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夏季安全常識
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夏季安全常識

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  • 1. Summer Safety Awareness 夏季安全常識
  • 2. Heat Safety Objective 內容
    • Raise awareness due to increased outdoor activity
    • 由於戶外活動的增加必須提高安全意識
    • What to do when its hot 瞭解酷熱時該怎麼辦
    • Heat-related illnesses and symptoms
    • 與熱相關的疾病的症狀
    • Heat Safety 熱安全
    • Heat Index 熱指數
    • Heat Warning 防熱警示
  • 3. What to do when it’s hot: 酷熱時該怎麼辦
    • Increase your intake of non-alcoholic, non-carbonated, caffeine free beverages such as water and juice. Carry water or juice with you and drink continuously even if you do not feel thirsty.
    • 多喝水和果汁,不要喝含酒精,汽水和咖啡的飲料。攜帶水或果汁,即使不怎麼渴也要經常喝。
    • Eat small meals and eat more often. Avoid foods that are high in protein which increase metabolic heat, which increases water loss.
    • 少吃多餐。避免高蛋白食物。
    • Avoid using salt tablets unless directed to do so by a physician.
    • 避免使用鹽片,除非醫生建議這麼做。
    • Check on the elderly; they are especially susceptible
    • to heat related illness.
    • 經常關注年紀大的人,他們更易受熱病的影響。
  • 4. Work Practices 好的工作習慣
    • Avoid the outdoors during extreme heat. Stay out of the sun. 溫度很高時避免外出。不要站在陽光下。
    • Take regular breaks when engaged in physical activity on warm days. Take time out to find a cool place. If you recognize that you, or someone else, is showing the signals of a heat-related illness, stop activity and find a cool place.
    • 在夏天進行體力活動時應定時找個涼快的地方休息片刻。如果你自己或發現他人出現中暑的跡象,停止工作找個地方休息一下。
    • Slow down. Eliminate strenuous activity such as running, biking and lawn care work when it heats up. If you must do strenuous activity, do it during the coolest part of the day, which is usually in the morning between 4:00 a.m. and 7:00 a.m.
    • 放慢速度。當你發現很熱時應減緩劇烈的活動,
    • 如跑步,騎車等。如果必須從事劇烈的活動,
    • 將其調整到涼快的時候。
  • 5. Heat-related illnesses 與熱相關的疾病
    • Normally, the body has ways of keeping itself cool, by letting heat escape through the skin, and by evaporating sweat (perspiration). If the body does not cool properly or does not cool enough, the victim may suffer a heat-related illness. Anyone can be susceptible although the very young and very old are at greater risk. Heat-related illnesses can become serious or even deadly if unattended.
    • 通常身體可以通過皮膚出汗保持自身的涼快。如果身體無法適當地冷卻或冷卻不夠,任何人都可能得病。如果不及時處理可能導致嚴重後果甚至死亡。
      • HEAT WAVE 熱浪
      • SUNBURN 陽光 曬 傷
      • HEAT CRAMPS 熱痙攣
      • HEAT EXHAUSTION 熱衰竭
      • HEATSTROKE/SUNSTROKE 中暑
  • 6. Heat-related symptoms 熱病的症狀
      • HEAT WAVE: More than 48 hours of high heat (90oF or higher) and high humidity (80 percent relative humidity or higher) are expected.
      • 熱浪: 32 度以上,濕度 80 %以上的天氣持續了 48 小時以上就可能出現。
      • SUNBURN - Redness and pain in the skin. In severe cases there is also swelling, blisters, fever, and headaches. It reduces the skin's ability to release excess heat, making the body more susceptible to heat-related illness.
      • 陽光曬傷:皮膚出現紅色和疼痛。嚴重時有大量出汗,水泡,高燒和頭痛。降低了皮膚的散熱能力,使人更容易得病。
      • HEAT CRAMPS - Heavy sweating and painful spasms usually in the leg or abdomen muscles.
      • 熱痙攣:腿或腹部肌肉大量出汗和痙攣疼痛
  • 7. Heat-related symptoms 熱病的症狀
      • HEAT EXHAUSTION - The person becomes weak and is sweating heavily. The skin is cold, pale and clammy. The pulse becomes thready. Fainting and vomiting accompanies heat exhaustion. Body temperature will be near normal.
      • 熱衰竭:人變得虛弱並大量出汗。皮膚濕冷,變白。脈搏變弱。伴有嘔吐和昏暈。身體溫度接近正常。
      • HEATSTROKE/SUNSTROKE - Also known as sunstroke, heat stroke is life-threatening. The victim's temperature control system, which produces sweating to cool the body, stops working. The body temperature can rise so high that brain damage and death may result if the body is not cooled quickly. High body temperature (105 degrees or higher) along with red, hot, dry skin and a rapid, weak pulse and shallow breathing. Unconsciousness is possible
      • 中暑:有生命危險。人體調溫系統停止工作。體溫升的很高,如果處理不及時,將導致大腦損傷和死亡。體溫達 40 。 5 度以上伴有皮膚紅熱和微弱的脈搏和吞咽呼吸。可能不省人事。
  • 8. Safety - What to do? 做些什麼
    • For heat cramps or heat exhaustion : Get the person to a cooler place and have him or her rest in a comfortable position. If the person is fully awake and alert, give a half glass of cool water every 15 minutes. Do not let him or her drink too quickly. Do not give liquids with alcohol or caffeine in them, as they can make conditions worse. Remove or loosen tight clothing and apply cool, wet cloths such as towels or wet sheets. Call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number if the person refuses water, vomits or loses consciousness.
    • 對於 熱痙攣和熱衰竭:把人移到涼快的地方,讓他以舒服的方式躺好。如果人清醒,每 15 分鐘給他喝半杯涼水。不要讓他喝得太快。不能喝酒或咖啡飲料。除去緊身衣服,披上涼快的或濕的衣物。當人出現嘔吐,怕水或失去意識,立即打 119 急救。
  • 9. Safety - What to do? 做些什麼
    • For heat stroke : Heat stroke is a life-threatening situation! Help is needed fast. Call 9-1-1 or your local EMS number. Move the person to a cooler place. Quickly cool the body. Wrap wet sheets around the body and fan it. If you have ice packs or cold packs, wrap them in a cloth and place them on each of the victim's wrists and ankles, in the armpits and on the neck to cool the large blood vessels. (Do not use rubbing alcohol because it closes the skin's pores and prevents heat loss.) Watch for signals of breathing problems and make sure the airway is clear. Keep the person lying down.
    • 對於熱痙攣:這是威脅生命的情況。需要立即給予説明。立即打 119 或應急反映中心電話。將人移到涼快的地方。迅速冷卻身體。用濕布包身體並扇風。如有冰塊等,用布包好,放在病人的手腕,腳腕,腋窩和頸部等部位冷卻大血管。(不要用擦酒精的方法,因為這會使皮膚關閉毛孔煩礙皮膚散熱。)觀察呼吸情況,確保氣道通暢。讓病人躺好。
  • 10. Key Information 關鍵資訊
    • What is the Heat Index and how is it figured? 什麼是 熱指數,怎麼得知
      • This is the opposite of "wind chill". The Heat Index combines the effects of heat and humidity. Warm temperatures feel even warmer when it is humid.
      • 熱指數包括熱的影響和濕度的影響。當濕度大時同樣的溫度會讓人覺得更熱。
  • 11. Key Information 關鍵資訊
    • The Heat Index Chart 熱指數表
      • 80 to 90 degrees - Fatigue possible with prolonged exposure and/or physical activity.
      • 溫度 26.5 - 32 度-長時間的暴露和 / 或體力活動易導致疲勞
      • 90 to 105 degrees - Sunstroke, heat cramps, and heat exhaustion possible with prolonged exposure and or physical activity.
      • 32 度 -40 度-長時間的暴露和 / 或體力活動可能得 熱痙攣,熱衰竭和中暑。
      • 105 to 130 degrees - Sunstroke, heat cramps or heat exhaustion likely, and heatstroke possible with prolonged exposure and/or physical activity.
      • 40 度- 54 度-很可能得熱痙攣,熱衰竭和中暑。
      • 130 degrees and higher - Heatstroke/sunstroke highly likely with continued exposure.
      • 54 度以上-只要連續暴露,就很可能得中暑
  • 12. Key Information 關鍵資訊
    • How Will We Be Warned? 如何得知高溫警告
      • If you are in the peak summer months, and the temperature and/or humidity has been unusually high for several days, anticipate an extreme heat emergency situation.
      • 如果你處於高溫的夏季,已連續幾天異常的高溫高濕,這就是高溫危險的信號。
      • Keep an eye on The Weather Channel to track the heat index and to get information on excessive heat potential.
      • 關注天氣預報,注意異常情況。
  • 13. Key Information 關鍵資訊
      • Although the threshold criteria may vary depending on
      • the location, two kinds of alerts are generally issued.
      • 雖然各地標準不一,但通常會發佈這兩種高溫警告;
    • Heat Advisory - issued when the heat, or combination of heat and humidity, is expected to become an inconvenience for much of the population, and a problem for some.
    • 高溫提示-當高溫高濕可能給較多人帶來不便和問題時
    • Excessive Heat Warning - issued when the heat, or combination of heat and humidity, is expected to be dangerous for a large portion of the population.
    • 過度高溫警告-當高溫高濕可能給大部分人帶來危險時 。
  • 14. Thank you and have a cool summer season