Healthy Mind

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Presentation opens with this video by XVIVO Scientific Animation: https://vimeo.com/32267403 …

Presentation opens with this video by XVIVO Scientific Animation: https://vimeo.com/32267403
and closed with Jason Silva's the Biological Benefits of Awe: https://vimeo.com/46264514

Talk given by Amy Robinson at Redstone Federal Arsenal on Aug 22, 2012 about how to build a healthy mind. Original slides reformatted with added text to make presentation more slideshare friendly.

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  • Stress is a neuron growth killer. Literally.
  • Stress leads to atrophy and loss of neurons.
  • And not just white matter. These are pyramidal cells in grey matter which are not sheathed in myelin. You can see how the cell on the left has more growth, and this image doesn’t even show dendritic spining, the process that yields new synapses. The cell on the right comes from an animal that experiences higher levels of stress and you can see the decreased overall branching and shorter axon lengths.
  • It’s also important to talk about neural plasticity.
  • Think of white matter as a set of telephone wires that connect regions of the brain. Loss of integrity includes reduced myelination and atrophy in size of axons, which is directly correlated with ability of neuron to transmit impulses. In a study by John Morrison at Mount Sinai School of medicine, stressed rats were documented taking longer to recognize new patterns than rats with less stress.
  • To give you a sense of the importance of white matter, this is a tensor diffusion image of white matter connectivity. You can see that every part of the brain requires white matter signal transduction. A study by University of Kentucky on white matter found that elderly people who are at risk for Alzheimers but don’t yet show symptoms show both reduced axonal and myelin integrity in critical white matter regions responsible for connecting gray matter regions responsible for memory formation.
  • Knowledge is key to targeted intervention. So what’s good for your neurons?
  • Laughter. Laughter triggers the release of endorphins, stimulates the immune system and increases relaxation by stimulating oxygen supply to the brain. Your brain is about 3% of your body mass yet uses about 25% of your body’s energy. It’s energetically expensive to think and learn, and laughter is an interlude that helps your body do it better. It
  • Knowledge is key to targeted intervention. So what’s good for your neurons?
  • Perspective. The way we see the world influences the way we perceive it to be. For example, let’s look at a study performed by Yale University.
  • Researchers at Yale did a study on fullness. They gave one group a smoothie that was a ‘sensible’ 140 calories, a control group had a 380 cal smoothie and a third group consumed a 620 cal “indulgent” smoothie. Nor surprisingly, the group that consumed the low-cal smoothie experienced a reduced release of the hormone ghrelin, which regulates appetite. The reverse was true for the group that drank the 620 cal smoothie. Their bodies released more of the fullness hormone and they consequently reported feeling more full. The surprising part?
  • Researchers at Yale did a study on fullness. They gave one group a smoothie that was a ‘sensible’ 140 calories, a control group had a 380 cal smoothie and a third group consumed a 620 cal “indulgent” smoothie. Nor surprisingly, the group that consumed the low-cal smoothie experienced a reduced release of the hormone ghrelin, which regulates appetite. The reverse was true for the group that drank the 620 cal smoothie. Their bodies released more of the fullness hormone and they consequently reported feeling more full. The surprising part?
  • Researchers at Yale did a study on fullness. They gave one group a smoothie that was a ‘sensible’ 140 calories, a control group had a 380 cal smoothie and a third group consumed a 620 cal “indulgent” smoothie. Nor surprisingly, the group that consumed the low-cal smoothie experienced a reduced release of the hormone ghrelin, which regulates appetite. The reverse was true for the group that drank the 620 cal smoothie. Their bodies released more of the fullness hormone and they consequently reported feeling more full. The surprising part?
  • Researchers at Yale did a study on fullness. They gave one group a smoothie that was a ‘sensible’ 140 calories, a control group had a 380 cal smoothie and a third group consumed a 620 cal “indulgent” smoothie. Nor surprisingly, the group that consumed the low-cal smoothie experienced a reduced release of the hormone ghrelin, which regulates appetite. The reverse was true for the group that drank the 620 cal smoothie. Their bodies released more of the fullness hormone and they consequently reported feeling more full. The surprising part?
  • Researchers at Yale did a study on fullness. They gave one group a smoothie that was a ‘sensible’ 140 calories, a control group had a 380 cal smoothie and a third group consumed a 620 cal “indulgent” smoothie. Nor surprisingly, the group that consumed the low-cal smoothie experienced a reduced release of the hormone ghrelin, which regulates appetite. The reverse was true for the group that drank the 620 cal smoothie. Their bodies released more of the fullness hormone and they consequently reported feeling more full. The surprising part?
  • Researchers at Yale did a study on fullness. They gave one group a smoothie that was a ‘sensible’ 140 calories, a control group had a 380 cal smoothie and a third group consumed a 620 cal “indulgent” smoothie. Nor surprisingly, the group that consumed the low-cal smoothie experienced a reduced release of the hormone ghrelin, which regulates appetite. The reverse was true for the group that drank the 620 cal smoothie. Their bodies released more of the fullness hormone and they consequently reported feeling more full. The surprising part?
  • Cognitive Appraisal, a term originally coined by Richard Lazarus of UC Berkeley, is thesubjective assessment of situational demands and available resources, aka your perception of a situation.
  • This is not the kind of response you want to have. It’s a great image. Funny, ridiculous and if you think about it, and put it into another perspective, say a mere 500 years ago when people were in the dark ages and didn’t have freedom of religion or science or even places in the world where every day residents are threatened by civil unrest, violence, war and totalitarian regimes, that overwhelming new project your boss just handed you is not such a big thing. Cognitive appraisal is based on the idea that you can respond to the same situation in different ways.
  • This is not the kind of response you want to have. It’s a great image. Funny, ridiculous and if you think about it, and put it into another perspective, say a mere 500 years ago when people were in the dark ages and didn’t have freedom of religion or science or even places in the world where every day residents are threatened by civil unrest, violence, war and totalitarian regimes, that overwhelming new project your boss just handed you is not such a big thing. Cognitive appraisal is based on the idea that you can respond to the same situation in different ways.
  • Threat: Possible future damage that the event may cause.Challenge: The potential to overcome and even profit from the event.
  • Sleep allows the brain to process memories and grow new connections formed during the day. Your brain is far from silent while you are sleeping. You have 4 stages of sleep plus REM which accounts for 20 percent of sleep time. REM is deep sleep is is thought to play a key role in maintaining a healthy brain. According to the NIH, during sleep, growth hormones are released, neurotransmitters are synthesized, protein breakdown in cells slows, and toxins from daily activities are flushed.
  • Lack of sleep impairs immune function and can have peculiar side effects like boosting hunger and appetite.
  • Lack of sleep impairs immune function and can have peculiar side effects like boosting hunger and appetite.
  • Lack of sleep impairs immune function and can have peculiar side effects like boosting hunger and appetite.
  • When your body lacks water, brain cells and other neurons shrink and biochemical processes involved in cellular communication slow. A drop of as little as 1 to 2% of fluid levels can result in slower processing speeds, impaired short-term memory, tweaked visual tracking and deficits in attention. Water is also important to remove toxins. Via Gregory Kellett, neuroscientist at UCSF.
  • As rebecca mentioned. B Vitamins and zinc are key to making neurotransmitters like serotonin and GABA; zinc plays a central role in the growth of new neurons
  • As rebecca mentioned. B Vitamins and zinc are key to making neurotransmitters like serotonin and GABA; zinc plays a central role in the growth of new dendrites, as pictured above in a neurite. Phytonutrients, are plant compounds that have tremendous health benefits for the brain.  Thesepigmentd molecules from colored fruits and veggies are loaded with antioxidants and even carry active enzymes that can enhance the efficience of the biochemical machine happening in your body right now. To give you a sense of the scale of how much is happening in your body, consider that every 60seconds your bone marrow creates 120 MILLION red blood cells AND 7 MILLION white blood cells. Here’s a little game: does anyone know the food with the highest nutrient value per calorie?
  • As rebecca mentioned. B Vitamins and zinc are key to making neurotransmitters like serotonin and GABA; zinc plays a central role in the growth of new neurons
  • Kale. Healthy body, healthy mind. It’s also important to note that consuming whole, unprocessed foods helps maintain a healthy gut bacteria flora. There are more non-human cells in your body than human ones, and the 100 trillion bacteria in your gut paly a crucial role in nutrient absorption and even influence production many neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, 90% of which is used by your enteric nervous system.
  • As rebecca mentioned. B Vitamins and zinc are key to making neurotransmitters like serotonin and GABA; zinc plays a central role in the growth of new neurons
  • As rebecca mentioned. B Vitamins and zinc are key to making neurotransmitters like serotonin and GABA; zinc plays a central role in the growth of new neurons
  • So what does it take to make an ultra mind? We’ve explored how the mind works and considered exercise, relaxation, laughter, happiness, perspective, sleep, hydration and nutrition as contributing factors to cognitive health. I’m going to add one more thing to this list which may come as a delightful surprise.
  • Awe. Researchers at Stanford Graduate School of Business recently performed a landmark study on the biological benefits of awe, which range from the expansion of perception of time to increased patience; awe boosts decision making ability and well-being. I’m going to close today with a video about the biological benefits of awe. “Awe-inspiring experiences make you feel that time is more plentiful. They also incline you to give of your time more freely. So go get your fill of awesomeness.”
  • As rebecca mentioned. B Vitamins and zinc are key to making neurotransmitters like serotonin and GABA; zinc plays a central role in the growth of new neurons
  • https://vimeo.com/46264514
  • We’ve been over nutrients, exercise, relaxation, nutrients, hydration, sleep, laughter and even perspective. But one new thing to add to your cognitive health toolkit might come as a delightful surprise.

Transcript

  • 1. Healthy Mind Amy Robinson | Creative DirectorImage Source: TEDxAmsterdam Sterling Health
  • 2. What is a mind?
  • 3. Image Source: Onformative
  • 4. The ConnectomeCourtesy of the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging and Martinos Center for BiomedicalImaging, www.humanconnectomeproject.com
  • 5. Connects specialized brain regions allowing for higher cognitive function.Courtesy of the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging and Martinos Center for BiomedicalImaging, www.humanconnectomeproject.com
  • 6. Your knowledge and thoughts, hopes and dreams are neural connection networks.Courtesy of the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging and Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging,www.humanconnectomeproject.com
  • 7. Isolated NeuronImage Source: Michael Colicos
  • 8. Neuron Cell Bodies in Cerebral Cortex Mind StrongImage Source: Jeff Lichtman, Harvard University
  • 9. Cerebral Cortex LayersImage Source: Tamily Weissman, Harvard University
  • 10. 80% of Genetic Expression Diversity Occurs in the BrainImage: Nerve Growth Factor, Molecules iPad App
  • 11. Growing AxonsImage Source: Albert Pan, Olympus BioScapes
  • 12. Mind Strong Myelinated AxonsImage Source: Dawen Cai, Josh R. Sanes, Jeff W. Lichtman, Harvard U.
  • 13. Image Source: UMPC Cross-section of Myelinated Axon
  • 14. Use it or lose it.Image Source: UMPC
  • 15. Image Source:Dr. Vonda Wright, UPMC
  • 16. Growing NeuronImage Source: Richard Klemke, UCSD
  • 17. Relax
  • 18. Stress leads to atrophy and loss of neurons.Source: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/4793/version/1
  • 19. Stress-induced neural atrophyImage Source: Supplement 23: Handbook of Physiology, The Endocrine System, Coping with the Environment:Neural and Endocrine Mechanisms
  • 20. Environmental stimuli induces growthImage Source: Johansson and Belichenko (2002)
  • 21. Stress decreases integrity of white matter.Source: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/4793/version/1
  • 22. White matter connectivity underlies every complex cognitive process.Courtesy of the Laboratory of Neuro Imaging and Martinos Center for BiomedicalImaging, www.humanconnectomeproject.com
  • 23. What’s good for your neurons?
  • 24. Source: Internetz
  • 25. Happiness Positive impact: • Neuroendocrine • Inflammation • CardiovascularSource: Andrew Steptoe et al. 2005, PNAS
  • 26. PerspectiveImage Source: InstantShift
  • 27. The Yale Smoothie Study 140 cal 380 cal 620 cal “sensible” “average” “indulgent”Source: Yale University Center for Clinical Investigation
  • 28. 140 Calorie Group • Participants were less full • Bodies released less ghrelin, hormone regulating appetiteSource: Yale University Center for Clinical Investigation
  • 29. 620 Calorie Group • Participants were more full • Bodies released more ghrelinSource: Yale University Center for Clinical Investigation
  • 30. The surprising part?
  • 31. All the smoothies had the same number of calories.
  • 32. Perception influences physiological response in body as well as mind.Source: Yale University Center for Clinical Investigation
  • 33. Cognitive Appraisal:Subjective assessment of situationaldemands and available resources.
  • 34. Exhibit AImage Source: Daily-Diabetic
  • 35. Exhibit BImage Source: GlobalReports.com
  • 36. Threat vs. Challenge
  • 37. Sleep
  • 38. fMRI of Non-REM versus Deep (REM) SleepImage Source: Journal of Human Brain Mapping
  • 39. Rats allowed to sleep but deprived of REM were dead in 33 days.Source: Rechtschaffen et al (1983)
  • 40. During Sleep: • Growth hormones are released • Neurotransmitters are synthesized • Protein breakdown in cells slows • Toxins removed • Long-term memories are formedSource: NIH
  • 41. Hydration
  • 42. Your Brain is 60% Water
  • 43. Dehydration causes shrinkage. Diameter of an axon is directly related to signal transduction capacity.Source: UCSF
  • 44. Dehydration: • Slows Neuron Processing Speeds • Impairs Short-Term Memory • Attentional DeficitsSource: UCSF
  • 45. Micronutrients
  • 46. Feed Your Growing NeuronsImage Source: Yale Univeristy
  • 47. What food has thehighest nutrient value per calorie?
  • 48. Kale: Highest Nutrient Value per Calorie of All Known FoodsImage Source: Yale Univeristy
  • 49. Healthy GutThere are more non-human cells inyour body than human ones.
  • 50. 100 Trillion BacteriaResponsible for nutrient absorption andinfluence production of hormones likeSerotonin, 90% of which is in gut.
  • 51. Make your mind epic. Exercise Relax Laugh Be Happy Shift Perspective Sleep Hydrate Eat Well and one more..
  • 52. Experience Awe Image by bpitman12 on photobucket
  • 53. Biological Benefits of Awe: • Expands perception of time • Increases patience • Boosts decision making ability • Boosts well-beingImage Source: Stanford GSB
  • 54. [Jason Silva Video]
  • 55. Exercise Relaxation Laughter Happiness Perspective Healthy Mind Sleep Hydration Nutrition AweImage Source: TEDxAmsterdam
  • 56. Healthy Mind Amy Robinson | Creative DirectorImage Source: TEDxAmsterdam Sterling Health