9E Reactions of metals and metal compounds Useful metals Metals and metal compounds 9E Reactions of metals and metal compounds Salts
9E Reactions of metals and metal compounds Useful metals
We use metals for bridges and cars, for jewellery, and even inside our bodies. What’s so special about metals? 9E Properties of metals Complete the table. Answer ‘yes’ or ‘no’. Give three more properties of metals. yes no yes yes no no gas at room temperature does not react with oxygen can be beaten into flat sheets shiny surface poor conductor of electricity good conductor of heat typical of metals? property
9E Which metal? There are lots of metals, all slightly different. How do we choose which metal to use for which job? Match up the properties with the way we use each metal. use 1 titanium for artificial hip joints 2 copper in electrical circuits 3 gold for jewellery 4 lead for weights property of metal A has a high density B shiny and unreactive, so it does not tarnish C very light and strong, and unreactive D cheap and a good conductor of electricity property of metal C very light and strong, and unreactive D cheap and a good conductor of electricity B shiny and unreactive, so it does not tarnish A has a high density
Read all about it! 9E Odd ones out There is something odd about these substances. What is it? Mercury: a liquid metal that conducts heat and electricity well. It is very dense and was used during the Spanish Inquisition to kill people. Victims were forced to swallow mercury which is very poisonous. Graphite: a black powder that conducts electricity. It feels quite slippery and is used in pencils. A stick of graphite leaves a smear on a rough surface like paper as it passes over it. But is it a metal?
Metals and metal compounds 9E Reactions of metals and metal compounds
9E I’ll name that gas in... Many metals react with acids to produce a gas. But which gas is it? CLUE 1 Think about the formulae for acids: sulphuric acid H 2 SO 4 , hydrochloric acid HCl , nitric acid HNO 3 . CLUE 2 The gas burns with a popping sound. CLUE 3 The gas is not oxygen. And the gas is... Hydrogen!
How do metals react with acids ? Complete this equation. 9E Metals and acids Write a word equation for each metal with hydrochloric acid: What evidence would tell you this reaction has occurred? metal + hydrochloric acid ? ? + calcium magnesium zinc iron lead copper silver
9E More metals, more acids Metals react with acids to produce a salt and hydrogen . Which salts would be made here? Write a word equation for the reaction of magnesium with nitric acid. magnesium chloride zinc chloride iron chloride magnesium sulphate zinc sulphate iron sulphate iron zinc magnesium salt produced in sulphuric acid salt produced in hydrochloric acid metal
9E What happens to the atoms? In any chemical reaction the atoms are rearranged. Metals react with acids like this. Hydrogen bubbles appear because hydrogen atoms leave the acid and pair up to form hydrogen molecules. zinc + sulphuric acid Zn + H 2 SO 4 + zinc sulphate + hydrogen ZnSO 4 + H 2 + zinc + hydrochloric acid Zn + 2HCl + zinc chloride + hydrogen ZnCl 2 + H 2 +
9E I’ll name that gas in... Metal carbonates react with acids to produce a gas. But which gas is it? CLUE 1 The formulae for carbonates: sodium carbonate Na 2 CO 3 , copper carbonate CuCO 3 , zinc carbonate ZnCO 3 . CLUE 2 The gas puts out a burning spill. CLUE 3 The gas is not hydrogen. And the gas is... Carbon dioxide!
9E Acids and metal carbonates There’s another way of proving that the gas given off is carbon dioxide. What will happen to the limewater?
Metal carbonates react with acids . 9E Acids and metal carbonates This reaction has helped to shape our landscape. It has formed huge caves out of solid rock, with stalactites and stalagmites. Calcium carbonate (limestone) is insoluble . When it reacts with acidic rainwater, a soluble salt is formed. The rock wears away. Write a word equation for the reaction of calcium carbonate with nitric acid. metal carbonate + acid salt + water + carbon dioxide
9E What happens to the atoms? When a metal carbonate reacts with an acid , the atoms are rearranged. Where did the carbon dioxide molecules come from? How was the water formed? magnesium carbonate + sulphuric acid + + MgCO 3 H 2 SO 4 magnesium sulphate + + + MgSO 4 CO 2 H 2 O + + carbon dioxide water + sodium carbonate nitric acid + + Na 2 CO 3 2HNO 3 + sodium nitrate carbon dioxide + + + + + + water 2NaNO 3 CO 2 H 2 O
9E What, no gas? The reaction between a metal oxide and an acid does not produce a gas. What does it produce? CLUE 1 The formula for iron oxide is FeO , and the formula for sulphuric acid is H 2 SO 4 . CLUE 2 The salt formed when they react is iron sulphate , formula FeSO 4 . What else is left over? CLUE 3 There is no clue 3! And the answer is… When sulphuric acid reacts with iron oxide it produces iron sulphate and water .
9E Acids and metal oxides How does copper oxide react with sulphuric acid ? copper oxide + sulphuric acid copper sulphate + water
9E What happens to the atoms? When a metal oxide reacts with an acid , the atoms are rearranged. Write a general word equation for this reaction. How was the water formed? copper sulphate + water CuSO 4 + H 2 O + copper oxide + sulphuric acid CuO + H 2 SO 4 + water H 2 O + + + MgCl 2 magnesium chloride magnesium oxide hydrochloric acid MgO 2HCl + + +
Salts 9E Reactions of metals and metal compounds
What does the word salt mean to you? 9E Salt with everything? Chemists use the word salt to mean... a compound that is made when a metal replaces the hydrogen in an acid. Which acid would you use to make these salts? hydrochloric acid sulphuric acid nitric acid calcium nitrate calcium sodium sulphate sodium potassium chloride potassium salt acid + metal
Lots of different reactions make salts. Here are three examples to complete. 9E Yet more salts! metal + acid salt + ? metal oxide + acid salt + ? metal carbonate + acid salt + ? + ?
9E Name that salt Remember that a salt is an acid with its hydrogen replaced by a metal. How many salts can you name? Name as many salts as you can remember (or make up!) in two minutes. Salts are very useful chemicals. We use them to flavour our foods, fertilise our crops, and even as antiseptics.
9E How many did you get? These are just some of the salts you might have named... the chlorides (potassium chloride, sodium chloride…) the nitrates (lead nitrate, zinc nitrate…) the sulphates (magnesium sulphate, calcium sulphate…) Check your score! wow! you’re super salty! 20+ very good 16–20 good 11–15 not bad 5–10 don’t give up the day job! under 5
Which formula belongs with which salt? 9E Names and formulae CuCl 2 AlCl 3 KNO 3 NaCl ZnSO 4 KNO 3 NaCl AlCl 3 ZnSO 4 CuCl 2 potassium chloride aluminium chloride zinc sulphate copper chloride sodium chloride
1. Which of these are all metals? a) graphite, copper and lead b) magnesium, calcium and marble c) copper, magnesium and iron. 2. Which gas is given off when a metal carbonate reacts with an acid? a) carbon dioxide b) hydrogen c) none. 9E Quiz
3. Which gas is given off when a metal oxide reacts with an acid? a) carbon dioxide b) hydrogen c) none. 4. Which gas is given off when a metal reacts with an acid? a) carbon dioxide b) hydrogen c) none. 9E Quiz