133835244 disease-causation
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133835244 disease-causation



nursing education

nursing education



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133835244 disease-causation 133835244 disease-causation Presentation Transcript

  • Patho - physiologic & Psychodynamics of disease causation
  • CONCEPTS OF HEALTH • Health • Health status • Health belief • Health behavior
  • Health - Belief Model Individual perceptions Modifying factors • Perceived susceptibility • Perceived seriousness • Perceived threat • Demographic variables • Structural variables • Cues to action Likelihood of action • Perceived benefits to action – Perceived barriers to action
  • Concepts ( contd…) • Patho-physiologic • Psychodynamics
  • Homeostasis Constancy Stress Adaptation Body- A balanced state
  • Homeostasis  Physiologic homeostasis  Psycho logic homeostasis
  • Physical environment Psychological environment Psycho logic homeostasis Social environment Life experiences
  • Stress Types of stressors • Physical • Physiologic • Psycho-social
  • Physiologic Manifestations of Stress •` Interpretation of stressful stimuli by brain •Sympathetic nervous system Response •Sympathetic Adrenal Medullary response •Hypothalamic Pituitary response
  • Physiologic Manifestations of Stress (Contd.) • • • • • • • • Dilation of pupils Diaphoresis Increases heart rate Paleness of the skin Increased blood pressure Increased cardiac output Increased rate & depth of respiration Decreased urine output
  • Physiologic Manifestations of Stress (Contd.) • • • • • Dry mouth Increased peristalsis of the intestines Increased muscle tension Increased blood sugar Lethargy, Mental lassitude, inactivity
  • Psycho logic Manifestations of Stress • Anxiety- mild, moderate, sever anxiety • Fear • Anger- Hostility, Aggression, Violence • Depression
  • Cognitive Manifestations of Stress • • • • • • Problem-solving Structuring Self-control Suppression Fantasy or day-dreaming Prayer
  • Verbal & Motor Manifestations of Stress •Crying •Verbal abuse •Laughing •Screaming •Hitting or Kicking •Holding & touching
  • Unconscious ego defense mechanisms
  • Stress at cellular level Cellular injury Causes• Hypoxia • Physical Agents – Extremes of temperature, Radiation & electrical shock, Mechanical trauma • Chemical agents • Disordered immune response • Genetic disorders
  • Adaptation Modes of Adaptation •Physiologic Mode/ Biologic adaptation •Psycho logic adaptation •Socio-cultural Adaptation
  • Characteristics of Adaptive responses •All adaptive responses are attempts to maintain homeostasis. •Adaptation is a whole body or total body responses. •Adaptive responses have limits. •Adaptation requires time. •Adaptability varies from person to person. •Adaptive responses may be inadequate or excessive. •Adaptive responses are ego-centric and tiring.
  • Dimensions of Adaptation       Physical Developmental Emotional Intellectual Social Spiritual
  • Stages of Adaptation to response 1. An Alarm reaction Shock Phase Counter shock phase 2. Stage of resistance 3. Stage of exhaustion
  • General Adaptation response ALARM REACTION 1. Hypothalamus 2. Posterior pituitary Increased ADH – increased water absorption Decreased urine output
  • General Adaptation response 3. Anterior pituitary Increased ADH- Adrenal cortexIncreased Aldosterone 4. SNS & Adrenal medulla Increased epinephrine Increased nor epinephrine 5. Fight or Flight
  • General Adaptation response RESISTANCE Sterilization Hormonal levels return to normal Parasympathetic Nervous System Adaptation to stress
  • General Adaptation response EXHAUSTION Increased physiological response as in alarm reaction Decreased energy levels Decreasing physiological adaptation Death
  • Local Adaptation Syndrome •Reflex pain response •Inflammatory response
  • Inflammatory response Vascular & Exudative Reparative cellular response stage response
  • Illness Stages- 1. Transition from health to illness 2. Period of accepted illness 3. Convalescent stage
  • Illness behavior IGUN’s 11 stages of illness behavior 1. Symptom experience 2. Self-treatment or medication 3. Communication to others 4. Assessment of symptoms 5. Sick-role assumption 6. Concern
  • Illness behavior ( Contd.) 7. Efficacy of treatment 8. Selection of treatment 9. Treatment 10. Assessment of effectiveness of treatment 11. Recovery & Rehabilitation
  • Nursing Implications •Promoting healthy Life-style •Enhancing Coping strategies •Teaching relaxation exercises •Educating •Enhancing social support •Recommending support & therapy Group •Crises intervention
  • Stages of health behavior change •Pre-contemplation •Contemplation •Preparation •Action •Maintenance