Probe and proxies :     unravelingmeaningful technology    experiences                             An Jacobs              ...
Our focus on the use of technologyas applied social scientists in technology development                        Source: Th...
Why applied social sciences within technology development?Problem                                  Current design pitfalls...
A solution: Human centered design approach Combining consumer research & product  development (social & technical aspects...
Human            Emphasis on ‘is’ on a current situation or on a problem  centered  design  moves            Participatory...
Users as innovatorsGoal: beyond buying behavior (adoption)Appropriation/habitualization (domestication)     Beyond people ...
BUT Innovation paradox :  user insights can not be based on experience with final  product that is not developed yet     ...
Probing techniques:Why and what?   1) information/inspiration      2) deeper                3) Participation
Probing methods in human computer interaction: Origin and history: 1990’sCULTURAL PROBESGavers et al.   1997              ...
Technological probing Used by different disciplines different    Hutchinson et al (2003)    Social science goal:      d...
Example Transecare: (2009-2010)indepenefor care dependentstory board pictures to probe   Piloting                         ...
Proxy technologies + mock ups
Solutions doing research with probes:Our approach: Low Fidelity :    Pen & paper, pictures, scenario’s, mock up’s High ...
Type of    R&D phase                                     Time of Experience   probe                                       ...
Proxy technology assessment vsTechnology assessment  Technology assessment    = forecasting possible routes for different ...
Compare technological probes/proxiesTechnological probes                                Technological proxiesHutchinson et...
Characteristics of PTA  Starting  not from person, place or product but a practice     Then decide: which stuff ? situatio...
Example MADUF(Maximising DVBH usage in Flanders),                 2006-2007    TV watching = ! domesticated everyday life...
Selecting suitable proxy technology                                 central proxy                                 technolo...
Recruiting , mapping and roll out Week 1: task list and questionnaire Week 2: no data collection by user Week 3 diaries an...
Monitoring usage          Elicit everyday life user experiences/practices to             forecast everyday practices with...
How to do a PTA in practice?     1. Scoping       1.   Which practice(s)? Which concept?       2.   Which user group      ...
Technological objects as stimulus Not new   Taste testing, lab testing      In behavioral testing/experiment tradition ...
Time for some more examples ?
Example HI-Masquerade (Human Interface MulticameraAcquisition for story telling and qualitative enhance reality in ambient...
Method: profiles of respondents Participants      Focus on interaction between young children and grandparents         ...
Probing by storyboards•   Storyboards     • Visualizations of use       scenarios     • To elicit attitudes and       opin...
Proxy Technology•   Chobots    • Web-based virtual      world targeted at      families       • Avatars         (customiza...
Example IM3 project    Interactive Mobile Medical Monitoring (2007 jun-sept)  (Interactive Mobile Medical 12 people with ...
PTA Faking the real thing? Fake? Proxies are not the ‘real’, final products Real? Proxies provoke real reactions and  in...
Q&Aan.jacobs@vub.ac.be                      32
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  • Technology both a tool and a subject: Methodological challenge
  • Van waarkomendezekenmerken nu weer, want ikzou die user en task requirements misschienwelwillenversanderenEigen invullingVanuit de hedendaagsepraktijken, stimuleren van reflexie en expliciteren van keuzenmogelijkhedennaar de toekomst toe
  • All in early stagesDemocratic, end user participation tradition 1) participatory design 2) ethnographic fieldwork Pragmatic commercial applications contextual designlead user approachEmpathic designCo-designingWhich knowledge is privelegde? Now futureWho’s knowledge is priviledged researcher designer user
  • 2. 2.1 Inspiring design through probingIn the literature, technological probing for idea generation has been well documented by Hutchinson et al (2003) within the context of the European interLiving project. In this project, the researchers put forth the notion of “technology probe” that could serve three goals: Is een beetje wat we in microsof llecos verhaal gedaan hebben
  • Interviews tespersonen Bewoners De Vijvers: Louis, Maria, Simonne Hun mantelzorgers: Luc, Edward, DelphineInterviewmomenten:Voor: reeds gebeurdTijdens: enkel bij Simonne en DelphineMaria overledenLouis opgenomen in ziekenhuisNa: nog te doenLogboekjes: Delphine, De VijversFocusgroep met ergo’s 22/10
  • o.aFotokaders + visual probes Reminiscentieitbreiden van het telefoneren met functieszou de toepassingvoorsommigerespondentennoginteressantermaken. Sommigezouden het leukvindenomtijdens het bellenfoto’suittewisselen. Foto’suit het verledenliggenbijsommigemensenevenwelgevoeligomwille van hunemotionelegeladenheid (bijvoorbeeldverlorenfamilieleden, slechteherinneringen). Linda is ookgewonnenvoor het ideeomeenlevensboeksamentestellen. Zefantaseertluidop van eenboek met eengoede en slechtekant; eenkantvoor de goedemomenten en eenkantvoor de minderemomenten. Zevindt het belangrijkomhaaremotiesteuiten en heeftdaarvoornietaltijdeenaanhoordernodig: zekanook met eenlevensboekuitingaanhaargevoelensgeven. Zeheeft van haarpsychiaterook de opdrachtgekregenomdittedoen.
  • Waar had ik die functional fixation nu weergevonden?
  • Affordance perceived and actual properties of a thing, determining how that thing could be properly used
  • These requirements imply that technology probes - at least the way Hutchinson et al. see them – should be designed specifically for the project. This is similar to the original cultural probes which they resemble. Unlike cultural probes, however, technology probes can support various activities and are always technological in nature. For instance, Hutchinson’s team designed MessageProbe, an application that let distributed family members share digital post-its. They let family members use it at home for several months and then met up with them. At this point family members could express their experiences with the probes and co-create their own vision of new communication technologies based on these experiences .. Hence, their properties are not purely determined by the technology concept, but by the researcher’s interest in general. Dit omdat deze toch niet echt zichtbaar is voor de gebruiker, slechts het geval indien software of hardware creatie zelf het onderwerp van ontwikkeling uitmaakt
  • Resemblance to new technology (concept): They should possess characteristics similar to that of the new technology (concept). This does not mean that the underlying hardware/software should be the same . Analysis/reflection triggering: They should trigger enhanced feedback from users within the domain of interest. Hence, their properties are not purely determined by the technology concept, but by the researcher’s interest in general.Deployability in real-world setting: They should be fully functional to prevent users from abandoning the technology due to technological issues. Dit omdat deze toch niet echt zichtbaar is voor de gebruiker, slechts het geval indien software of hardware creatie zelf het onderwerp van ontwikkeling uitmaakt
  • Which are the main practicesBvmobieletvWatching tv and being on the moveWatching tv: domestic, social bonding, broadcasting offers structuring
  • Media rich householdsOften multiple computers (interesting no mobile phone ownership, but computer dedicated to children) Grandparents household relatively less media rich`Mediated contact relatively traditionale-mail/ phone calls Mainly initiated by grandparent, often not directed at grandparent as such
  • Or What is this all about
  • Or What is this all about
  • Tqr 2013 probes proxies

    1. 1. Probe and proxies : unravelingmeaningful technology experiences An Jacobs Wendy Van den Broeck Bram Lievens Lizzy Bleumers4th TQR conference 2013 , Fort Lauderdale
    2. 2. Our focus on the use of technologyas applied social scientists in technology development Source: The Process of Design Squiggle, Damien Newman
    3. 3. Why applied social sciences within technology development?Problem Current design pitfalls: Technology push
    4. 4. A solution: Human centered design approach Combining consumer research & product development (social & technical aspects) characteristics: 1. Understanding requirements by user involvement 2. Balanced distribution between human and technology of functions 3. Iteration of evaluation and design 4. Multidisciplinary
    5. 5. Human Emphasis on ‘is’ on a current situation or on a problem centered design moves Participatory design Ethnographic fieldwork Emphasis on Emphasis on end-users researchers’ and knowledge Lead User Contextual designers’ Lead User Approach Contextual design and on their Approach design knowledge and on move towards their move towards research and end users design activities Co- Empathic designing designSource: Steen etal 2007 Emphasis on ‘ought’ on future situation or on an opportunity
    6. 6. Users as innovatorsGoal: beyond buying behavior (adoption)Appropriation/habitualization (domestication) Beyond people as end-users consumers Creativity does not stop when product is on market, innovative use User does not simply adapt to product/technology  Mutual shaping Unanticipated use ( inappropriate use)  Contextualized, situated use  DOMESTICATION PERSPECTIVE  Detect cultural and structural change in everyday practices, meaning and conflicts in use
    7. 7. BUT Innovation paradox : user insights can not be based on experience with final product that is not developed yet  Their cognitive map is functionally fixated in the present The future is unpredictable  Reflection of several stakeholders in making choices Is helping to co-create this future Solution ? doing research with probes
    8. 8. Probing techniques:Why and what? 1) information/inspiration 2) deeper 3) Participation
    9. 9. Probing methods in human computer interaction: Origin and history: 1990’sCULTURAL PROBESGavers et al. 1997 Titel van de presentatie 19/01/2013
    10. 10. Technological probing Used by different disciplines different  Hutchinson et al (2003)  Social science goal: data collection concerning technology use and the users  Design goal: inspiration among users & designers on new technologies  Engineering goal:  technology tests in the users’ natural setting
    11. 11. Example Transecare: (2009-2010)indepenefor care dependentstory board pictures to probe Piloting 2 X 3 set ups 5 monts 2009 4 months 2010 Detecting user and technical issues and redesign
    12. 12. Proxy technologies + mock ups
    13. 13. Solutions doing research with probes:Our approach: Low Fidelity :  Pen & paper, pictures, scenario’s, mock up’s High Fidelity:  Technological solution made for the social research  = Technological probe  Prototyping/demo of new technology:  often bounded to lab or still instable  (New) technological solution on market  Proxy Technology Assessment (PTA) (Pierson et al, 2006; Bleumers et al. 2010)
    14. 14. Type of R&D phase Time of Experience probe with probes Idea/concept Concept Concept Short Long development elaboration evaluation 1 moment ≥ 4 weeksNon techprobes ✗ ✗ ✗ Techprobes ✗ ✗ POC/prototype ✗ Off the shelf tech ✗ ✗ ✗
    15. 15. Proxy technology assessment vsTechnology assessment Technology assessment = forecasting possible routes for different stakeholders future development of technology will or can have Proxy technology assessment =analytical process, on micro level to co-construct plausible everyday practices with future technologies1) Substitute 2) indirect connection
    16. 16. Compare technological probes/proxiesTechnological probes Technological proxiesHutchinson et al (2003)Not necessary Resemblance to Some characteristics envisioned similar technologyCollect information about Logging Collaboration withtheir own use. producer, else diary methodOpen-ended, give users Flexibility Less open ended,freedom how they Innovative use alwaysappropriate it. Possible✔ Analysis/reflection ✔ triggering from usersSimple & technical sound Deploy in real world Be fully functional toCould have deliberate setting prevent fall out due tochosen usability issues usability issues.
    17. 17. Characteristics of PTA Starting not from person, place or product but a practice Then decide: which stuff ? situation? by who? Using state of art technology having characteristics and functions under study Study Innovation in everyday practices In conceptual phase of technological/product development
    18. 18. Example MADUF(Maximising DVBH usage in Flanders), 2006-2007  TV watching = ! domesticated everyday life practice = Stabilized, taken for granted social bonding ontological security domestic evening  new portable devices potential being on the move  Mobile TV technology (e.g. DVB-H) = developed ≠ idea generation phase = concept phase for application layer 19
    19. 19. Selecting suitable proxy technology central proxy technology = UMTS phone with Vodafone Live (third generation mobile technology, 3G) 20
    20. 20. Recruiting , mapping and roll out Week 1: task list and questionnaire Week 2: no data collection by user Week 3 diaries and cultural probes Week 4: no data collection by user Week 5: depth interviews
    21. 21. Monitoring usage  Elicit everyday life user experiences/practices to forecast everyday practices with future technologies  Integrated in a multi method social research plan  Desk research, observations  Questionnaires, logging, diaries, cultural probes, visual clues, in-depth interviews 22
    22. 22. How to do a PTA in practice? 1. Scoping 1. Which practice(s)? Which concept? 2. Which user group 3. which setting(s)? 4. List adequate proxy technologies 2. Selecting/sampling 1. suitable proxy technology 2. Selecting recruiting and profiling participants 3. Starting up proxy period 1. Mapping user setting 2. Distribution of proxy technology 4. Proxy period 1. Monitoring use 2. Eliciting reflection right after proxy period 5. Analysing data (in // with 4) 6. Reporting results
    23. 23. Technological objects as stimulus Not new  Taste testing, lab testing  In behavioral testing/experiment tradition  Creativity design tools  To generate new ideas Here in PTA:  1) in combination with other interpretative techniques  2) offering new reference point for systematic reflection  3) And collect data on use and experience of use, design implications are secondary
    24. 24. Time for some more examples ?
    25. 25. Example HI-Masquerade (Human Interface MulticameraAcquisition for story telling and qualitative enhance reality in ambient3D environment ) (2008-2010) The concept? • Project goal:  Real-time, authentic, immersive remote family interaction in virtual worlds • Question? • Investigate potential value of virtual worlds for family interaction • Establish requirements
    26. 26. Method: profiles of respondents Participants  Focus on interaction between young children and grandparents  Child between 8 and 12 y old  One of grandparents  One of parents  Focus on appropriation among those that have the basic skills and means to use a virtual world application  Access to the Internet  Basis Internet skills  Long term, in-depth qualititative study  3 families participated  Media rich households  Mediated contact relatively traditional
    27. 27. Probing by storyboards• Storyboards • Visualizations of use scenarios • To elicit attitudes and opinions• First storyboard theme • Sharing and reliving past experiences together• Second storyboard theme • Creative and cooperative play
    28. 28. Proxy Technology• Chobots • Web-based virtual world targeted at families • Avatars (customization) • Individual and multi- play • Communication tools • 4 weeks use (logbook) + interview
    29. 29. Example IM3 project Interactive Mobile Medical Monitoring (2007 jun-sept) (Interactive Mobile Medical 12 people with chronic heart failure Offline diary and auto-collection of pictures Intake and follow up interview 4 weeks total, 2 weeks diary Open ended & closed questions 30
    30. 30. PTA Faking the real thing? Fake? Proxies are not the ‘real’, final products Real? Proxies provoke real reactions and information about possible everyday use of final product.
    31. 31. Q&Aan.jacobs@vub.ac.be 32

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