, the </li></ul><ul><li>main verb in the combination. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Modals are a special type of auxiliary verbs because they do not change form with respect to the subject . </li></ul>I will can may must should study English. You He/She We They
  9. 9. <ul><li>Notice also that the verb that comes after the modal will come in the base form , just the verb as it is found in the dictionary. </li></ul>I will can may must should study English. You He/She We They
  10. 10. <ul><li>When making questions with modal auxiliaries , they are placed in front of the subject : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where can I get some coffee? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What may we bring to the party? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should you be wearing such high heels to work? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could the waitress bring me the check, please? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>In the negative, the adverb not is added after the modal auxiliary or contracted with it: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>She should not stay out so late. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(She should n’t stay out so late.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They can not be here until after work. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(They can ’t be here until after work.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You must not disturb the patients. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(You must n’t disturb the patients.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>When making a negative question, the position of the not is after the subject unless it is contracted. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can you not stay a bit longer? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should he not be here by now? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>When contracted, it is a part of the modal auxiliary, so it is found in front of the subject as well. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can ’t you stay a bit longer? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should n’t he be here by now? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The non-contracted form of the negative is considered more formal. </li></ul>
  14. 14. When are modal verbs used? <ul><li>Modals are used to express many different attitudes which include ability, obligation, permission, disapproval, advising, logical deduction, possibility, necessity, absence of necessity. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>As a result, modals are used in many different social interactions, in many set phrases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May I come in? Asking permission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could you help me? Making a request </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would you like some tea? Making an offer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shouldn’t you be studying? Giving advice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You must be joking! Showing surprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That can’t be right! Showing disbelief </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>What complicates the use and comprehension of modal verbs is that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the same modal may be used to describe different attitudes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tina has a high fever. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She must have the flu. (deduction) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She must go to the doctor. (obligation) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><ul><li>a given attitude may be described by different modals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The sky is very cloudy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She must go to the doctor. (obligation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It could rain later. (possibility ) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>there are phrases that will have a meaning corresponding to a modal verb and that can be used instead of the modal . These phrases are known as phrasal modals. </li></ul>Sue can play tennis. Sue is able to play tennis You may use pen or pencil on the test. You are allowed to use pen or pencil on the test. Ian should study more for the test. Ian is supposed to study more for the test. I must go now. I have to go now.
  19. 19. <ul><li>Phrasal modals or modal phrases , sometimes called modal-like expressions , are used because you can only use one modal auxiliary in a given verb phrase. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>For example, you may use might to express possibility in: </li></ul><ul><li>She might come. </li></ul><ul><li>You may also use can to express ability in: </li></ul><ul><li>She can come. </li></ul><ul><li>However, to express both ideas in the same sentence, you need to use a modal-like expression for can – be able to : </li></ul><ul><li>She might be able to come. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>In addition, some modals do not have a past modal form. Although you may change can in: </li></ul><ul><li>I can speak Russian now. </li></ul><ul><li>to the past sentence: </li></ul><ul><li>I could speak Russian as a child. </li></ul><ul><li>because can has the past form could , this is not true of must or should . There is no modal past form for either of these words. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>The sentence: </li></ul><ul><li>I must study for the test. </li></ul><ul><li>refers to a present/future obligation. We could also say: </li></ul><ul><li>I have to study for the test. </li></ul><ul><li>To make it clear that the obligation to study was something in the past, we can’t use the modal form because there is no past equivalent for must . To express an obligation in the past, we choose to use the modal-like expression have to in its past form – had to . </li></ul><ul><li>I had to study for the test yesterday . </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>In fact, by using modal-like expressions, we can be very exact about the time we are referring to because modal-like expressions use verbs that can be conjugated, like be or have. </li></ul><ul><li>He was supposed to be here at 6. </li></ul><ul><li>They haven’t been able to get through. </li></ul><ul><li> I will be required to write up a report. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Understanding and knowing how to use modals and phrasal modals </li></ul><ul><li>well is essential </li></ul><ul><li>if a student wants to </li></ul><ul><li>communicate well </li></ul><ul><li>in English. </li></ul>

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