A Nation is Born Early National Literature is based on America’s struggle for independence.
The Rise of Nationalism History of the Times <ul><ul><li>European political and social turmoil led people to question the divine right of monarchs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A new movement, the Enlightenment, began to spread, fostering a belief in rationalism. </li></ul></ul>
The Rise of Nationalism History of the Times <ul><ul><li>Rationalists believe that reason and intellect, rather than revelation, lead to discoveries of scientific and spiritual truth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspired by rationalism, the founders of the new country set forth ideals of religious tolerance and individual liberty. They believed that people are by nature good, not evil. </li></ul></ul>
The Rise of Nationalism History of the Times <ul><li>ENGLAND’S BIG MISTAKE! </li></ul><ul><li>The British government wanted to raise revenue in the colonies to pay their war debts from the French and Indian War (which was a struggle between France and England for control of North America), so they passed the Stamp Act. Colonists had to buy stamps and place them on 54 different ordinary items. </li></ul>
The Rise of Nationalism History of the Times <ul><li>The people revolted and the Stamp Act was repealed, but other acts followed. </li></ul><ul><li>The Townshend Act of 1767 taxed paper, paint, glass, lead, and tea. </li></ul><ul><li>After a skirmish between Boston Americans and British soldiers sent to calm the mob, all the acts were repealed except the Tea Act. Thus, a group of Bostonians, dressed as Mohawks, dumped a tea shipment into Boston Harbor aka the Boston Tea Party. </li></ul>
The Rise of Nationalism History of the Times <ul><li>Parliament, therefore, passed laws that shut down harbors, forbade meetings, and said British soldiers could stay with the colonists in their homes! </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial leaders met in Philadelphia at the First Continental Congress. The British felt threatened so they named a governor for Massachusetts and the fight was set! </li></ul>
The Rise of Nationalism History of the Times <ul><li>The American Revolution began at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts on April 19, 1775. </li></ul><ul><li>On July 4, 1776, Thomas Jefferson and five others created the Declaration of Independence and it was signed by many leaders of the colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>The war ended on October 19, 1781 in Yorktown, Virginia. </li></ul>
The New Nation <ul><li>General George Washington, who led his troops in the American Revolution for America’s independence, became the nation’s first President. </li></ul>
Literature of the Period <ul><li>Because the nation’s minds were on politics, much of the writing was made public. Thirty newspapers, forty magazines and almanacs were popular readings. </li></ul><ul><li>After the Declaration of Independence had been written and signed, the Constitution of the USA was written in 1787. </li></ul>
Important Writers of the Time The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin Poor Richard’s Almanack Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson The Declaration of Independence “ Common Sense” Thomas Paine
Important Writers of the Time Olaudah Equiano Slave Narrative: The Life of Olaudah Equiano
Important Writers of the Time Poet Phillis Wheatley Statue Located in Boston Abigail Smith Adams Wrote letters to her husband, John Adams, about their lives, her political opinions, her desire for women’s rights and an end to slavery. First African-American woman published in the U.S.
Important Writers of the Time Patrick Henry Give me liberty or give me death! "Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, Give me Liberty, or give me Death! "
Your Turn! With a partner, discuss and answer the following questions in a word document saved as an rtf file and attach it in an e-mail to burksamericanlit@ gmail .com Your names and the assignment name: A Nation is Born should be in the subject line. Please number the questions correctly so proper credit can be given. Answers can be found on this powerpoint, in your textbook, or online. This is a partner assignment. The instructors will be watching to see that both partners are participating because a participation grade will be awarded as well.
1. What is the main theme of Early National Literature and by what specific event(s)was it influenced? 2. Define the Enlightenment movement, which influenced the rationalists’ thinking. 3. Explain what rationalists believe. How is that belief applied to religious tolerance and freedom today? You may want to give a specific example to explain the second question. 4. The Stamp Act placed taxes on 54 items. Research the Stamp Act and find one item that was taxed that would have affected the writers of the period. Copy and paste it for your answer. (Hint: Google Stamp Act’s 54 items) 5. Name something else Benjamin Franklin is remembered for in his life besides writing. GO to next slide
6. Define slave narrative. 7. What was one unusual circumstance about Phillis Wheatley’s slave life compared to other slaves? 8. Explain what Patrick Henry means by his famous line: "Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, Give me Liberty, or give me Death! ” YOU HAVE COMPLETED THE QUESTIONS! MAKE SURE YOU FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS FOR SAVING AND SUBMITTING!
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