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institutions.The perniciouseffectsof corruption — the lackorpoor
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NAME: INDEX NO.
Winnifred Badu Boatemaa
AMOAH DANIEL KOMLA
GOVERNANCE AND ANTI-CORRUPTION POLICY INSTRUMENTS. THE NEW
ROLE OF GOVERNANCE INSTITUTIONS IN PUBLIC MANAGEMENT,
PARLIAMENT, CABINET, JUDICIARY, CIVIL SERVICE, CIVIL SERVANTS, NGOS,
PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION, AUDITOR GENERAL ETC.
Governance and anti-anticorruption involves the day-to-day administration of an organization or
body paying particular attention to transparency, accountability and probity in the dispensation
Corruption is dishonest exploitation of power for personal gain. Corruption can also be seen as
wrongdoing by those in a special position of trust. The term is commonly applied to self-
benefiting conduct by public officials and others dedicated to public service.
Some causes of corruption include:
Personal Motivations: People develop the desire to posses’ goods and services and more
often to have it in abundance. They also wish to have unfair advantage over others; to pay
lower taxes, to get an appointment or promotion, to win a contract or get something done
Bad systems: This happens when systems do not work well hence the rise of bad
incentives. A clear opportunity, such as the envelope of cash sitting and unattended in an
office. This kind of opportunity in the government could be a government-run mining
company with no competitors, or a long list of licenses and fees required for shipping
goods into or out of the country.
Little chance of getting caught: This lack of accountability comes primarily from a lack
of transparency, for example, when public officials do not inform about or explain what
they are doing, including a declaration of their wealth, houses, and cars.
Attitudes or circumstances: that makes average people disregard the law. People may
try to get around laws of a government they consider illegitimate (for example, not
paying taxes to the apartheid government in South Africa). Poverty or scarcity of goods
(such as medicine) may also push people to live outside the law.
Anti-corruption is now recognized to be one of the world’s greatest challenges. It is a major
hindrance to sustainable development with a disproportionate impact on poor communities and is
corrosive on the very fabric of society.
According to the Oxford Dictionary, Governance means the act or manner of governing, of
exercising control or authority over the actions or subjects, a system of regulations. Particularly,
good governance is a process by which governments and people identify shared values need and
challenges, set priorities and develop programmes to address those needs and challenges and
jointly manage the implementation of those programmes and the available resources, through a
transparent and accountable process with shared responsibility and outcomes that are responsive,
gender sensitive and broad based.
Features of good governance
Corruption defeats the idea behind good governance. Corruption in any field is wrong and
should be frowned against. Even in the ethical case, corruption is inherently wrong. It is misuse
of power and position and has a disproportionate impact on the poor and disadvantaged. It
undermines the integrity of all involved and damages the fabric of organizations to which they
belong. Corruption is a global phenomenon which occurs in developed and developing countries
alike and has existed at all times and in virtually every society, albeit to varying degrees.
Corruption is a serious threat to the rule of law, the stability and security of societies. It
jeopardizes the fair distribution of resources since it undermines fundamental democratic values
and institutions and impedes social, economic and political development and the enjoyment of
human rights. Links between corruption and other forms of crime, particularly organized crime,
terrorism, drug trafficking, money laundering and other economic crime at both national and
international level are very disturbing. Corruption undermines the legitimacy of government and
such democratic values as trust and tolerance. Although some claim corruption reduces costs by
cutting red tape, an emerging consensus holds that the availability of bribes induces officials to
contrive new rules and delays.
In recent years there has been a growth in the need of openness, with more pressure being put on
political institutions to be more accountable in their action. The legislative branch, as the
essential law-maker and source of oversight procedures, has received most of this social pressure
to improve good governance methods associated with liability, responsibility and answerability.
The study of anti-corruption introduces us to topics that have taken center stage in modern times,
Transparency and Accountability. The various instruments of government such as public
service management; Parliament, Cabinet, Judiciary, Civil Service, Civil Servants, NGOs, Public
service Commission, Auditor-general etc are key to rigorously disinfect the system of this vice.
Transparency is introduced as a means of holding public officials accountable and fighting
corruption. When budgets and financial statements are reviewed, when laws, rules and decision
are opened to discussion, they are seen as transparent and there is less opportunities for the
authorities to abuse the system in their own interest. Integrity, accountability and transparency of
the political system and the civil service are a fundamental requirement for trust, credibility and
authority of government in a modern and democratic society.
Accountability is the acknowledgment and assumption of responsibility for actions, products,
decisions and policies, including the administration, governance and implementation within the
scope of the role or employment position and encompassing the obligation to report explain and
be answerable for resulting consequences.
Parliaments, in discharging the functions provided for in national constitutions, namely,
legislating, overseeing the Government and representing the people, have a pre-eminent role to
play in the global drive to curb corruption. Parliament is empowered to establish the legal
framework for the organization and management of public affairs and society. They vote
appropriate anti-corruption legislation that criminalizes corruption and provides for appropriate
punishment and other deterrent measures. They also enforce integrity legislation for members of
parliaments and other public officials, including members of government and other government
officials and see to it that this legislation is enforced. Another important role parliament plays in
governance and anti-corruption is Lobby their governments to sign and/or ratify relevant
international instruments and see to it that the provisions of these instruments are written into
national legislation and enforced. This in turn promotes the passage of freedom of information
legislation that allows for the disclosure by government of information considered necessary for
the conduct of parliamentary business, especial in investigating cases of corruption. Streamline
and ensure the equity of laws and regulations on government procurement procedures, taxation,
the administration of justice, etc. The parliament in Ghana continually works towards the
achievement of such measures to tackle the challenge of corruption. Inasmuch as some
parliamentarians are sometimes suspected to be corrupt, the ultimate aim is focusing on the
universal success of these measures because corruption starts individually but affects universally.
Aiding the Parliament in its oversight duties is the Auditor-General. The Auditor-General of
Ghana is the head of the Ghana Audit Service. The Ghana Audit Service is established on a legal
base as the supreme audit institution of the Confederation bound only by the constitution and the
law. The public accounts of Ghana and of all public offices or organization established by an Act
of Parliament shall be audited and reported on by the Auditor-General. For this purposes the
Auditor-General or any person authorized or appointed for the purpose by the Auditor-General
shall have access to all books, records, returns and other documents relating to or relevant to
those accounts. The Auditor-General shall, upon receipt of the annual statement of public
accounts required, under sections 40 and 41 of the Financial Administration Decree, 1979
(S.M.C.D. 221), to be made by the Controller and Accountant-General, examine the statement
and certify whether in his opinion the statements present fairly financial information on the
accounts in accordance with accounting policies of the Government and consistent with
statements of the proceeding year in accordance with best international practices, and may state
such reservation or comment that he considers necessary.
In recent years the issue of corruption and the search for strategies to combat its corrosive effects
has grown in importance as a topic of public debate and a criterion by which evaluates
leadership. For many emerging democracies, Ghana not being an exception, formerly
characterized by their leaders' economic predation, the decentralization of authority, privatization
of property and reform of administrative structures demonstrate the value of alternative
approaches to governance and political culture. While these changes are invariably accompanied
by uncertainty and sometimes by abusive opportunism, they present an expanding range of
opportunities for political initiative in a law-based society. As citizens are exposed to these
alternatives, they discover they can demand accountability from their leaders. Various
commissions came out to probe into various instances that have occurred in Ghana. The National
Reconciliation Council was set up to look into atrocities meted out to Ghanaians during the coup
years. Another commission was set up to put under the microscope, Ghana’s Golden Jubilee
Celebrations. The onus of these activities or probes is meant to fight corruption and promote
Governments and parastatal agencies have been forced to respond to citizen aspirations with
more efficient and responsive services. They have even begun to promote an administrative ethos
that is intended to serve the citizenry rather than the self-interests of politicians and bureaucrats.
This has become of cardinal concern to the cabinet. Even before one is eligible to be on the
cabinet in any country, he should have a “clean sheet” or near one in to possess credibility in the
opinion of the citizenry. When a cabinet is perceived to be corrupt, it becomes unpopular and
there is a general atmosphere of civil strife. Many African and South American countries suffer
such cabinets and these cabinets are often overthrown along with the government and replaced
with ones perceived to be better.
In the public arena such as the civil service and public service, governance whilst avoiding
much corruption is undertaken through various means. There should be a reform in this sector
and such reform should include examples such as open bidding for contracts, proper and open
recruitment policies and fair distribution of resources among a few to be mentioned.
In search for better performing modes of governance and public administration, countries
continue to undertake substantive work in restructuring, reforming, and reconfiguring their
governance systems and institutions to make them more participative, decentralized and
responsive to local, regional and global needs.
An effective public service is indispensable to the overall struggle for strengthening the rule of
law and sustainable development, principally because the public service is central to the
planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of policies and programmes that are
directly related to the reduction of poverty. Many countries are embarking on revamping the
image of the public service to enable it to attract and retain the best talent to sustain its
effectiveness. African countries adopted the 23rd of June as Public Service Day, and the United
Nations followed suit by adopting the same date as Public Service Day to be observed
worldwide. The introduction of the United Nations Public Service Awards is also one of the
efforts to uplift the image of the public service (UN Public Service Day). There is a need for
sustained effort to diagnose and analyze the forces and factors that have led to the erosion of the
image of the public service in almost every country these past years, and to find remedies that
would re-establish the values, status, and prestige in serving the public.
The role of government in anti-corruption cannot be over emphasized. We need to continue
polishing our operations and enhance service to our nation. Corruption as it is has no defined
starting point and should always be checked.
ANTI-CORRUPTION AGENCIES (ACAs), Office of Democracy and Governance Anti-
corruption Program Brief. USAID
CORRUPTION & INTEGRITY IMPROVEMENT INITIATIVES IN DEVELOPING
Microsoft Student Encarta 2009
Encyclopedia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suit. 2008
UNPAN - United Nations Public Administration Network(2008-2010)
4th Global Forum on Combatting Corruption: From Words to Deeds Anti-Corruption,
June 2005, Brasilia, Brazil:
Workshop on e-Government: Improving Visibility
Workshop on Local Level - Controlling from a Distance: Challenges and Solutions
Workshop on Conflicts-of-Interest: Sample Presentation
Forum for a Global Integrity Alliance Presentation at SessionI: Organizational ethics: a
value based approach to promoting integrity, democratic governance and the fight against
corruption, and Balancing a value-driven approach with a compliance-driven approach to
promote organizational integrity, March 2004, Istanbul, Turkey
Council on Government Ethics Laws 2002 Conference: Presentation on Public Sector
Ethics in the Developing World, October 2003, Ottawa, Canada
11th IACC: Workshop on Depoliticizing the Civil Service, May 2003, Seoul, Republic of