´Explaining´ the Estates system Providing services to society Preserving knowledge
Power Economic- powerful landownerPolitical- Kings had divine power, so they needed Popes´ support Estates system was ´supported/explained´ by religion arbitrated between kings´ disputes
The Church was divided functionally into the ordinary clergy, who are referred to assecular because they minister to the needs of secular people, and the monastics, whoare referred to as regular because they are regulated by monastic rules.Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_was_the_social_structure_of_medieval_times#ixzz1daELc4k2 Clergy Secular Regular Took care of secular Were secluded (monks & nuns) away from secular people people daily Monastries & Abbeys Churches Followed rules of their order Celebrated Mass (some independence from the Pope) : clothes, tasks, daily Celebrated rites timetable. (baptism, weddings,ect) Studied Prayed Copied texts (amanuensis)
Hierarchies in the Church Secular Regular Pope in Rome or Patriarch of Pope or Patriarch Constantinople Cardinals (Roman Church), Grand Master, heads of archbishops who could elect a new monastic order, which could pope be worldwide in scope Archbishops (Roman Church), Abbots, heads of local senior bishops monasteries Bishops, heads of dioceses, which consisted of geographical groups of Monks, who were the churches members of monasteries Priests of local churches Novices, training to become Deacons, lower order in local monks churches
Monastic Rule: Monks lifestyle (1) The daily life of Medieval monks in the Middle Ages were based on the three main vows: The Vow of Poverty The Vow of Chastity The Vow of Obedience vow: voto The life of medieval monks were filled with the following work and chores: Washing and cooking for the monastery Raising the necessary supplies of vegetables and grain Reaping, Sowing, Ploughing, Binding and Thatching, Haymaking and Threshing Producing wine, ale and honey Providing medical care for the community Providing education for boys and novices Copying the manuscripts of classical authors Providing hospitality for pilgrims
Monks lifestyle (2) Matins, The times of these prayers were called by the following names - Lauds, Prime, Terce, Sext, Nones, Vespers and Compline. Matins : the night office; the service recited at 2 am in the divine office Prime : The 6am service Vespers : the evening service of divine office, recited before dark (4 - 5pm) Compline : the last of the day services of divine office, recited before retiring (6pm) Any work was immediately ceased at these times of daily prayer. The monks were required to stop what they were doing and attend the services. The food of the monks was generally basic and the mainstay of which was bread and meat. The beds they slept on were pallets filled with straw.
Amanuensis monk Copying religious and scientific texts (Bibles, prayer books, astronomy texts) Preserving knowledge (from the Classic Era: Greek and Roman discoveries) Copying important works by contemporary religious thinkers (phylosophy)
Where did the regular clergy live? The monastery was A nunnery was the the religious home of a religious home for a group of monks. Many group of nuns. monasteries were built across Europe in medieval times.An abbey is simply another name for amonastery where the head person was A priory is another name for acalled an abbot (male) or abbess (female). monastery where the head person was called a prior.
Religion- regulating daily life Religion was important for people in medieval times and was part of the daily structure for many of them. Each village had a church and many monasteries were built all across Europe. Kings, Queen and nobles of the time gave donations to the Church in exchange for blessings and for forgiveness for their wrong-doings. The Church looked after the poor and the sick were taken care of in monasteries. Without books and the ability to read, preachers were the only source of information about God and the scriptures. The insides of churches were not white as we see them today but would have been covered in brightly coloured pictures showing stories from the Bible. It was common for people to choose to dedicate their lives to the Church.
Benedictine Monks- an important medieval order Saint Benedict founded several monasteries in Italy in the early sixth century (A.D. 500 ? A.D. 550). Benedict devised a series of rules that had to be followed by his monks. These rules became known as the Benedictine Order. The rules were easy to follow and were adopted in many other countries as well. The monks had to obey three vows; poverty, chastity and obedience. This protected them from the deceits of the World, the lust of the flesh and the snares of the devil. Their day was divided into three parts.: 1st devoted to services in the church; 2nd devoted to work in the cloisters, reading, writing and meditation 3rd devoted to manual labour, to help in the gardens or the infirmary. The Benedictine monks were known as the Black Monks because of the colour of their clothing.
What happened when? Key dates:476—Fall of Rome814—Death of Charlemagne1215—Magna Carta & 4th Lateran Council1347-1349—Great Plague1517—Martin Luther publishes 95 theses1492—Columbus