http://www.canalmuseum.com/photos/1908_miraflores.jpgLicorice and applesSo capital intensive, needed common ownership
1.15 marker on the filmSeparation of owner and manager – huge amount of management science as a fieldAlso separate markets – free flow of exchange of ownership. Fluid and connected
A right to sell or a right to buyCDOs, CDS, ABS
Building by architectural design competition George Post 1903World’s largest stock exchange. $14.5 billion listed companies. $150bn daily trading volume.http://itsjustmicheal.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/06/nyse.jpg
Global Market and Capital Market (Cap has 5mn, then 1mn, then 15mn, then $4, then 750k then 300 shareholders)
Dorinda, John Thain, locker room, ash wednesday
Stock exchange – publicly traded companies
20 million shares out of 170 million. Now 270 million. Stockpile cash. Be able to make acquisitions. Be advised on them by banks.
Shift in perspective – individual stock to Stock exchange and index – pull up the Dow on Google Finance
Stop to look at newspapers
Ways of taking the temperature on the whole economy
Fell by 12.8 percent. Dropped to 260. Didn’t recover for 25 years.August 24, 1921 – was at 63.9. Sept 3, 1929, was at 381.2.
Lost 22% of valueSome economies lost 30-60%
Show on website -- http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/crash/etc/cron.html
Show historic banking film – then break?
Registration of exchanges, insider trading laws, registration of “broker-dealers” etc
Commercial, Investment, Private BankDepository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980, the Garn–St. Germain Depository Institutions Act of 1982, and the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act of 1999.The repeal enabled commercial lenders such as Citigroup, which was in 1999 the largest U.S. bank by assets, to underwrite and trade instruments such as mortgage-backed securities and collateralized debt obligations and establish so-called structured investment vehicles, or SIVs, that bought those securities. Elizabeth Warren, author and one of the five outside experts who constitute the Congressional Oversight Panel of the Troubled Asset Relief Program,
Oversees 4500 brokerage firms. Administers exams. Disciplinary infractions. Series 7 and 63. Series 24.
Paid in small percentages vs find every dollar for a school teacher
For a firm or a market
Here is an example. Don’t be thrown by the Excel notation. . . . If you invest $10,000 to make $12,000, that seems like a good deal. You make a 20% return. But, that’s only if you get the return in the same time frame. The theory of “net present value” is that you can discount future cash flows (DCF or discounted cash flow analysis) so you can figure out what they are “worth” to you now in the present. Let’s say, in this example, you get the cash flows over four years ($12,000 total but in increments). The formula to calculate net present value (NPV) is to take the cash flow and divide it by 1 plus the interest rate you think you could get otherwise. If you weren’t investing 10,000 here, you could get 5% return each year from the bank, so the rate – “r” is 5%. Then you reflect the dimension of time by raising 1+r to the number of years (or whatever time frame if 5% is a monthly or quarterly, not annual return). So if I get 2,000 in year 2, my denominator is 1+ 0.05 raised to the 2nd power which is 1.05 x 1.05 which is 1.25. You can see how that number gets bigger exponentially as you go across. So you discount the cash flows and analytically 5,000 in year 4 is really only worth 4,114 to you. (If you had 4,114 in year zero, it would be 5,000 in year 4.) The key takeaway is just again to be mindful of the timing of the cash flows because your investors will – and the real economic value of a project will need to reflect this. An everyday example is when someone wins the lottery, they will offer you a lump sum payment or a payment annually for decades. They’ve done this calculation. The annual payments look bigger but since you don’t get the money for a long time (and someone else gets the investment return on it), it isn’t as good of a deal as it may look.
This is a way of comparing options by taking into consideration the probability of whether they will happen. You multiply the odds by the payout, as in the example above. It’s a good mental habit for knowing the scale of something (eg lottery payouts are huge but odds of winning tiny, so the expected value is – I have to imagine since lotteries are huge fundraisers for governments – less than the price of a ticket).
Pulitzer Prize vs Income. Odds re pitching work. What your goals are. When to buy a lottery ticket and when to play it safe.
A good way of knowing “what success looks like.” This identifies the point at which you shift from loss to profit.
Sotheby's Institute Week 5 Whitaker 20111005
Introduction to Finance<br />Professor Whitaker <br />Sotheby’s Institute New York <br />Principles of Business I <br />October 5, 2011<br />
Agenda for today<br />History of Markets and Structure of Markets<br />Time Value of Money<br />
Housekeeping: Things to See<br />Moneyball<br />Occupy Wall Street<br />Will be optional question on problem set.<br />
1. Change in perspective: Powers of 10, Charles and Ray Eames. Economics is at the level of the picnic blanket. Finance can be really granular (as in a stat arb strategy) or really big picture (investing in whole companies, looking at whole economies). <br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0fKBhvDjuy0<br />
How did this all come about?<br />Some people say that the advent of the railroad create the real necessity of the stock market because the project was so capital intensive there had to be joint ownership.<br />
Separation of Owner and ManagerPrincipal-Agent Problems<br />
Ownership: owning and owing<br />The principal you own = equity<br />The mortage you owe the bank = debt<br />The bank selling the mortgage on to another bank = derivative<br />That bank slicing up that mortgage into different risk bands = derivative<br />
Securities: Stocks, Bonds, Derivatives<br />A security: an investable instrument, a store of financial instrument that can be bought and sold<br />Equity – what you own stocks<br />Debt – what you owe bonds<br />Derivatives – contracts based on other underlying securities<br />Options – common derivatives types, a right and an obligation to buy or sell in the future (put or call)<br />Commodities – gold, oil, etc.<br />
New York Stock Exchange<br />“On May 17, 1792, twenty-four stockbrokers gathered outside 68 Wall Street under a buttonwood tree to sign an agreement that would establish the rules for buying and selling bonds and shares of companies. The Buttonwood Agreement, as it is known, is so named because the tree served as the regular meeting place for these pioneers of Wall Street. The signers of the Buttonwood Agreement drafted their first constitution on March 8th, 1817, and named their nascent organization the New York Stock & Exchange Board.”<br />
NYSE Criteria<br />Minimum pretax income for two years $2mn<br />Revenues $75mn<br />Market value publicly held $100mn<br />Holders of 100+ shares 400<br />
NASDAQ Criteria (Global Market)<br />Shareholders’ Equity $15mn<br />Shares in public hands 1.1mn<br />Market value of publicly traded shares $8mn<br />Minimum Stock Price $4<br />Pretax Income $1mn<br />Shareholders >400 <br />
Traders<br />Owners of a seat on the exchange, floor brokers, specialists<br />
Life Cycle of a Company<br />Start-up (Friends and family)<br />Fledgling(move from garage to office building)<br />Grows to scale (Later stage venture capital financing)<br />Goes Public (IPO)<br />Traded on Exchange (becomes part of an index)<br />
March 1997 – began as a research project<br />August 1998 – Andy Bechtolsheim, founder of Sun Microsystems, gives them $100,000<br />September 1998 – incorporated as Google Inc. in a friend’s garage in Menlo Park<br />March 1999 – moved into offices in Palo Alto (kept outgrowing offices, moved to current 2003)<br />June 1999 – receive $25 million from Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Buyers and Sequoia Capital<br />March 2001 – hired CEO as condition of keeping funding<br />January 2004 – hired Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley to handle IPO. IPO filing showed a profit since 2001 and a 2003 profit of $105mn on $960mn of earnings<br />
Google IPO<br />August 25, 2004 – floated 19,605,052 shares at $85 per share. (Google cut out Goldman and left Morgan Stanley and Credit Suisse as the underwriters)<br />The stock price at the end of the first day was $100.34, with a trading volume of 22mn shares.<br />Listed on the NASDAQ under GOOG.<br />
Stock Exchanges and Indices<br />Dow Jones Industrial Average (“The Dow”)<br />Standard and Poor’s 500 (“S&P 500”)<br />
The Great Depression: start of regulatory history of the stock market<br />
The Securities Act of 1933<br />“The truth in securities act” or “the paper act”<br />require that investors receive financial and other significant information concerning securities being offered for public sale; and <br />prohibit deceit, misrepresentations, and other fraud in the sale of securities<br />Filings, IPOs, disclosures of public companies – includes exemption for private placement<br />
The Securities Act of 1934<br />The “Exchange act” created the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC):<br />“The Act empowers the SEC with broad authority over all aspects of the securities industry. This includes the power to register, regulate, and oversee brokerage firms, transfer agents, and clearing agencies as well as the nation's securities self regulatory organizations (SROs). The various stock exchanges, such as the New York Stock Exchange, and American Stock Exchange are SROs. The National Association of Securities Dealers, which operates the NASDAQ system, is also an SRO.”<br />
1940 Acts<br />The Investment Company Act of 1940<br />Requires investment companies (e.g., mutual funds) to make disclosures to the public initially and ongoing<br />The Investment Advisers Act of 1940<br />Companies paid to advise on investments must register with the SEC (since 1996, only companies that manage at least $25 million must do so)<br />
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002<br />Heightened disclosures and oversight<br />Created a “Public Company Accounting Oversight Board” (PCAOB) to oversee auditors<br />In response to scandals like Enron, Tyco, and Worldcom<br />
Banking Act of 1933<br />“Glass-Steagall Act”<br />Created the FDIC<br />Separated Investment and Commercial Banking<br />Was repealed in 1999, allowing commercial banks to created mortgage-backed securities<br />
EDGAR<br />Companies with more than $10 million in assets whose securities are held by more than 500 owners must file annual and other periodic reports. These reports are available to the public through the SEC's EDGAR database.<br />
Private Placement – “Reg D”<br />The exemption to public filings:<br /><ul><li>No general solicitation (no advertisement)
Warm-up period, circulation of “offering documents”
Fewer than 500 investors (or $10 million in investments)</li></ul>“Accredited Investor”<br />1933 Act - $1mn in investible net worth or income above $200,000 (singly) or $300,000 (jointly) for each of the past two years, and belief that will continue.<br />“Qualified Purchaser”<br />1940 Act – “Qualified Person” (QP) - $5mn in investable net worth for a natural person or investment entity, $25mn for unrelated company.<br />
Self-Regulatory Organizations<br />NASD - National Association of Securities Dealers (founded 1939)<br />FINRA – Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (founded 2007)<br />
Risk and Return<br />Corporations as amoral, needing regulation to set boundaries<br />Goldman Sachs as “giant vampire squid”<br />“There’s no such thing as a free lunch.”<br />Concentration of benefit, diffusion of risk<br />Private gain, public loss<br />
Concentration of Risk<br />If you are what you eat, and especially if you eat industrial food, as 99 percent of Americans do, what you are is "corn.” – Michael Pollan<br />
Stock Market Returns<br />Beta – correlation to the market. “A rising tide lifts all boats.” The market itself has a beta of 1.<br />Alpha – “absolute return.” Gains unrelated to the upward trajectory of the market. Uncorrelated returns, gains from insight and performance.<br />Measure of Alpha: Sharpe Ratio<br />
Modern Portfolio Theory<br />Harry Markowitz: it is better to own the entire basket of the market, as the positions will move in slightly different directions, having the effect of insuring each other, giving you a higher risk adjusted return.<br />Vanguard Funds vs. David Swenson Approach<br />
Lottery Ticket<br />You have one the lottery!<br />Would you rather have a lump sum payment of $10 million, or $500,000 every year for 30 years?<br />
Investing in School<br />It costs you $50,000 to go to graduate school.<br />Without school you will earn $40,000 per year. With school, you will earn $45,000 per year, and be promoted to management in the middle of your career. <br />Is it worth it? What does this look like in numbers?<br />
Artist’s Retainer<br />There is a hot young artist you really want to sign to your gallery. It is the 1980s and people are paying artists retainers. <br />If you pay this artist, Fred Lois Smith, $40,000 per month for a year, he will make work you can sell in your gallery in one year’s time. Because of Fred’s cost of materials, he requests that you pay the amount up front at the start of the year. How much do you have to make from Fred’s show for this to be worth it?<br />
Takeaways related to art<br />Your clients will be invested in these arenas.<br />Your savings will be invested in these arenas.<br />Investment in art is usually viewed as an “alternative asset” – in the same class as hedge funds.<br />You may need to be aware of private placement law.<br />Your investors may be looking to art as a “correlation buster.” They may also love art.<br />