Richard III Played on Stage and Screen A Presentation by Amy Hruby, Brianna Karmi & Ashleigh Phillips
The Real Richard III <ul><li>Born October 2, 1452. Third son of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York and Cecily Neville. </li></ul><ul><li>Married Anne Neville in 1472. They had one son who died at the age of nine. (Anne was Cecily Neville [Richard’s mother]’s great niece.) </li></ul><ul><li>Brother George is murdered in 1478 after falling out with other brother Edward IV. </li></ul><ul><li>Edward IV dies in April, 1483. </li></ul><ul><li>June, 1483. Richard confines his two nephews in the Tower of London. </li></ul><ul><li>Crowned July, 1483. </li></ul><ul><li>Duke of Buckingham is appointed Constable and Great Chamberlain of England in 1483 and a couple of months later is captured, tried and put to death after leading a rebellion to place Henry Tudor, sole surviving Lancastrian heir, on the throne. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1485, Anne dies and Henry Tudor gathers support for another rebellion. </li></ul><ul><li>Is defeated and killed by Henry Tudor’s army at the Battle of Bosworth in August 1485. End of the War of Roses. </li></ul><ul><li>Tall, slender, and handsome. </li></ul><ul><li>Energetic and just ruler during his short 2 year reign. </li></ul><ul><li>Courageous. Was in the thick of the battle within a sword’s length from Henry Tudor before he was cut down. </li></ul><ul><li>His reputation became blackened with the Tudor propaganda that came after his death. </li></ul>Fry, Plantagenet S. Kings & Queens of England & Scotland . New York: Dk, 1999. Print.
Richard III : The Text <ul><li>The play was written around 1591 as the fourth play of a tetralogy whose first three plays depict the reign of Henry VI. </li></ul><ul><li>Ten editions of the play were released in print by 1642. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first quarto appeared in 1597 likely from memorial reconstruction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A version of the play constructed from Shakespeare’s foul papers appeared in the 1623 folio. </li></ul></ul>Source: “ Richard III.” Treasures in Full: Shakespeare in Quarto. British Library, n. d. Web. 15 Mar 2011.
Early Performances <ul><li>The only record of an early performance is one given at court in November 1633. </li></ul><ul><li>It was definitely performed before then (as is illustrated by the proliferation of quartos), likely at the Globe by the Lord Chamberlain’s men from 1592 into the 1600s. Richard Burbage would have played the role of Richard. </li></ul>Source: “ Richard III.” Treasures in Full: Shakespeare in Quarto. British Library, n. d. Web. 15 Mar 2011.
A variety of performances from the 19 th , 20 th and 21 st centuries…
Edwin Booth, New York, 1872 <ul><li>The New York Times , December 31, 1872: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mr. Booth acted last night with uncommon spirit. The applause was loud and continuous throughout the tragedy, and it swelled to boisterous cheers during the combat at the close. In this Mr. Booth was highly effective. His performance was supple and versatile.” </li></ul>Coat worn by Edwin Booth as Richard III. 2nd half of 19th century. H. Linton after W.J. Hennessy. Edwin Booth as Richard III . Hand-colored wood engraving, 1872 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Edwin_Booth_Richard_III_Playbill_1872.jpg http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=F00915F83D5F1A7493C3AA1789D95F468784F9
Richard Mansfield, 1889, Richard III <ul><li>Richard Mansfield portrayed Richard III in the 1889 play, directed by Henry Irving. Mansfield portrayed the character as a very sly and devilish person. Also, the director wanted to be historically accurate so the character was less of a deformed human being and more charismatic. This created controversy over the performance as some audience members believed that the lack of deformity took away from the character. </li></ul><ul><li>Panemo, Jessica. "Richard III." Meredith College Shake Scenes . </li></ul><ul><li>Meredith College, 2007. Web. 15 Mar 2011. </li></ul><ul><li><http://www.meredith.edu/english/walton/PanemenoIrving.htm>. </li></ul>
Frederick Warde, 1912, Richard III <ul><li>This silent film was directed by Andre Calmettes with James Keane adapting the script. </li></ul><ul><li>Warde was a leading 19 th c. Shakespearian actor who “appeared in Richard III at age 61 and often performed live in the theater where the film was being shown. Warde would lecture on the topic of Shakespeare and deliver monologues and recitations between reels of the film.” (Frederick) </li></ul>Warde as Richard III (kneeling on right), wooing Lady Anne Sources: “ Frederick Warde.” IMDb.com. IMDb, n. d. Web. 15 Mar 2011. “ Richard III.” IMDb.com. IMDb, n. d. Web. 15 Mar 2011. < http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0002461/ >
<ul><li>“ And so we have him, in all his wordless, skulking, sneering glory. Warde’s hands perpetually grasp at the air and he reacts to every murder as though he could taste it. Warde’s hunchback lurch and black costuming let him stand out in every scene. Give him credit for this; Richard III, the movie, is about spectacle, and its frames are filled with soldiers and nobles and horses bedecked in armaments and elaborate fashions.” </li></ul><ul><li>--Chris Edwards of Silent Volume </li></ul>Source: Edwards, Chris. “Richard III (1912).” Silent Volume. Chris Edwards, 28 June 2009. Web. 15 Mar 2011.
Richard wooing Lady Anne in 1912 silent film <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w_FQXBeVhmQ </li></ul>
Laurence Olivier, 1944, 1954, Richard III Laurence Olivier performed as the character Richard III both in film and on stage. He performed the play version on the stage of Old Vic in London in 1944 and later starred in and directed Richard III in 1954. Olivier had already performed and directed two Shakespearean plays, Henry V and Hamlet , but Richard III was one of his greatest successes and helped immortalize his acting and directing career. Source: Bale, Paul Trevor. "Olivier Films Richard III." Richard III Society, American Branch . The Richard III Society, Inc. , 2007. Web. 15 Mar 2011. <http://www.r3.org/onstage/olivier/bale.html>.
Paul Martin, 1965, War of the Roses <ul><li>Paul Martin portrayed Richard III in the film The War of the Roses in 1965, directed by John Barton and Peter Hall. The director kept the character true to the Shakespearean text. Richard is seen as crippled and has a hunched-back. Martin portrays the character of Richard as a very sly and manipulative person. During his soliloquies his true madness shows, while when interacting with characters Martin shows a very charismatic and conniving villain. </li></ul><ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><li>War of the Roses." IMDb . IMDb, 2011. Web. 15 Mar 2011. </li></ul><ul><li><http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0060039/fullcredits>. </li></ul><ul><li>The War of the Roses . Dir. John Barton and Peter Hall." </li></ul><ul><li>Perf. Paul Martin , . The Royal Shakespeare Company: 1965, Film. </li></ul><ul><li><http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-a1ttRudPUQ>. </li></ul>Martin, on the right, as Richard III.
Ron Cook, 1983, Richard III <ul><li>Directed by Jane Howell, this film almost directly reproduces Shakespeare’s folio text. </li></ul><ul><li>Cook’s Richard III is deformed and conniving but not at all likeable. He is most valiant when seen in battle at the end of the play. </li></ul>Ron Cook as Richard III Source: Richard III . Dir. Jane Howell. Perf. Ron Cook. Ambrose Video, 1987. Film.
Richard Dreyfuss, 1977, The Goodbye Girl <ul><li>Richard Dreyfuss won an Oscar for this performance in which he plays an actor who is cast in an off-off-Broadway performance of Richard III </li></ul>Source: Ebert, Roger. “The Goodbye Girl.” Rogerebert.com, 1 Jan 1977. Web. 16 Mar 2011. Richard Dreyfuss as Richard III in The Goodbye Girl
<ul><li>Roger Ebert notes: “[Dreyfuss’ character]'s trapped in this weird off-off-off-Broadway production of Shakespeare's Richard III , and the director is convinced Richard should be played as a gay (the scenes involving the production, performance, and reception of the play are the funniest in a movie since Mel Brooks staged Springtime for Hitler ).” </li></ul>Source: Ebert, Roger. “The Goodbye Girl.” Rogerebert.com, 1 Jan 1977. Web. 16 Mar 2011.
Andrew Jarvis, 1991, Wars of the Roses <ul><li>Evening Post , December 17, 1987: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Andrew Jarvis plays Richard as a man only just on this side of insanity. His Richard is power hungry to the point of obsession. He is driven constantly forward by a demonic urge to succeed. It is a tense and very personal view but not a complex one. This Richard is more of a pathological thug than a man torn by strange and unfulfilled desires.” </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.hunwicks.ndo.co.uk/page416.html </li></ul><ul><li>English Shakespeare Company, The Wars of the Roses </li></ul><ul><li>1987- 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Modern adaptation by director Michael Bogdanov </li></ul>
Jarvis with Francesca Ryan as Lady Anne <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ydm9CmfKeWI&feature=related </li></ul>
Jarvis with Michael Pennington as Buckingham <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5sJOWLJgqxo </li></ul>
Simon Russell Beale, 1992 <ul><li>The Independent, August 13, 1992: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Terror and eroticism are not the strongest features of his performance. What make it memorable and compelling are the outrageous humour and the vividness with which he portrays the king's crack-up when his fortunes turn. Flashing looks of saucer-eyed complicity at the audience, Beale gives us a camped-up, hilariously two-faced Machiavel. Inspired by a line in the first soliloquy, Mendes has a running gag whereby we often hear dogs yapping at Richard before he enters a gathering.” </li></ul><ul><li> http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/theatre--king-of-comedy-paul-taylor-reviews-sam-mendess-production-of-richard-iii-for-the-rsc-1540022.html </li></ul><ul><li>Royal Shakespeare Company </li></ul><ul><li>Directed by Sam Mendes </li></ul>Simon Russell Beale as Richard III
Ian McKellen, 1995, Richard III <ul><li>Directed by Richard Loncraine </li></ul><ul><li>Based on stage production directed by Richard Eyre for the Royal National Theater, which also starred McKellen. </li></ul><ul><li>Nominated for 2 Oscars </li></ul><ul><li>Set in 1930’s Fascist England. </li></ul>Ian McKellen as Richard III
Chicago Sun Times , January 18, 1996: “ The movie is really McKellan's, and with director Loncraine, his co-writer, he comes up with one sly touch after another to make Richard a satisfactory villain. Given an apple to feed to a pig, he throws it at the animal, and nods with quiet satisfaction at its squeal. When a child jumps up playfully and knocks against his hump, he crumbles to the crowd, lets out a beastial snarl, and then clambers to his feet with the oddest little smirk. And in a final scene, done to Al Jonson's "I'm Sittin' on Top of the World," he embraces the hell fire of his destiny.” http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/19960119/REVIEWS/909249996
John Seda, 2002, The Street King <ul><li>Directed by James Bedford, this film translates Richard III to the streets of LA where John Seda plays Rikki Ortega—a member of a local Hispanic gang looking to make himself “king.” </li></ul>Source: “King Rikki.” IMDb.com. IMDb, n. d. Web. 14 Mar 2011. John Seda as Rikki
<ul><li>“ Jon Seda is the reason it works. He plays Rikki, a young thug—the only one without a criminal record—who is trying to make it to the big time. Seda plays Rikki as incredibly open and honest and likable—even though he's about to do horrible things. It's not a bad way to understand Richard: he, too, is somehow immensely personable and magnetic.” --Keith Jones of Bardfilm </li></ul>Source: Jones, Keith. “King Richard of the Streets.” Bardfilm . Keith Jones, 12 Sep 2008. Web. 14 Mar 2011.
Henry Goodman, 2003 <ul><li>Goodman performed on stage at the Royal Shakespeare Theater in Stratford (as directed by Sean Holmes). </li></ul><ul><li>In playing Richard, Goodman noted the challenge of “finding the balance between levity and intensity, pleasure and pain, brazenness and subtlety in a role that is a myth and a man in one.” (Taylor) </li></ul>Henry Goodman as Richard III Source: Taylor, Paul. “Henry Goodman: To play the king.” The Independent. 17 July 2003. Web. 16 Mar 2011.
<ul><li>“ Henry Goodman starred as Richard in the latest RSC production of Richard III at Stratford in 2003. Goodman's Richard was hideously deformed, sporting a built-up shoe, kinky straps around his back and legs, a wonky arm and a strawberry birthmark and bad teeth! … [But] Goodman's Richard missed for the critics as he was neither funny nor frightening.” </li></ul><ul><li>---Richardiii.net </li></ul>Source: “ Richard on Stage.” Richard in the Media. Richard III Society, n. d. Web. 16 Mar 2011.
Calvin Smith, 2004, Richard III <ul><li>Calvin Smith performed as Richard III in this 2004 stage version of the play, performed by the Rude Mechanicals in Laurel, Maryland and directed by Joshua Engel. This particular version of the play remains true to the Shakespearean text and allows Richard to be shown as a deformed murderer. The director puts a disclaimer on the production, noting that the play may not be historically accurate, but it is Shakespeare’s original work and that is how the company performs it. </li></ul>Smith is shown here portraying Richard III. Instead of being hunch-backed, he is crippled and in a wheelchair. Source: Engel , Joshua. "Richard III.“ The Rude Mechanicals . T he Rude Mechanicals, n.d. Web. 15 Mar 2011.
Frank Britton, 2010, Richard III <ul><li>Frank Britton played Richard III in the Washington Shakespeare Company’s production of Richard III during the 2010-2011 performance season, which was directed by Christopher Henley and Jay Hardee. While the production received unenthusiastic reviews, Britton was praised for his portrayal of Richard. Terry Ponick states “Britton’s cold, leering, ambitious, and ultimately tragic usurper might have given Machiavelli himself pause for further reflection.” </li></ul><ul><li>Source: </li></ul><ul><li>Ponnick, Terry. "Richard III." DC Theatre Scene . </li></ul><ul><li>DCTheatreScene.com, 28 010 2010. Web. 15 Mar 2011. </li></ul><ul><li><http://dctheatrescene.com/2010/10/28/richard-iii/>. </li></ul>Frank Britton as Richard III with Lady Anne and Ratcliffe
Ewen Leslie, 2010 <ul><li>Melbourne Theater Company </li></ul><ul><li>Directed by Simon Phillips </li></ul>Ewen Leslie as Richard III
<ul><li>The Australian , May 3, 2010: </li></ul><ul><li>“ This is a deeply intelligent performance, physically and emotionally unafraid, in which Richard's grotesquely misshapen body belies his agile treachery. By turns comic, savage, grotesque, bestial, sly and tragic, Leslie dominates the stage. More disturbingly, he exerts his evil fascination on the audience; we can't but be moved by him. His Richard will be talked about for years: it marks the ascension of a remarkable actor.” </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/arts/this-richard-iii-is-one-of-the-greats/story-e6frg8po-1225861238602 </li></ul>