An organization, founded in 1883, of over 30,000 teachers and scholars. Writing Style that governs Format, Punctuation, Quotations Documentations of Sources and Works Cited Used for Research Papers in many Undergraduate classes, including English Not the only format for research papers. Others: APA, Chicago, Turabian, and more!
1 inch margins all around Double-spaced A header on each page in the upper right-hand corner, ½ inch below the top edge, that includes: Your last name The page number
Begin each entry at the left margin . Indent the second and all subsequent lines in a citation 1/2 inch (5 spaces if using a typewriter). This is called a hanging indention. Alphabetize citations by author’s last name if the author’s name is unknown, alphabetize by the first word in the title other than a definite or an indefinite article (“a”, “an”, “the”). End each citation with a period .
Quoting means to repeat another source word for word, using quotation marks “” Summarizing means to take the key ideas from another source and shorten them, using your own words Paraphrasing means to use the ideas from another source but put into your own words
Don’t fall into the trap of plagiarism! If the idea or information you are using did not originate in your own mind . . .
What type of source is this? Is it a whole book or part of a book? How do you know? Who is the author? Title? Etc.
Named author or editor (if given) Title of article or project accessed (in quotes) Any additional information required for a comparable type of source (e.g., title of online magazine) Title of database, periodical, or professional site (underlined). For site with no title use the designation Home Page. Date of material (if given) Page numbers or the number of paragraphs or numbered sections Page publisher, computer service, or organization sponsoring Web site Date you accessed the information URL (address of Web page) in angle brackets < >
Series that gather articles from other sources and combine them into one source. You will provide information about the source you found the article in and its original source. Questions to ask about the source: What type of source was the original? Has the original title been changed? NoodleTools can help you. When selecting the citation type, pick the original source’s type.
Research 3: The MLA Format Avoiding Plagiarism and Documenting Sources Amy Ferguson Richland College Library Fall 2009
Receive the Information Literacy Certificate <ul><li>Attend all 3 workshops in the Library Instruction Program </li></ul><ul><li>Research 1 : Introduction to College Research </li></ul><ul><li>Research 2 : Electronic Research - Sources and Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Research 3 : MLA - Avoiding Plagiarism and Documenting Sources. </li></ul>
Computer Use <ul><li>Anyone using computers for other purposes ( e-mail, games, etc. ) will be asked to leave and will NOT receive credit for this workshop. </li></ul>Only use computers as I direct.
Goals <ul><li>Use proper MLA in-text documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a properly formatted Works Cited list . </li></ul>A+
Agenda <ul><li>Attendance </li></ul><ul><li>What is MLA? </li></ul><ul><li>Works Cited in NoodleBib </li></ul><ul><li>In-text documentation </li></ul>
What is the MLA Format? See “Essentials of the MLA Format” Handout.
Why Must We Cite Our Sources? <ul><li>To lend authority and credibility to our work. </li></ul><ul><li>To allow your readers to cross-reference your sources easily </li></ul><ul><li>To provide consistent format for writing papers within a discipline </li></ul><ul><li>To acknowledge our academic debts </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Plagiarism </li></ul>
PLAGIARISM <ul><li>To plagiarize is to give the impression that you have written or thought something that you have borrowed from someone else. </li></ul>From the Latin word plagiarius — kidnapper
Why Does Plagiarism Matter? You may fail your class or be expelled. Plagiarism in your professional career can result in being sued, fired, and publicly embarrassed.
<ul><li>“ Scholastic dishonesty shall include, but not be limited to, cheating on a test, plagiarism, and collusion.” </li></ul>The DCCCD Code of Student Conduct prohibits Academic dishonesty www1.dcccd.edu/cat0910/ss/code.cfm
Cite your Sources! <ul><li>1. Provide in-text documentation </li></ul>2. Provide a citation in the “Works Cited” list for every source cited in the paper.
You Must Cite Your Source When… <ul><li>Quoting any words that are not your own </li></ul><ul><li>Summarizing facts and ideas from a source </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrasing a source </li></ul>When using factual information that is not common knowledge
COMMON KNOWLEDGE: <ul><li>Examples : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General Custer lost the battle at Little Big Horn. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Franklin Pierce, 14th President of the United States, was born in 1804 and died in 1869. </li></ul></ul>Information that appears in 5 or more sources
Anatomy of a Citation <ul><li>Cooper, Mary H. “Global Warming Update.” CQ Researcher 1 Nov. 1996: 1-24. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Early Warning Sings: Spreading Disease.” Global Warming . Union of Concerned Scientists, n.d. Web. 27 Aug. 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>McKibben, Bill. The End of Nature . New York: Anchor, 1989. Print. </li></ul>
Citing a Book <ul><li>Becker, Gary S. "The Age of Human Capital." Education in the Twenty-first Century . Ed. Edward P. Lazear. Staford: Hoover, 2002 . 3-8. Print. </li></ul>Author. “Part of Book.” Title of Book . Name of Editor. Volume . Series . Imprint. Page Numbers . Additional info. Medium.
Citing a Magazine Article <ul><li>Whitley, Glenna. “Duel on the Nile.” D Magazine Feb. 1989: 64-67+. Print. </li></ul>Author. “Title of the article.” Title of Magazine Date: Pages. Medium . Image Sources Time Cover: http://images.google.com/hosted/life Newsweek Cover: http://www.flickr.com/photos/forallofus/
Newspaper Articles <ul><li>Birnbaum, Mary C. “Information-Age Infants: Technology Pushes the Frontiers of What Babies Know.” Dallas Morning News 23 Aug. 1994: 5C . Print. </li></ul>Author. “Title of Article.” Title of Newspaper Date: Edition: Section and Page Numbers . Medium. Image: Newspapers 2 by Arjun Kartha from www.sxc.hu
Citing a Journal Article <ul><li>Author. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal Volume.Issue (Date): Page Numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>Badami, Mary Kenny. “A Feminist Critique of Science Fiction.” Extrapolation 18.1 (1976): 236-59. </li></ul>Image by James w Davis from en.wikipedia.org
Articles from Full Text Databases <ul><li>Citation. Database . Medium. Date of Access . </li></ul><ul><li>Bessieres, Michel. "Global Warming: Ignorance Is Not Bliss." UNESCO Courier June 2001: 10. Academic Search Complete. Web. 20 July 2003 </li></ul>
Citing World Wide Web Sources <ul><li>Author. “Title of Page.” Additional Info. Title of Site . Date. Page Numbers. Publisher. Medium. Access Date . </li></ul><ul><li>Newhall, Brent P. "Beowulf." Encyclopedia Mythica . 17 Mar. 2002. Web. 20 Sep. 2005 </li></ul>
Reprints <ul><li>Author. Reprint Source. Rpt. of Original Source. Medium. </li></ul><ul><li>Chadwick, Douglas. “Private Property Regulation is Necessary to save Endgandered Species.” Endangered Species . Ed. Helen Cothran. Opposing Viewpoints Ser. San Diego: Greenhaven, 2001. 88-93. Rpt. of “Strength in Humilty.” Sierra Jan./Feb. 1996: :n. pag. Print. </li></ul>
Parenthetical (In-Text) Documentation <ul><li>Points to the specific source in your Works cited list and the location of information in source </li></ul><ul><li>Provide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Author (or Title) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Page number </li></ul></ul>
Parenthetical Documentation The education and ability of the people provide the United States with its greatest asset (Becker 3) . Source: Becker, Gary S. "The Age of Human Capital." Education in the Twenty-first Century . Ed. by Edward P. Lazear. Staford: Hoover, 2002. 3-8. Print. According to Gary S. Becker , human capital is the greatest form of capital in the 21st century (3) .
What if the source doesn’t have an author? Most college graduates earn at least 23 percent more than those with just a high school diploma ("Rising" 35). Source: "The Rising Value of a College Education." Presidency . Sping 2004: 35. Print.
No page number? <ul><li>Just skip it! </li></ul>The evidence clearly proves that the benefits of a college education outweigh the cost of earning a degree (Porter) . Source: Porter, Kathleen. "The Value of a College Degree." ERIC Digest. ERIC Clearinghouse: ED470038. U.S. Dept. of Education. 2002. Web. 26 May 2006
Remember <ul><li>Always write down complete information about your sources while you are at the library. </li></ul><ul><li>You can ask a reference librarian for assistance with MLA format. </li></ul>
How Can I Get Information about MLA Format? <ul><li>Refer to the handouts at http://libguides.richlandcollege.edu/libraryclasses </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Ask a Librarian! </li></ul>