Population geography


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Population geography

  1. 1. GEOG 1: “POPULATION GEOGRAPHY”Geography: … ‘the why of where’ • crude density (arithmetic density): one …the study of the HOW and WHY the WHAT is dimensional, the total # of people divided by the WHERE at WHEN! total land area. 2 • North America - 32 people/mi 2Demography: study of the characteristics of the human • South America - 73 people/mi 2population • Europe - 134 people/mi 2 • Asia - 203 people/mi 2Population Geography: study of population • Africa - 65 people/mi 2differences over space; concerned with distribution, • Australia and Oceania - 9 people/micomposition, growth, & movement of populationMain difference: focus on spatial dimension Nutritional density: the ratio between the total population and the amount of land under cultivation in aSources of Info: given unit of area. • survey and census • Vital records Agricultural Density: the ratio between the total • Family reconstitution population and the number of agriculturists per unit of • administrative record linkage arable land in a specific area.GLOBAL PERPECTIVES (UN Population Division) Physiologic Density: a ratio of human population to• Rate of increase in the last 200 years: the area of cropland, used in less developed countries o 1804 : 1 Billion dominated by subsistence agriculture o 1927 : 2 Billion (123 years) o 1974 : 4 Billion (47 years) Overpopulation: a value judgement based on the o Oct 99 : 6 Billion (25 years) notion that the resources of a particular area are not o 2013 : approximately 7 Billion enough to support its current populationDistinct Characteristics of the Human Population: Population Composition• Approximate 80% of the world pop in less Age Sex Pyramid: a representation of the population developed countries (LDCs) based on its composition according to age and sex• 2 countries hold 1/3 of the earth’s total population• LDCs has the fastest growing population• People are living longer(from 45-65life expectancy) A B• More People Being Born + Living Longer = more people on EarthPopulation growth is compounded at 3% growth rate w/ 1M people: • Yr 1: 1,030,000 (+30k) • Yr 2: 1,060,900 (30k + 900) C A – Rapid GrowthDoubling time at 3% growth rate is less than 25 yrs B – Slow Growth C – Zero GrowthDoubling time: time period required for a populationexperiencing exponential growth to double in size Cohort: A population group unified by a specificPopulation Distribution common characteristics; group of individuals who share • 80% in LDCs a common temporal demographic experience • 90 % live North of the Equator • Youth Cohort: members of the population who are • most live in edges near water bodies less than 15 years of age and generally considered • Bangladesh & Netherlands: have the highest to be too young to be fully active in the labor force population density • Middle Cohort: members of the population 15 to • Egypt: Population is at 3% of total land area 64 years of age who are considered to be • Autralia and New Zealand economically active and productive • Old-age Cohort: members of the population 65Determinants: years of age and older who are considered beyond• Physical Environment their economically active and productive years• Political, Economic, Socio-Cultural Dependency Ratio: the measure of the economicPopulation Density impact of the young and old on the more economically• numerical measure, ratio productive members of the population.----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  2. 2. GEOG 1: “POPULATION GEOGRAPHY”Aging Population: a term used to describe the effects Natural Increase Rate (NIR): the difference betweenof an increasing proportion of older age groups on the the number of births and number of deaths within apopulation particular country. - Natural Increase: surplus of birth; the differenceParticipation Rate: the proportion of a cohort or group between the CBR and CDRthat becomes involved in a specific activity, such as - Natural Decrease: deficit of birth, differenceattending an educational institution between CDR and CBRBaby Boom: a cohort of individuals born in the US Determinants of NIR:between 1946 and 1964, just after WWII, in a time of • Economic Developmentrelative peace and prosperity which allowed for better • Educationeducation & job opportunities, & thus encouraging high • Gender Empowermentrates for both marriage & fertility. • Health Care • Generation X: those born between 1965 – 1976 • Cultural Traditions • Generation Y / Echo Boomers: 1977-2000 • Public PolicyBaby Bust: between the 60’s & 70’s when US fertility MOBILITY and MIGRATIONrates dropped as large number of women from the babyboom generation sought higher levels of education & Mobility: the ability to move either permanently ormore competitive jobs, causing them to marry later in temporarilylife. Fertility rate dropped as a result. Migration: a long-distance move of a person from onePopulation Parameters and Processes political jurisdiction to another involving a change of - Birth, Death, and Migration are the factors affecting residence in a given time-frame population growth. - Emigration: the process of moving out of aCrude Birth Rate (CBR): the ratio of the number of live particular country, usually the individualbirths in a single year for every thousand people in the person’s country of originpopulation. - Immigration: process of individuals movingCrude Death Rate (CDR): the number of deaths in a into a new country with the intentions ofsingle year for every thousand people in the population remaining thereTotal Fertility Rate: the average number of childrenborn to a woman during her child-bearing years, which Internal Migration: a move within a particular countryis approximately 15 through 49. or regionInfant Mortality Rate: the annual number of deaths ofinfants under one year of age compared to the total International Migration: a move from one country tonumber of live births for that same year. anotherChild Mortality Rate: Number of deaths per thousandchildren within the first 5 years of life Gross Migration: the total number of migrants movingMaternal Mortality Rate: Number of deaths per into and out of a place, region, or countrythousand of women giving birthLife Expectancy: the average age individuals are Net Migration: the gain or loss in the total population ofexpected to live. Factors affecting life expectancy a particular area as a result of migrationincludes violence, infant mortality, health care,epidemics and other risks Push Factors: events and conditions that impel an individual to move away from a location; Incentives for potential migrants to leave a place Pull Factors: forces of attraction that draw migrants to a certain place Voluntary Migration: movement of an individual who consciously and voluntarily decides to locate to a new area Forced Migration: event in which individuals are forced to move against their will (African Slave Trade) Eco-Migration: a population movement caused by the degradation of land and essential natural resources----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  3. 3. GEOG 1: “POPULATION GEOGRAPHY”Guest Workers: individuals who migrate temporarily to diseases. Also accompanied by technologicaltake jobs in other countries (OFWs) improvements in agriculture. • Stage 3, Late Expanding: birth rates fall. WomenFilipino Migration Issues: labor force participation and the level of educational • OFWs as Bagong Bayani attainment is seen as a factor. Population growth • Brain drain and brain Gain begins to level off • OFWs as status symbol • Stage 4, Industrial: low birth and death rates • Feminization of OFWs • Petrodollars: due to the construction boom in the This model is seen applicable and reflective of the middle east general characteristics of the developed countries. • OFWs as the new exports (service sector) Stages 2 and 3, also called transitional stages, are further classified as Demographic Trap since most ofThomas Malthus: through his “Essay on the Principle the world economies cannot surpass this stage.of Population”, he predicted that the geometric growthof the population would eventually outpace food Criticisms received by this model is on account of itsproduction which grows arithmetically or linearly linearity which does not account externalities such as • negative checks: starvation & diseases war, famine which could generally alter the population • Paul Erlich (1968): Population Bomb structure of an area, and thus, its development.• Critiques: • discounted ability to increase food production Population Policies and Programs: geared towards • control on reproductive behavior achieving a desirable number of the population. Most of • not lack but unequal distribution of food the developed countries are aging while LDCs stillImportance: brought attention of sustainability experience high population growth. • Family PlanningNeo-Malthusian: advocacy of population control • Control growth of populationprograms to ensure enough resources for current and • State subsidies to encourage population growthfuture populations • extreme measures: • one child policyDemographic Transition Theory • Separation of the church and the state• A sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high to low birth and death rates through time. Helps to explain relationship between population & development• interpretation of population growth• development leads to decrease in birth & death ratesStages: • Stage 1, Preindustrial: birth and death rates are high and roughly in balance • Stage 2, Early Expanding: death rates drop suddenly due to improvements in health and sanitation which increases life span and reduces----------------------------------------------------------------------------