Road to SCHEVENINGEN towards a sustainable tourism destination P2 Presentation by Amy Ikha Yanti Santoso (4120663) Delta Intervention Studio 26 Januari 2012
The aims of this project are:1. Designing new public transport scenarios in The Hague, toScheveningen and other local tourism destinations, in order toencourage a shift from private car to public transport use.2. Designing a mixed-use development in Scheveningen Harbour,with a purpose of enhancing its place distinctiveness, attractingmore investments and activities in the area.
CONTENTSof this presentation are:1. Introduction2. Problem statement3. Project aims4. Research questions5. Methodology6. Analysis7. Case studies8. The Hague’s spatial planning9. Spatial planning assessment10. Existing plan in Scheveningen Haven11. Harbour development theoretical framework12. Scheveningen Harbour master plan13. Master plan assessment14. Spatial planning and master plan assessment15. The next step
INTRODUCTION tourism area life cycle (Butler, 1980)NUMBER OF TOURISTS rejuvenation A CRITICAL RANGE stagnation B OF ELEMENTS C D OF CAPACITY consolidation decline development SCHEVENINGEN involvement exploration TIMEA tourism area needs to be rejuvenated or else, it will decline..
INTRODUCTION sustainable tourism & accessibility “Tourism is one of the MOST SIGNIFICANT SECTORS in present world economy. It also has extensive effects on the destinations and host communities, in spatial, economic, social and environmental aspects. Because of that, there is A NEED to ensure its long-term SUSTAINABILITY, preserving not only its ability for generating capitals, but also its spatial, social, cultural or environmental assets, which contribute to its success. In that case, sustainability principles refer to HARMONIOUS relationships among environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects of tourism development, in order to guarantee its long-term maintenance. ACCESSIBILITY and mobility influence the success of a tourist destination. Car is one of the most used transport mode for tourism, yet it is very environmentally-unfriendly. Because of that, sustainable tourism development needs an environmentally-friendly transport planning, where A SHIFT TO PUBLIC TRANSPORT from car-use is encouraged.” (World Tourism Organizations, 2004)
PROBLEMSTATEMENT tourists’ high use of carIn 2007, 49% of Scheveningen’s touristsused car, while only 34% usedpublic transports. It causes pollutions,congestions and nuisance from angrydrivers.
longer travelling time by public transport 0 1 4 km compared to car from The Hague0 - 10 minutes11 - 20 minutes to Scheveningen21 - 30 minutes 131 - 40 minutes 541 - 50 minutes 351 - 60 minutesmore than 60 minutes 2 17 4 6 26 16 21 7 8 15 31 20 25 9 14 24 19 10 30 33 23 38 32 22 29 11 13 18 28 37 27 36 12 34 39 35
0 500 2000 m traffic problem and lowArea with Traffic ProblemArea with Empty Space spatial quality in the harbourArea which Connection to Water can be Strengthened A A B B
PROJECTAIMS encourage a shift from car to public transport HOW?A shift is most likely to happen when:1. public transport frequency is six times perhour (Rutten, 2010)2. there is a faster public transport withbetter service quality (World TourismOrganization, 2004)
PROJECTAIMS new public transport scenario in The Hague Bus Rapid Transit Light Rapid Transit Metro/Rail Rapid Transit specification (BRT) (LRT) (RRT) Right-of-Way 11 m 7.5 m 8m Investment cost 5 - 40 million $/km 10 - 50 million $/km 40 - 100 million $/km per pairs of lanes Capacity per 75 - 200 ppl (1 cart) 120 - 600 ppl (1 - 4 cart) 140 - 2400 ppl (1 - 10 cart)Transit Unit and vehicle Speed 70 - 90 km/h 60 - 100 km/h 80 - 100 km/h Terminal 500 - 800 m 500 - 1000 m 500 - 2000 mLane-width (one-way) 3.65 - 3.75 m 3.40 - 3.60 m 3.70 - 4.30 m
PROJECTAIMS accommodating future transport needs E W N T! ME N OPBAD L E VEtwo theatres parking garage Dhoreca high-rise apartmentfamily entertainment small theatrewellness facilities social housingbudget hotel & office five-star hoteldesign hotel & apartment small housesparking garage parking areaHAVEN new programs will680-920 houses two hotels6,200 m2 commercial functions 4,000 m2 offices encourage stable flow oftwo museums 7,200 m2 fish-related leisure passengers throughout the23,000 m2 fisheries 7,200 m2 beach leisure days and seasons
PROJECTAIMS 2x current passenger number and 3x fasterIn order to encourage a shift from car-use, publictransport should provide better service and fastertravelling time compared to car.Presently, car is 2x faster than public transport, so:PRESENTpeak day 14,500 people average travelling timepeak hour 4,930 people by public transport 30 minutesFUTUREpeak day 29,000 people average travelling timepeak hour 9,860 people by public transport 10 minutes
PROJECTAIMS harbour’s mixed-use and tourism-oriented development WHY ? mixed- use and tourism- oriented“Mixed-uses and leisure activities are key factors of urban waterredevelopment schemes.”(Tunbridge & Ashworth, 1992; Falk, 1992)“Tourism-oriented development generates positive influencesin urban regeneration. It can be the catalyst of radical changesin economy, social and physical aspects of a city in transition.”(Owen, 1990)
PROJECTAIMS harbour’s development typeNORMAL TYPE If no anchor development is proposed, just a normal growth of the area.CRUISE PASSENGER TERMINAL Just as proposed in the municipality’s plan. Is it the right one for Scheveningen Harbour? ARTS & CULTURE Following The Hague’s vision to be a cultural city, is Scheveningen suitable to be part of the scheme? HARBOUR-ORIENTED Apart from the existing plans and schemes, can Scheveningen develop its own unique character?
PROJECTAIMShigh accessibility from The Hague to Scheveningen
PROJECTAIMSharbour’s vibrant urban life with strong place identity
RESEARCHQUESTIONS new public transport scenarioBus Rapid Transit (BRT), Light Rapid Transit (LRT) or Rail Rapid Transit (RRT)?Which scenario provides the shortest travelling time from The Hague to Scheveningen, whichmaintains most of the present urban condition, while producing the least negative impacts onphysical, social, economic and environmental aspects?1. Which scenario provides the shortest travelling time?2. Which scenario has maintains most of the present urban condition?3. How are they spatially implemented?4. Which scenario produces the least negative impacts on physical, social, economic andenvironmental aspects?5. Which scenario is the cheapest one to implement?6. Considering its speed, cost, as well as physical, social, economic and environmental impacts,which scenario is the most suitable one for The Hague and Scheveningen?
RESEARCHQUESTIONS Scheveningen Harbour developmentNormal-type, cruise passenger terminal, arts & culture or harbour-related oriented?Which scenario is the most suitable one for Scheveningen Harbour, in order to enhance itsattractiveness, place distinctiveness and generate vibrant urban life in the area?1. Which scenario enhances Scheveningen Harbour’s place distinctiveness the most?2. Which scenario generates the most vibrant urban life in the area?3. Which scenario is the cheapest to implement?4. What are the impact of each scenario on physical, social, economic and environmental aspects?
METHODOLOGY methods used OTHER JOUR- N A L ARTI- CLES new public transport providing transport mode’s specifications, construction, impact, advantage and disadvantages harbour development factors in project that generate positive impacts in harbour regeneration
METHODOLOGY methods used There are two purposes of doing case studies in this project. First, to investigate Scheveningen’s position among other Dutch seaside resorts. Second, to seek inspiration and guidance of integrating new public transport line to harbour development. Dutch seaside resorts Scheveningen’s identity as a Dutch seaside resort
METHODOLOGYmethods used Barceloneta, Barcelona The integration of BRT and normal type development in Barceloneta harbour Harbourside, Bristol The integration of LRT and arts and culture development in Harbourside
METHODOLOGY methods used Site survey BLANK Investigate the spatial quality of Scheveningen Harbour WA L L S area to support analysis and design of master plan EMPTY SPACES ATELIER TRAF COAST L O KUST F I C A L C A L K WA L I E N G I E N G I R E S I T E I T NEER NEER DENT Interview with experts Quick overview on coastal development, engineering and local’s perception in Scheveningen, as well as traffic design in The Hague
METHODOLOGY methods used Analysis Route from Den Haag to Scheveningen Shopping street House price Income Crime rate Road structure A N A LY Public transport network SES ARE Centralities Building age USED TO Tourism-oriented program Resident-oriented program PROVIDE Tourism destination Sedimentation DESIGN CONSIDE Space Syntax R AT I O N Scheveningen A N D Radius 30 Topological centralities GUIDE Radius 3 LINES Local scale Global scale
METHODOLOGYmethods used back and forth between research and design to improve product’s quality
METHODOLOGY answering the questionsBus Rapid Transit (BRT), Light Rapid Transit (LRT) or Rail Rapid Transit (RRT)?Which scenario provides the shortest travelling time from The Hague to Scheveningen, whichmaintains most of the present urban condition, while producing the least negative impacts onphysical, social, economic and environmental aspects?Answer:
METHODOLOGY answering the questionsNormal-type, cruise passenger terminal, arts & culture or harbour-related oriented?Which scenario is the most suitable one for Scheveningen Harbour, in order to enhance itsattractiveness, place distinctiveness and generate vibrant urban life in the area?Answer:
ANALYSIS 0 1 4 kmShopBar tourist-oriented programRestaurantHotel in The HagueMuseumMonumentParking Area
ANALYSIS 0 1 4 kmInternational ZoneMuseum Area centralities in The HagueShopping Street
ANALYSIS 0 1 4 kmScheveningen BoulevardScheveningen Village tourism destinations in The HagueScheveningen HarbourCity CentreMuseum AreaMadurodamKijkduin IT SAYS: potential destinations in the new transport system
ANALYSIS 0 1 4 kmRailwayHighway transport network in The HagueTram LineBus Line
ANALYSIS 0 1 4 kmCar Route to ScheveningenBus 22 Route to Scheveningen transport route to ScheveningenTram 1 Route to ScheveningenTram 9 Route to ScheveningenTram 11 Route to ScheveningenTram 15 Route to Scheveningen IT SAYS: the probable and preferrable route for BRT, LRT and RRT
CONCLUSION 0 1 4 kmDestinationsPreferred BRT route BRT design guidelinesPossible BRT route Boulevard Village Madurodam Harbour Museum Kwartier City Centre Central Station Hollands Spoor Kijkduin IT SAYS: the destinations and preferrable route for BRT using existing bus line
CONCLUSION 0 1 4 kmDestinationsPreferred LRT route LRT design guidelinesPossible LRT route Boulevard Village Madurodam Harbour Museum Kwartier City Centre Central Station Hollands Spoor Kijkduin IT SAYS: the destinations and preferrable route for LRT using existing tram line
CONCLUSION 0 1 4 kmDestinationsPreferred RRT route BRT RRT design guidelinesPossible BRT route Boulevard Village Madurodam Harbour Museum Kwartier City Centre Central Station Hollands Spoor Kijkduin IT SAYS: the destinations and preferrable route for RRT in consideration of space availability
0 500 2000 m ANALYSISShopBar tourist-oriented programRestaurantHotel in ScheveningenMuseumMonumentParking Area
0 500 2000 m ANALYSISCentralities (Public Program Concentration) centralities in ScheveningenIT SAYS: shopping street and leisure programs are lesser in the harbour areaCHANCE OF: adding more shopping and leisure programs
0 500 2000 m ANALYSISSchoolSport Facility resident-oriented programIndustry and OfficeHealthcare Facility in ScheveningenIT SAYS: the harbour area is dominated with industrial and office programsCHANCE OF: replacing them with more public-engaging programs
0 500 2000 m ANALYSIS house price and income in Scheveningen (www.cbsinuwbuurt.nl) OOSTDUINEN House Price Not Available Income Not Available SCHEVENINGEN BADPLAATS BELGISCH PARK House Price 264,000 Euro House Price 348,000 Euro Income 22,100 Euro Income 23,800 Euro RIJSLAG House Price 326,000 Euro DUTTENDEL Income 22,000 Euro OUD SCHEVENINGEN House Price 687,000 Euro House Price 201,000 Euro WESTBROEKPARK Income 46,200 Euro IT SAYS: harbour Income 16,700 Euro VISSERIJBUURT House Price 638,000 Euro House Price 249,000 Euro Income 44,700 Euro Income 18,700 Euro area has the second STATENKWARTIER VAN STOLKPARK EN SCHEVENINGSE BOSJES lowest house price VISSERSHAVEN House Price Income 468,000 Euro 30,200 Euro House Price 600,000 Euro and income in Scheveningen Income 32,700 Euro House Price 207,000 Euro Income 17,300 Euro ZORGVLIET House Price 555,000 Euro CHANCE OF: GEUZENKWARTIER Income 34,900 Euro House Price 232,000 Euro DUINDORP Income 18,900 Euro STADHOUDERSPLANTSOEN incorporating high- House Price Income 143,000 Euro 15,800 Euro House Price 277,000 Euro SWEELINCKPLEIN EN OMGEVING end housings and Income 38,800 Euro House Price 363,000 Euro apartments in the Income 45,600 Euro harbour area
0 500 2000 m ANALYSIS crime in Scheveningen (www. politie.nl) BELGISCH PARK 6 Threat 28 Car & Bike Theft 26 House & Company Theft OOSTDUINEN 15 Mistreatment 1 Threat 4 Mugging 5 Car & Bike Theft 50 Destruction 3 House & Company Theft 169 Total Number of Crime 4 Mistreatment 0 Mugging SCHEVENINGEN 10 Destruction 37 Threat 23 Total Number of Crime 136 Car & Bike Theft 112 House & Company Theft WESTBROEKPARK EN DUTTENDEL 67 Mistreatment 2 Threat 9 Mugging 14 Car & Bike Theft 197 Destruction 28 House & Company Theft 558 Total Number of Crime VAN STOLKPARK EN SCHEVENINGSE BOSJES 4 Mistreatment 1 Threat 1 11 Mugging Destruction IT SAYS: harbour GEUZEN- EN STATENKWARTIER 11 2 Car & Bike Theft House & Company Theft 60 Total Number of Crime area has the highest crime rate 12 Threat 3 Mistreatment 91 Car & Bike Theft 1 Mugging in Scheveningen 84 House & Company Theft 4 Destruction 7 Mistreatment 22 Total Number of Crime 2 Mugging 67 Destruction DUINDORP 11 Threat 263 Total Number of Crime 4 ZORGVLIET Threat MIGHT BE: publicly 30 21 Car & Bike Theft House & Company Theft DUINOORD 12 7 Car & Bike Theft House & Company Theft unsupervised area 11 0 Mistreatment Mugging 9 62 Threat Car & Bike Theft 3 2 Mistreatment Mugging creates a chance 30 103 Destruction Total Number of Crime 52 11 House & Company Theft Mistreatment 20 48 Destruction Total Number of Crime for crime to take place 4 Mugging 39 Destruction 177 Total Number of Crime
0 500 2000 m SPACE SYNTAXHigh Street Integration local topological R3 centralitiesLow Street IntegrationIT SAYS: the more integrated a street is, the more possible it is to be an economic centreCHANCE OF: increasing street integration to condition a creation of economic centreMIGHT BE: low street integration contributes to high crime rate in the harbour
0 500 2000 m SPACE SYNTAXHigh Street Integration global topological R30 centralitiesLow Street IntegrationIT SAYS: in global scale, the harbour area is quite well-connectedCHANCE OF: providing high accessibility to harbour’s waterfront in global scale
0 500 2000 m ANALYSISNorth Sea Main Stream DirectionStream Direction in Detail sedimentation in ScheveningenSedimented Area in the FutureIT SAYS: sedimentation process creates new land surrounding harbour areaCHANCE OF: potential new development area surrounding the harbour
CONCLUSION Scheveningen Harbour design strategy1. new road development 2. improving connection to improve to water and accessibility to activating waterfront from waterfront urban surrounding area life by injecting more leisure programs3. filling in the empty spaces with new 4. proposing high- end housings and programs and apartments to activities enhance prestige of the area
CASESTUDIES Dutch seaside resorts conclusionCompared to other Dutch seaside resorts,Scheveningen is:1. superior in facilities and activities it offers to tourists.2. potential in developing its Hollands Classics character,with its distinctive Scheveningen Village.3. potential in developing its Good Life character, withnew development in the harbour.4. potential in creating another type of tourism, HavenLeven, where all fishing, harbour activities are showcasedto tourists, along with water sports and extended nightlife.
CASESTUDIES Barceloneta, Barcelona Barceloneta is one of the most popular beaches in Barcelona Although the harbour areae is mostly converted to yacht marina, there are still some industrial zones left in the area. BRT lines provide direct access to the beach. In order to achieve shorter travelling time, City Centre Harbour Area the stops are located further Barceloneta Village Yacht Marina than before. Industrial Area Road BRT Line 0 500 2000 m
CASESTUDIES Harbourside, Bristol Harbourside is the new cultural and leisure center of Bristol Development of cultural programs and a public square activate the urban life in Harbourside. LRT line doesn’t cross the Harbourside, but provide a direct connection to the area, City Centre Harbour Area along with Bristol’s city centre. Millenium Square Animation Center Aquarium Amphitheatre Road LRT Line 0 200 800 m
SPATIAL PLANNING 0 1 4 kmMain StopsOther Stops Light Rapid Transit (LRT) option 1LRT Line Boulevard Village Harbour Museum Kwartier Central Station City Centre Hollands Spoor cost new elevated destination track new on-ground new underground track track total track altered current track P+R to Boulevard
SPATIAL PLANNING 0 1 4 kmMain StopsOther Stops Light Rapid Transit (LRT) option 2LRT Line Boulevard Village Madurodam Harbour Museum Kwartier Central Station City Centre Hollands Spoor Kijkduin cost new elevated destination track new on-ground new underground track track total track altered current track P+R to Boulevard
SPATIAL PLANNING 0 1 4 kmMain StopsOther Stops Metro/Rail Rapid Transit (RRT) option 1RRT Line On-GroundRRT Line Underground Boulevard Village Harbour Museum Kwartier Central Station City Centre Hollands Spoor P+R cost new elevated destination track new on-ground new underground track track total track altered current track P+R to Boulevard
SPATIAL PLANNING 0 1 4 kmMain StopsOther Stops Boulevard Metro/Rail Rapid Transit (RRT) option 2RRT Line On-GroundRRT Line Underground Village Harbour Central Station / City Centre Hollands Spoor Kijkduin P+R cost new elevated destination track new on-ground new underground track track total track altered current track P+R to Boulevard
SPATIAL PLANNING 0 1 4 kmMain StopsOther Stops Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)LRT LineBRT Line Boulevard + Light Rapid Transit (LRT) option 1 Village Harbour Museum Kwartier Central Station City Centre Hollands Spoor Kijkduin cost new elevated destination track new on-ground new underground track track total track altered current track P+R to Boulevard
SPATIAL PLANNING 0 1 4 kmMain StopsOther Stops Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)LRT LineBRT Line Boulevard + Light Rapid Transit (LRT) option 2 Village Madurodam Harbour Museum Kwartier Central Station City Centre Hollands Spoor Kijkduin cost new elevated destination track new on-ground new underground track track total track altered current track P+R to Boulevard
SPATIAL PLANNING 0 1 4 kmMain StopsOther Stops Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) option 3RRT Line On-GroundRRT Line Underground Boulevard + Rail Rapid Transit (RRT)BRT Line Village Harbour Museum Kwartier Central Station City Centre Hollands Spoor Kijkduin P+R cost new elevated destination track new on-ground new underground track track total track altered current track P+R to Boulevard
ASSESSMENT new public transport in The Hague cost P+R to Boulevard number of total track lengthspatial planning (million $) (minute) tourism destinations (km) LRT option 1 324 8.1 8 10.85 LRT option 2 489.5 5.7 10 16.3 RRT option 1 1,500 7.3 8 11.1 RRT option 2 1,260 6.7 8 18 BRT option 1 430.54 8.1 9 15.6 BRT option 2 595.25 5.7 10 21 BRT option 3 1,600 6.7 9 15.9
ASSESSMENT new public transport in The Hague current track on-ground new track elevated new track underground newspatial planning alteration (km) (km) (km) track (km) LRT option 1 10.85 LRT option 2 16.3 RRT option 1 4.5 6.6 RRT option 2 15.8 2.2 BRT option 1 0.6 4.1 BRT option 2 0.6 4.1 BRT option 3 4.8 4.5 6.6
SCHEVENINGENHARBOUR existing plan (The Hague municipality)680-920 houses two hotels6,200 m2 commercial functions 4,000 m2 officestwo museums 7,200 m2 fish-related leisure23,000 m2 fisheries 7,200 m2 beach leisure
SCHEVENINGENHARBOUR critic on the existing plan “Although the proposal covers all potential type ofdevelopments, such as living, working, fishing, leisureand culture, the programs are too generic. Thus, this development doesn’t support creation of distinctive place character.”Thus, this project will address the need of distinctivedevelopment plan in Scheveningen Harbour