Information flow

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Information flow

  1. 1. INFORMATION FLOW<br />
  2. 2. Compare these two rivers:<br />Which one is easier to navigate?<br />Why?<br />
  3. 3. You probably answered that this one is easier, right?<br />
  4. 4. This river looks easier to navigate because it flows without interruption<br />
  5. 5. It doesn’t mean that one cannot navigate this river. However, it is a lot more difficult.<br />
  6. 6. Similarly, if we can make the information flow without interruption, we will have a text that is much easier to read and understand.<br />
  7. 7. To accomplish that, there are language devices we can use.<br />They are called COHESIVE DEVICES because they provide cohesion to your writing<br />COHESION = easy, clear flow of information<br />
  8. 8. “Cohesive devices are words, phrases or techniques that connect ideas.<br />You may think of these devices as anchors that hold you ideas together”<br />(Inside Academic Writing, p. 40-41)<br />
  9. 9. Cohesive devices include:<br /><ul><li>Clear connection between the topic sentence and the other sentences in the paragraph
  10. 10. Transition words between sentences
  11. 11. Repetition of key words, phrases or information from sentence to sentence.
  12. 12. Logical progression of ideas with previously know information before new information</li></li></ul><li>Using Transition Words<br />Transition words (or Discourse Markers) are used to indicate the relationship between sentences or paragraphs. They signal the direction the author wants the text to take.<br />Ex: Science and religion are often seen as antagonistic fields. However, several scientist are deeply religious people.<br />(the word HOWEVER indicates the author wants to introduce an idea that contrasts with the previous one.<br />
  13. 13. Transition words can indicate several relationships:<br />Here are some of them:<br />
  14. 14. Using transition words requires practice and attention, because we have to choose the most appropriate transition for each situation. <br />Remember to check a good dictionary!<br />Also, punctuation is important: always use a comma (,) after a transition word!<br />
  15. 15. Repetition of key elements<br />Repeating some of the key elements of the paragraph helps create unity. You don’t have, however, to keep using the same word over and over.<br />You should use pronouns and synonyms as well! <br />
  16. 16. For example:<br />Writing is not just about conveying ‘content’ but also about the representation of self. (One of the reasons people find writing difficult is that they do not feel comfortable with the ‘me’ they are portraying in theirwriting. Academic writing in particular often poses a conflict of identity for students in higher education, because the ‘self’ which is inscribed in academic discourse feels alien to them.)<br />Excerpt from the blurb of:<br />Writing and Identity - The discoursal construction of identity in academic writing<br />Roz Ivanič, Lancaster University, 1998<br />
  17. 17. Previously mentioned and new information<br />An English language reader will expect that a text develops from something they already know or expect to the new information.<br />
  18. 18. Now you try to create a smooth flow of information in you texts!<br />

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