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Metropolitan Growth Summary Report | Amman Institute

  1. 1. Summary Report THE AMMAN PLANMetropolitan Growth
  4. 4. Summary Report THE AMMAN PLANMetropolitan Growth Summary Report THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH 3
  5. 5. The Amman Plan:Metropolitan GrowthSummary ReportPublished by Greater Amman MunicipalityMay 2008P.O. Box 13212 – Ali Bin Abi Taleb StreetHai Al-Muhajereen – Madina DistrictAmman, JordanWebsite: THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH
  6. 6. King Abdullah II’s Message 7 Message from the Mayor 9 Vision 10 Aspirations 13 Introduction 14A Amman Plan 17A.1 Planning Context 18A.2 Amman Plan 20A.3 Planning Approach and Component Plans 24B Metropolitan Growth Plan 29B.1 Metropolitan Growth Plan 30B.2 Metropolitan Growth Plan: Components 38 a) Limited and No Growth Areas 38 b) Metropolitan Transportation and Transit 46 c) Primary Growth Areas 50 d) Metropolitan Services 58B.3 Growth Models and Development Densities 60C Metropolitan Growth Plan Implementation 65C.1 Implementation Approach and Tools 66C.2 Phasing Plan 70C.3 Financing Infrastructure and Services 76C.4 Institutional and Regulatory Framework 77 Glossary 80 Acknowledgements 83 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH 5
  8. 8. HM King Abdullah II’s Message“To achieve the optimum balance of healthy growth and quality living,flourishing expansion and organized districts, 21st century conveniencesand traditional character, we must embark on a serious and comprehensiveproject of city planning for Amman.” Abdullah II ibn Al Hussein Amman, 5 Rabi’ Al Thani 1427 Hijri 3 May 2006 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH 7
  10. 10. Message from The Mayor“Our City is a reflection of ourselves. It is our office to work in; it is ourhome to raise a family in; and it is our playground to relax in. It is where wespend our lives. All of us have seen Amman grow over the past several years withtremendous impact on transportation and other services, including ourneighborhoods and unique cityscape. This development has been happeningwithout a plan; we can no longer afford to grow without direction for itwill damage what is special about Amman and we will miss opportunities tobecome a modern world city while retaining the soul of our community. The Greater Amman Municipality (GAM) has embarked on thepreparation of its first official Amman Plan. This Plan will be the City’sblueprint for sustainable development and will help Jordan achieve theobjectives outlined by the National Agenda. It will guide the growth of ourcommunity and address such issues as the built and natural environment,culture and heritage, transportation and infrastructure, and communitydevelopment . . . We are committed to preparing this Amman Plan based on communityinput so that it reflects the aspirations of our citizens. Such aspirations beginwith a Vision of what we want our City to be, rather than just reacting tocurrent problems . . .” Mayor Omar Maani THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH 9
  11. 11. Vision Amman 2025 Amman is a bustling World City that has been able to blend its rich natural and cultural heritage and its unique cityscape with modern urban development. The City takes special pride in its cultural mosaic, celebrates pluralism, and has become a model of multiculturalism in the Arab world. In Amman’s hinterland, the City Government has been careful to protect the traditional villages that dot the landscape, maintaining their cultural integrity and traditional lifestyles. Amman has become a favourite destination for travelers; for many, visiting Amman is a pilgrimage. The annual Amman Festival is a world event, attracting more than a million visitors. The Festival celebrates Arab arts and culture, explores the spirituality of Islam, and builds on The Amman Message that was drafted nearly twenty years ago. The City has established itself as the Capital of Agreement and Reconciliation within the region. The Amman Message has forged an international East-West cultural bridge, establishing goodwill and friendship that has extended into the business world. As a result, Amman has become a major centre for investment in the Middle East. The City’s knowledge-based industries are flourishing, particularly the spin-off activity resulting from innovation at the R&D incubators on the campuses of its major universities. Amman has become the Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) ‘back-office’ for many international companies, with state-of-the art business parks providing technical and professional(left, top to bottom) Conserving our culturalheritage; Celebrating a pluralist city;Protecting our unique cityscape;(right) Greening the city10 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH
  12. 12. Amman: a World Cityservices ranging from software development and web hosting to legal, that takes you a stepaccounting, engineering, and architectural services. Amman is now the hub beyond, for it is a Cityfor Arab-language call centres. Amman’s biomedical research and medical tourism sector has fully with a Soul!matured and is attracting clients from both the MENA region and WesternEurope. Major outsource contracts with the public health agencies ofHolland, France, and Italy have provided stability and growth to this sector.The recognition that its knowledge-based sectors are world-class has givenAmman, and Jordan, a unique edge in the MENA region, while providing thetraditional tourism sector with a tremendous boost. To ‘feed-the-soul’, Amman has evolved into a centre of the arts in theArab world. The Darat King Abdullah II is a world-class architectural marvel.The Cultural Village that has grown up around the Darat King Abdullah IIincludes the region’s leading theatre and visualarts school. It also houses an arts and culturalincubator of affordable studios, which allowsartists from Jordan and elsewhere to celebratetheir craft. This creative activity has spun-off avibrant cultural industry that is now recognizedaround the globe; it has become known as theAmman Movement. Amman is a city of choice. One can step backin history by walking through the designatedheritage districts. These pedestrian-friendlyneighbourhoods have been thoughtfully restoredand generously landscaped to provide ampleshade. Traffic is limited to local residents onlyand a careful blend of inclusive residential andcommercial development makes this area a favorite destination. The oldDowntown has been transformed into a meeting place for Ammanis andhas been ‘greened’ to become the City’s ‘lung’. The heart of the City blendsculture, the arts, history, commerce, and residential development, and nowforms a major tourist destination for the country. For those with an interest in contemporary living, Amman providesample options. The City is known for its distinctive architectural style.Partnerships between the design community, the City Government, andinvestors have resulted in a carefully crafted city design that respects localtopography and historic built form, reflects the creativity of the Amman (top) Centre for Arts in the Arab World: Zaha Hadid Architects’ design for theMovement, and is unique to Amman. Competition for the Darat King Abdullah II; Zahran Boulevard – Amman’s signature street – is an example of the (bottom) Nurturing the City’s medicalimpact the Amman Movement has had on the design of the city; it is a blend knowledge sectorof contemporary architecture that has a unique Ammani texture and feel. The THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH 11
  13. 13. streetscape boasts a wide promenade, with outdoor living spaces and cafes that link into a pedestrian network. This network extends into the Sweifieh District, which is now a fashion district with pedestrian shopping streets and lofts - both design studios and residences. Dotted with exclusive clothing and jewelry shops, boutique hotels, and restaurants, the district has become the SoHo District of the Arab world and is a favorite destination for Emirate shoppers. The Abdali Central Business District has become a vibrant centre for commerce and modern living, and has been connected with a public transit system that provides easy access from all parts of the metropolitan area. Public transit ridership is made up of all sectors of society, and the City’s integrated transportation system has become a best practice model that is being replicated in all major Arab cities. Amman’s physical growth has been carefully planned, and the Intensification and Densification Policy adopted nearly twenty years ago has paid off. Metropolitan Amman’s hinterland(above) A pedestrian city; (below left) Tourism has been protected from urban sprawl and presents Ammanis with anProjects: Proposed arts and crafts market at undisturbed and varied landscape, including arid desert, gently sloping hillsthe former electrical company hanger; (belowright) Inclusive community: engaging our with lush vegetation, and a productive agricultural area that specializes inchildren organic produce - now in high demand in a health-conscious Amman. This organic agriculture also supplies a thriving export market. Ammani families continue the old habit of escaping the City’s summer heat, and protected green reserves, which serve as the ‘lungs of the city’, provide for quiet shady settings where families can enjoy Friday outings. Amman has become known as an inclusive and socially responsible city. In 2006, the Greater Amman Municipality began a program of Corporate Social Responsibility. It also created a ‘social contract’ between the private sector, non-governmental organizations, international donors, and government to assist those with special needs. This relationship has provided ample affordable housing, developed centres for those with special needs, retrofitted the City for Ammanis with disabilities, and created a community development program that secures meaningful employment for under-privileged residents. The current Mayor of Amman is a ‘graduate’ of the Child Friendly Initiative, as are nearly a third of City Council members. The City motto is ‘Citizens First!’, and leadership and civic responsibility are the cornerstones of Amman’s success. This success is the legacy of an initiative that began over twenty years ago - the City is now harvesting its fruits. We have built a sustainable city with a bright future. We continually aspire to move Amman a step beyond; we are a City with a Soul!12 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH
  14. 14. AspirationsReflecting this Vision, we foresee Amman evolving into:• An Efficient City• An Inclusive and Multicultural City• A City with Citizen-Centered Governance• A Destination City for Investment and Visitors• A City of Heritage and the Arts (above) Protecting our natural• A Green, Sustainable City heritage; (middle left) A child- friendly city; (far left) A multi-• A City for Pedestrians cultural city; (below middle) New Abdali Central Business District; (bottom) Blending the past with the present THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH 13
  15. 15. Introduction The Greater Amman Municipality (GAM) is pleased to present this introduction to the evolving Amman Plan. The Amman Plan is a work in progress, being built and refined as different layers of planning are undertaken in Amman, and will remain so through to its 2025 horizon and beyond. The Amman Plan presents a somewhat unorthodox approach to metropolitan, urban, and community planning. Conventional ‘Master Plans’ are typically structured from the top down – that is, from the larger, metropolitan scale down to the small community scale – in a progressively more detailed sequence. The Amman Plan is being created at all scales simultaneously, from both the top down and the bottom up. The Amman Plan has been prepared under the guidance and shared vision of the Mayor and the Greater Amman Municipal Council, the Central Government Ministries, the Mayor’s Roundtable, urban professionals, and many of Amman’s informed and concerned citizens. In many respects, it reflects current government planning and the ambitions of the National Strategy. As much as possible, it also reflects the intimate knowledge and passion of the countless admirers and inhabitants who call Amman home. The Amman Plan has been prepared under the Authority of the Royal Decree that set the process in motion and under the legal authority of the Cities, Villages, and Buildings Planning Law, No. 79 of 1966. This report is a summary of the full Amman Plan, which contains the policy that will be used to guide day-to-day planning in the City, and is presented in three sections:14 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH
  16. 16. Section A of this report describes the overall approach and framework ofthe Amman Plan, which responds to the pressing growth challenges facingGAM at a variety of planning scales. Section B provides an overview of the Amman Plan’s primary responseto the City’s growth challenges: the Metropolitan Growth Plan (MGP). TheMGP and its subsidiary plans establish a growth framework that is responsiveto Amman’s varied landscape and rich history. Section C of this report assembles various tools that will be used toensure that the Amman Plan can be implemented and financed by GAM,various public utilities, and the Central Government. THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH 15
  18. 18. Amman PlanA.1 Planning Context 18A.2 Amman Plan 20A.3 Planning Approach and Component Plans 24 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH 17
  19. 19. Beirut Mediterranean Sea LEBANON Damascus SYRIA IRAQ Lake Tiberias Irbid Mafraq Aijloun JerashTelAviv W EST As Salt Zarqa BANK Ramallah Amman Jerusalem Azraq Madaba Dead Sea Al Karak SAUDI ARABIA J O R D A NEGYPT SAUDI Al Aqabah gulf ARABIA ofAqabah Haql Al Bi’r Kilometers 0 37.5 75 150 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH 19
  20. 20. A.2 Amman Plan The Amman Plan is an ongoing and evolving series of interrelated and coordinated plans for the Greater Amman Municipality (GAM). Its main challenge is to accommodate Amman’s projected growth to 2025, and to do so it will: • Provide a Vision of the future growth of the City • Provide a Policy Framework to guide the physical development of the City to the year 2025 • Include multiple Component Plans at different planning levels – Metropolitan, Planning Area, and Community Planning Boundary The Greater Amman Municipal Boundary serves as the Metropolitan Planning Area boundary for the Amman Plan. This Metropolitan Planning Area consists of 1,661,904 dunums (1,662 square kilometres) and includes the recent 2007 amalgamations (see Map 2) Map 2: Greater Amman Municipal Boundary and Amalgamation Areas20 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH
  21. 21. TO IRBID ZARQA SALT 8th CIRCLE LANDFILL KING OF BAHRAINTO DEAD SEA PARK TO A ZRA Q AIRPORT MADABA TO AQA B A LEGEND Greater Amman Municipal Boundary GAM Area before 2007: 705 km2 GAM Amalgamation after 2007: 957 km2 TOTAL: 1,662 km2 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH 21
  22. 22. Planning Scales The Amman Plan features sequential scales of planning and corresponding levels of planning detail within an overall plan hierarchy (see Figure 4): Metropolitan Scale: Relates to the entire 1,662-square-kilometre Metropolitan Planning Area and is the scale of the Metropolitan Growth Plan - the subject of Sections B and C of this report.Figure 4: Amman Plan: Planning Scales Metropolitan Growth Plan Scale ZARQA SALT 8th CIRCLE LANDFILL KIN KING KING OF IN KING BAHRA BAHRA N AHRAIN HRA HRA R BAHRAIN PARK A AR ARK PARK MADABA AIRPORT22 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH
  23. 23. Planning Area Scale: The Metropolitan Planning Area will be split into eight Planning Areas to provide a finer scale of planning detail. Area Plans, when completed, will be based on the Metropolitan Growth Plan and will include elements such as land use and major road alignments.Community Scale: Occurs at the level of 228 existing neighbourhoods, which can be broken into smaller planning blocks. Community Plans for these neighbourhoods will provide the greatest level of planning detail, including detailed zoning and local road networks. ARAFAT NODE AIR PO RT RO AD AL YADOUDA Um Al Kondom SOUTH PARK ADC Metro Gateway Planning Area Scale Inner South Planning Area Metro Gateway Community Plan THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH 23
  24. 24. A.3 Planning Approach and Component Plans The Amman Plan is being developed in seven Planning Phases that define a range of Plan Components (see Figure 5 on page 27), each developed at one of the Planning Scales defined in Section A.3. The Amman Plan initially undertook bottom-up, community-level planning in response to immediate and critical pressures to develop tall buildings, urban corridors, industrial areas, residential compounds, and the Airport Road. Phases 1-4 described below reflect these first steps. Phase 1: Amman Plan for Tall Buildings (formerly Interim Growth Strategy) The Amman Plan began at the community scale, with the preparation of the Amman Plan for Tall Buildings that focused on the location, planning, design, and regulation of ‘High-Density Mixed-Use’ (HDMU) development, including the location and regulation of tall buildings. Phase 2: Corridor Intensification Strategy The Amman Plan continued at the community scale with the Corridor Intensification Strategy for ten separate but interconnected urban transportation corridors located in the west-central part of Amman and measuring over 40 kilometres in total length (e.g., Mecca, King Abdullah II, Queen Rania II, Zahran, and Arar). Phase 3: Industrial Lands Policy The Industrial Lands Policy designates industrial areas in selected locations where scattered industrial development applications can be consolidated with appropriate access to housing, transit and other urban amenities (e.g., Al Jeezah Industrial Area and Sahab – Al Mouwaqer Corridor). This policy also introduces a new industrial classification system.24 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH
  25. 25. Phase 4-A: Outlying Settlements Policy(formerly Rural Residential Policy)The Outlying Settlement Policy is a response to increasing interest inresidential developments, particularly large-scale compound and gatedcommunities, beyond the Amman Development Corridor in GAM’s outlyingareas. This policy designates four growth areas around existing villages whereoutlying settlement development will be consolidated.Phase 4-B: Airport Corridor PlanThe Airport Corridor Plan contains proposed conceptual land use plans forfive communities that will be developed in phases from north to south: ArafatIntersection, South Park, Al-Yadouda, Metro Gateway, and Alia InternationalAirport. This plan also addresses the expansion and development of the newMetro-Park.Phase 5: Metropolitan Growth Plan(2008 - This Document)The Metropolitan Growth Plan is the highest-scale component of theAmman Plan. It provides an overall settlement structure and growth frame-work with supporting policies for the entire Metropolitan Planning Areaand encompasses all earlier and subsequent plans. This Plan also includes aPhasing Plan to provide guidance for planned capital improvements.Phase 6: Area Plans(2008 forward)Two Area Plans are scheduled for preparation and approval in 2008. Thesewill likely be the Central Area Plan and the Inner South Area Plan. TheseArea Plans will provide a link between the larger-scale Metropolitan GrowthPlan and the more detailed Community Plans. continued . . . THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH 25
  26. 26. Phase 7: Planning Initiatives (2008 forward) Further components of the Amman Plan will include Metropolitan Corridor Plans, Urban Corridor Plans, further Area Plans, Heritage Studies, Urban Design Studies, Community Plans, and Sector Plans (e.g. Affordable Housing and Economic Development). Some additional studies of these types are already underway and listed here: Amman Development Corridor Master Plan Amman Metropolitan Transportation Study Amman Housing Plan Inner East Area Plan Amman Heritage Studies Amman Urban Design Studies Zahran Heritage Study Airport Corridor Detailed Design Government City Amman Urban Corridors Community Plans Figure 5: Amman Plan: Planning Framework This overall Planning Framework represents the individual plan components included in the Amman Plan and identifies the various tools that will be used to implement them.26 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH
  27. 27. N A T I O N A L P O L I C I E S (National Agenda) AMMAN VISION AND ASPIRATIONS METROPOLITAN GROWTH PLAN Limited / No Growth Primary Growth Transportation and Infrastructure Openspace Mineral Natural Cultural Agriculture and Public Housing Employment Growth Corridors Energy and Telecomm- Water and Storm Water Solid Waste Transit and Extraction Heritage Heritage Institutions Centers Electricity unicatios Watsewater Management Management Roads AREA GROWTH PLANSTHE AMMAN PLAN North West Central Inner South Inner East Outer East Outer South South West AMMAN PLAN COMMUNITY PLANS Amman Plan for Tall Buildings Corridor Intensification Strategy Outlying Settlements Policy Industrial Lands Policy Airport Road Concept Plan Amman Development Corridor Outer East Area Plan Amman Heritage/Conservation StudiesMETROPOLITAN GROWTH Inner East Area Plan Zahran Corridor Heritage Study Airport Corridor Detailed Design Government City Amman Urban Corridors Amman Urban Design Studies To be continued ... IMPLEMENTATION TOOLS SECTOR STRATEGIES Regulations Public Infrastructure Public Governance and Development Urban Design Public/Private Public Zoning and Incentives Works Programs Public Participation Review Guidelines Partnerships Projects Completed Community Plans Community Plans in Progress27
  29. 29. MetropolitanGrowth PlanB.1 Metropolitan Growth Plan 30B.2 Metropolitan Growth Plan: Components 38 a) Limited and No Growth Areas 38 b) Metropolitan Transportation and Transit 46 c) Primary Growth Areas 50 d) Metropolitan Services 58B.3 Growth Models and Development Densities 60 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH 29
  30. 30. B.1 Metropolitan Growth Plan The Metropolitan Growth Plan (MGP) is the primary component of the Amman Plan. The MGP provides the overall framework that unites and coor- dinates all other component plans. This framework is spatial and structural in nature but is also policy- and process-based. The MGP answers the most fundamental questions about the future of urban growth in Amman until 2025: • Where should the City grow? • Where should the City be prevented from growing? • How should growth be structured, organized, phased, and financed? • Which policies should guide this growth? Planning and Development Principles The MGP reflects the following planning and development principles: • Encourage compact urban growth in order to make the best use of existing services, promote increased transit use, improve pedestrian accessibility, and improve affordability for both the Greater Amman Municipality (GAM) and its residents • Direct growth to both existing built-up areas, in order to make the best use of existing services, and to new designated expansion areas that are located close to the urban core • Promote mixed land use in general, and a mix of residential and employment uses in particular, in order to foster a diverse economy and to limit commuting times • Promote clear distinctions between urban, suburban, and, traditional communities in order to protect valuable environmental and agricultural lands and to support traditional lifestyles and culture • Focus GAM’s transportation policy on moving people and goods rather than moving vehicles • Promote public transit and develop a transportation system that offers choice • Provide for a safe and convenient pedestrian environment that is integrated with other modes of transportation • Conserve the cultural heritage of the City, including modern and ancient heritage • Create a connected Natural Heritage System that protects and connects important environmental features - forests, wadis, highlands, deserts, and water aquifers - at the same time as it accommodates a network of public walking trails and urban parks throughout the City30 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH
  31. 31. Metropolitan Growth ScenariosThe conceptual foundation for the MGP is based on an examination of threealternative scenarios of settlement expansion and intensification sufficient tocontain the projected population growth in Amman by the year 2025 (from2,200,000 to 6,500,000 people) (see Figure 6). Applying the planning anddevelopment principles described above, each scenario was evaluated. Thepreferred scenario became the foundation for the MGP.Scenario 1: The City continues to grow as it has for the past 10-15 years,primarily through outward expansion onto undeveloped land and at thecurrent overall density of 5 persons per dunum. This scenario will fill most ofthe Metropolitan Planning Area by 2025 and will require the development ofmost of the existing agricultural land.Scenario 2: The City grows through an equal combination of intensification(see Glossary) of existing built-up areas and outward expansion ontoundeveloped land, resulting in an overall density of 10 persons per dunum.Growth in this scenario is largely contained within the Amman DevelopmentCorridor, but ‘spills over’ this boundary in the Sahab-Al Mouwaqer area anda limited number of other designated areas.Scenario 3: The City grows through a greater emphasis on intensificationcombined with densification (see Glossary), resulting in a further reductionin perimeter expansion and an increase in overall density to 15 persons perdunum. Development is fully contained within the Amman DevelopmentCorridor.Scenario 1 was judged to be unsustainable, unaffordable, and destructiveto the development character of Amman. Scenario 3 was judged to be onlypartially achievable given current development conditions, pressures, andconstraints. A hybrid of Scenario 2 and Scenario 3 was selected, combiningthe land requirements of Scenario 2 with the intensification and densificationfeatures of Scenario 3. Figure 6: Metropolitan Growth Scenarios 008) ) Current Built-up Area (2008) Urban Expansion (2025) Agricultural Land Scenario 1: Scenario 2: Scenario 3: Status Quo Intensification + Expansion Intensification + Densification + ExpansionDensity (people/donum) 5 10 15Urban Envelope ( 840 340 170Prime Agricultural Land Impacted (sq. km) 474 225 96Cost of New Road Infrastructure (Billion JD) 3.5 1.5 1.0 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH 31
  32. 32. Metropolitan Growth Plan The MGP provides a spatial growth framework and policies to guide future detailed area, community, and corridor planning. The complete spatial plan is presented on Map 3. Individual components of the MGP are described and illustrated separately below in Section B.2. The MGP uses the following specific key growth designations that define the spatial growth of the City. These designations are visually represented and defined further in Figure 7 (also see Glossary for more detailed definitions of growth designations): Primary Growth Areas: Within Primary Growth Areas, the MGP defines Settlement Areas, Employment Areas, Metropolitan Corridors, and Metropolitan Growth Centres, which will absorb most of Amman’s growth to 2025. Within the Primary Growth Area, the MGP defines an Urban Envelope, which includes the existing core built-up areas of Amman and extends beyond them in designated areas to align with the Amman Development Corridor. This Urban Envelope will contain 85 percent of Amman’s new growth. Limited and No Growth Areas: Limited and No Growth Areas include Natural Heritage Areas, Cultural Heritage Areas, Agricultural Areas, and Mining and Quarry Areas where development is limited or prohibited. Map 3: Metropolitan Growth Plan 202532 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH
  33. 33. ZARQASALT 8th CIRCLE LANDFILL KING OF BAHRAIN PARK MADABA AIRPORT LEGEND g Amman Metropolitan Boundary Major Heritage Landscapes Built Up Areas Natural Heritage System Motorway Expansion Areas Quarry and Mineral Extraction Lease Areas Rural Expressway Metropolitan Corridor Quarry and Mineral Extraction Areas Urban Expressway Metropolitan Growth Centres Rangelands Major Arterial Built Employment Croplands Railway Expansion Employment Core Cultural Heritage Centres / Major Antiquities Potential High-Order Transit Corridors Open Space System THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH 33
  34. 34. PRIMARY LIMITED and GROWTH AREAS NO GROWTH AREAS Settlement Built Up Areas: Natural Heritage Areas: absorb 45% of future prevent development population growth within around environmentally existing communities and sensitive areas, including built up areas key watersheds, wadis and forest areas Settlement Expansion Areas: absorb 55% of future Cultural Heritage Areas: population growth on protect significant cultural land that is currently or historical artifacts and undeveloped antiquities Metropolitan Corridors: allow significant intensifica- tion along designated por- Rangeland Areas: tions with high-order transit provide a buffer around service settlements for limited agri- culture, desert reclamation, and water harvesting Metropolitan Growth Centres: allow High Density and mixed Cropland Areas: use development that will strenghthen agricultural absorb significant population communities and limit growth and support high- sprawl on Amman’s prime order transit service rainfed agricultural areas Employment Built-Up Areas & Quarry and Mineral Employment Expansion Areas: Extraction Areas: absorb industrial, commercial protect the existing and office uses over the next resource extraction land 25 years through intensifica- and employment base tion of Employment Built-Up Areas and additional expan- sion within Employment Ex- pansion Areas34 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH
  35. 35. Growth ConceptFigure 8 provides a different view of the MGP spatial plan. This cross-sectionrepresents Primary Growth Areas in yellow and orange, and Limited GrowthAreas in green and brown. Settlement growth will be accommodated throughintensification of designated Built-Up Areas and through the extension ofdevelopment onto vacant land. Additional higher-density growth will befacilitated within key transit-supported Metropolitan Growth Centres andwithin developments along Metropolitan Corridors. Figure 8: Metropolitan Growth Plan: Growth Concept Urban Envelope Built-up Areas Built Boundary Croplands Expansion Areas Expansion Areas Rangelands Expansion Areas Natural Heritage System Metropolitan Corridors Metropolitan Corridors Natural Heritage System Natural Heritage System Metropolitan Growth Centres Greater Amman Municipal BoundaryWest EastFigure 9 further describes the types of development that can occur withinPrimary Growth Areas. Figure 9: Primary Growth Area Built Boundary Settlement Development Types Existing Settlement Area: Amman’s population lives primarily within the built-up areas of cities, towns, and villages located within the Greater Amman Municipal Boundary. Approximately 40 percent of land in Built-up Area Expansion the existing built-up area is vacant. Settlement Densification: A portion of the projected population growth to 2025 will be absorbed by increasing the permitted zoned density on individual plots within the existing built-up areas of Amman. This includes allowing additional floors and greater lot coverage. Settlement Intensification: A significant portion of the projected population growth to 2025 will be absorbed by developing vacant land within the existing built-up areas of Amman. Settlement Expansion: The largest portion of the projected population growth to 2025 will be absorbed by extending development beyond existing built-up areas of Amman into vacant land.Figure 7: Metropolitan Growth Plan: Definitions THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH 35
  36. 36. Planning Areas For planning purposes, the Amman Plan proposes that the Metropolitan Planning Area be divided into eight Planning Areas (see Map 4). Five of these Planning Areas are within the Urban Envelope. The Planning Areas provide rational planning boundaries to conduct further detailed planning and to create Area Plans in the future. Planning Area boundaries were determined using a combination of the following criteria: • Development patterns – e.g., built, scattered, vacant • Geographic distribution • Physical boundaries – e.g., main roads, natural features • Location with respect to the Urban Envelope – i.e., inside or outside • Neighbourhood boundaries • Former administrative boundaries Map 4: Metropolitan Growth Plan: Planning Areas36 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH
  37. 37. North West Central Inner EastSouth West Inner South Outer East Outer South THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH 37
  38. 38. B.2 Metropolitan Growth Plan: Components The components of the MGP are presented in the following four sections: • Limited and No Growth Areas • Transportation and Transit • Primary Growth Areas • Metropolitan Services a) Limited and No Growth Areas Natural Heritage System (See Map 5.) Amman has few areas of natural cover remaining in the municipality and most of these features are located on lands with difficult terrain and poor shallow soil. In general, the quality of the City’s natural system is severely degraded and presents many opportunities for enhancement. Therefore, the MGP’s Natural Heritage System (NHS) protects environmentally sensitive areas – including key watersheds, wadis, wildlife areas, and forest areas – from development. The NHS incorporates the following features for their natural and community value, as well as to mitigate public hazards: • Forests: including both natural forest areas and plantations • Rehabilitated andor Restored Sites: including quarries, other extraction sites, wadis, and steep slopes • Major Wadis: including a 30 metre buffer surrounding the wadi • Significant Physical Features: including ridges and severe slopes Map 5: Metropolitan Growth Plan: Natural Heritage System38 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH
  40. 40. Mining and Quarries (See Map 6.) Amman was fundamentally a mining town, built out of the stone quarried from the surrounding hills of the original settlement. Amman’s architectural character is defined by this relationship between the built environment and the skilled transformation of the sources of its urban fabric. In keeping with Amman’s distinctive urban form, quarrying and, to a lesser extent, mineral extraction will continue within the Metropolitan Planning Area, ensuring that Amman continues to be built out of local resources using local craftsmanship. With respect to mining and quarries, the MGP will: • Protect the existing resource extraction land and employment base • Ensure sustainable practices for the extraction of mineral resources and quarrying • Strictly control the creation of new stone quarries within GAM • Rehabilitate old quarries especially for inclusion into the Open Space System • Protect quarries with cultural heritage value including Roman quarry sites Map 6: Metropolitan Growth Plan: Mining and Quarries40 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH
  41. 41. ZARQASALT 8th CIRCLE LANDFILL KING OF BAHRAIN PARK MADABA AIRPORT LEGEND Quarry and Mineral Extraction Lease Areas Quarry and Mineral Extraction Areas Roads Proposed Roads Railway THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH 41
  42. 42. Agriculture (See Map 7.) If properly supported through planning and policy, local agriculture offers great benefits to cities, including stronger economic connections between urban and agricultural communities due to shared markets and market volume (e.g., niche markets for value-added products such as organic goods), greater food security due to proximity of agricultural production, reduced energy expenditures and pollution related to lower product transportation requirements, and reduced greenhouse gases through carbon sequestration in the crop plants. For all of these reasons, the MGP Agricultural Plan focuses on supporting agricultural activities and communities as follows: • Protect and conserve valuable agricultural resources, especially high- quality rainfed agricultural land • Reduce agricultural water use and improve water quality for agriculture • Support and facilitate urban agriculture, increased water harvesting, and conservation • Ensure compatible uses in areas adjacent to agricultural land • Encourage high value-added economic and environmentally sustainable agricultural production such as organic farming Map 7: Metropolitan Growth Plan: Agriculture42 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH
  44. 44. Cultural Heritage System (See Map 8.) Everyday , Amman residents encounter history within the City’s streets, buildings, cafes, topography, arcades, and other features. Amman’s history gives it a unique identity and a location on the global map. The MGP’s Cultural Heritage System (CHS) lays the foundation for the protection, conservation, and rehabilitation of Amman’s wide range of cultural heritage features. The first of its kind for Amman, the CHS integrates the modern and the ancient within an overall heritage framework. The MGP will: • Recognize historic and heritage town centres, corridors, areas, viewsheds, and antiquity sites at the metropolitan scale • Identify major cultural heritage features and integrate them into the settlement structure • Promote the City’s cultural heritage • Support tourism development within Amman Map 8: Metropolitan Growth Plan: Cultural Heritage System44 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH
  45. 45. To Su erash To J k hnehAsSalt Sweileh Am Yabouq Trail m an -S alt Ro Ain Ghazal ! ad ! Qasr Al Nuwejj Wadi Seer Citadel ! !! Rainbow Street ! !! eer Ro ad Zahran Street Madina S adi n -W ma Am ! Quweismeh Tomb ! Iraq Al Amir Palace Amman - Ahl - Kahf (Seven Sleepers Road) ! Cave of the Seven Sleepers Na’our To Azr a q ! ilway ge Trail Tell Husban - Esbus Hejaz Ra Pilgrima y wa igh ing ’s H ! Tra il /K Al Qastal Ruins ! man Qasr Al Mushatta Ro Madaba LEGEND Metropolitan Amman Boundary Core Cultural Heritage Centers Major Heritage Landscapes Major Antiquities THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH 45
  46. 46. b) Transportation and Transit Transportation Introduction The MGP identifies the major roadway, transit, and pedestrian infrastructure and services that the City will require by 2025. This infrastructure will provide adequate mobility and support the overall development pattern identified in the MGP. The policies presented below will guide development of the City’s transportation programs and provide a basis for transportation infrastructure investment. This public investment will reflect a rebalancing of priorities toward higher-quality, higher-capacity, and more effective transit service and far safer, better-connected, and more attractive facilities for people who walk. Transportation Policy MGP transportation policy emphasizes the integration of land use, transportation, and infrastructure investment to encourage compact, integrated urban development and a transition from automobile travel to public transit use and pedestrian movement. The MGP promotes the integration of land use and transportation by identifying growth centres and corridors with a mix of residential and employment land uses structured around new and upgraded transit facilities and services. This integration will be supported in Area Plans and Community Plans by a pedestrian network combined with an appropriate supply of public vehicular parking. Transportation Hierarchy The MGP’s transportation and transit planning provides a hierarchy of roadway, transit, and pedestrian networks, each with its own function within a larger integrated network. The hierarchy defines the function, scale, design features, and operational characteristics of each element of the network. Road Plan The MGP identifies a hierarchical plan of roads in GAM, which designates the location, connectedness, physical, and operational characteristics of each type of roadway. The road hierarchy elements and network designated in the MGP includes: Motorway, Rural Highway, Urban Expressway, and Major Arterial Road (see Map 9). Lower-order elements of the road hierarchy (Arterial, Collector, and Local) will be designated in Area Plans, Community Plans, and Corridor Plans. Future major investment in roadway junction improvements (bridges and tunnels) will be focused on urban expressways to achieve free flow conditions and on major arterial roads to resolve specific capacity constraints at junctions where necessary. Future traffic flow on arterial roads will be interrupted by traffic control signals at regularly spaced intersections to allow for safe and efficient turning movements, side-street cross traffic, and pedestrian crossing movements. Map 9: Metropolitan Growth Plan:Transportation46 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH
  47. 47. r ash To JeTo As Sa a lt Z arq To Inn er Rin g 8th CIRCLE LANDFILL Un der Stu dy a Se ad DeTo KING OF BAHRAIN PARK C AD To Iraq Air por tR oad a ab Mad To AIRPORT To Aq aba LEGEND (Proposed) Metropolitan Amman Boundary Motorway Rural Highway Urban Expressway Major Arterial Major Arterial (Tunnel) Existing Railway Proposd Railway THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH 47
  48. 48. Transit The MGP seeks to substantially enhance transit service in Amman with the goal of greatly increasing transit ridership and attracting a broad cross- section of citizens. Transit planning emphasizes the creation of transit routes with high-quality, reliable, predictable, comfortable, and efficient services. The MGP facilitates the development of a safe and modern transit system with an interconnected and coordinated route structure and an integrated fare system. The Transit System will be composed the following service levels: High-Order Transit Service: Metro Transit, Light Rail Transit, and Bus Rapid Transit High-order transit service will be provided within corridors with transit- supportive medium- and high-density mixed-use development. Potential High-Order Transit Corridors are indicated on Map 10. Major Bus Transit: Qualified Modern Buses Major bus service will be provided within designated corridors that have suitable transit-supportive high-density and mixed-use development in place. These designated corridors will expedite the efficient movement of buses using exclusive transit lanes, queue jump lanes, and traffic signal priority for buses. Regular Bus Service: Qualified Buses Regular bus service will be provided on conventional routes in mixed traffic. Routes will include designated stop locations and passenger shelters. Service Taxis Service taxis will operate within designated zones to provide complementary service (short distance local trips and connections) that feeds regular and major bus services. Pedestrian Amman is a walking city. The City is lucky to have a climate and topography ideal for walking. Also, Amman traditionally valued walking, as evidenced by the prominent role of stairs and historic promenades in its built form. Today, however, the City’s pedestrian systems are in decline and pedestrians are forced to use unattractive, unsafe, and inefficient infrastructure. Transit riders are pedestrians before and after each trip and, consequently, the transit system’s success in attracting new riders is dependent on the quality of the pedestrian systems that feed it. New pedestrian systems should be street based with wider and better-designed sidewalk pavements for movement within and between communities. Pedestrian systems should be specifically oriented to provide access to transit services. Map 10: Metropolitan Growth Plan: Potential Higher-Order Transit Corridors48 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH
  49. 49. rash To Je To AsS a alt Zarq To to Zarqa Transit Inn er Rin g 8th CIRCLE Un der LANDFILL Stu dy a Se ad De KING OF To BAHRAIN PARK C AD To Iraq Air por tR oad ba da Ma To AIRPORT To Aq abadoror LEGEND Metropolitan Amman Boundary Potential High-Order Transit Corridor Existing Railway Proposed Railway Primary High-Order Transit Corridor THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH 49
  50. 50. c) Primary Growth Areas Settlement Areas The MGP projects an increase in GAM’s population from the current estimate of 2,200,000 to over 6,500,000 by 2025. This increase will require up to 1,300,000 million new housing units. The MGP provides a settlement growth framework that will contain the majority of urban growth and development within an Urban Envelope (see Glossary), while providing for small amounts of growth beyond this boundary. Approximately 85 percent of new housing units will be located within the Urban Envelope, while the remaining 15 percent will be situated in Primary Growth Areas outside of the Urban Envelope and, in limited quantities, in Agricultural Areas. The MGP provides for the spatial distribution of settlement development as described in Section B.1 and as illustrated on Map 3. The planned distribution of population and housing unit density for each Planning Area is described below in Section B.3. The following land uses are included within Primary Growth Areas: Settlement Built-Up Areas The MGP facilitates growth within existing built-up areas through both intensification and densification (see Map 11 and Figure 9). Up to 40 percent of land within Amman’s built-up areas is vacant, allowing for a large degree of intensification. In addition, certain parts of Amman, such as Abdali, have already been approved for redevelopment as areas of densification. 45 percent of new housing units within the Urban Envelope will be accommodated within the Built-Up Area. Settlement Expansion Areas The Amman Development Corridor provides a clear and appropriate urban edge - called the Urban Envelope in the MGP - that will serve to contain most of Amman’s projected growth (see Figure 8). Settlement Expansion Areas are primarily located within this Urban Envelope, but are also found in designated Primary Growth Areas outside of it – see Map 11. Future growth outside of the Urban Envelope is anticipated to add up to 700,000 additional residents – especially within the Metropolitan Growth Centre planned in Al Jeeza, adjacent to the airport. Outside of the Urban Envelope and outside of designated Settlement Built-Up and Expansion Areas, only low-density agriculture-related housing development, within the current zoning ‘as-of- right’, is planned and allowed. 55 percent of new housing units within the Urban Envelope will be located in Settlement Expansion Areas. In addition to the physical growth of settlements, housing provision and affordability is a crucial component of the overall development of the City. Map 11: Metropolitan Growth Plan: Settlement Areas50 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH
  52. 52. Affordable Housing Affordable housing has become a critical issue in Amman due to the inflation in land, construction, and energy prices and to the planned removal of rent controls by 2010. The high demand for affordable housing is further complicated by 30,000 new families entering the housing market each year. With an average Ammani household earning an income of JD576 per month, many households spend beyond their means for new housing. Although not directly responsible for ‘housing’, GAM can support the provision of affordable housing through the MGP by: • Assessing its municipal land bank and making available, in partnership with Central Government and the private sector, surplus lands that are suitable for affordable housing. • Providing ‘bonus-zoning’ for developers committed to building affordable housing. • Introducing flexible zoning to facilitate density increases and alternative development types in low-income areas, including height increases, assuming that buildings have structural integrity and infrastructure services in the area can manage the additional density. • Cooperating with the private sector, professional associations, and Central Government to undertake research into creative housing typologies and alternative construction and insulation techniques that reduce the cost of housing. Metropolitan Corridors and Growth Centres Policy Metropolitan Corridors include Airport Road, the Sahab Al-Mouwaqer Corridor, and the proposed Amman Development Corridor (currently under construction). Linked together (see Map 12), these corridors will provide Ammanis with safe, easy access to all parts of the City, and: • Serve as primary traffic and transit corridors • Offer mixed-use development options • Incorporate ‘green’ features • Serve as economic conduits for the transport of goods In turn, the Metropolitan Corridors will anchor a series of new Metropolitan Growth Centres at their intersections (see Map 12). These centres will serve to define major gateways to and from Amman and: • Provide access to major recreation facilities and metropolitan parks • Integrate high-order public transit • Combine a wide variety of high-density residential, institutional, and commercial land uses within a vibrant public framework consisting of parks, gardens, pedestrian promenades, squares and open space. Map 12: Metropolitan Corridors and Metropolitan Growth Centres52 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH
  53. 53. ZARQASALT 8th CIRCLE LANDFILL KING OF BAHRAIN PARK MADABA AIRPORT LEGEND Metropolitan Corridor Metropolitan Growth Centres Roads Proposed Roads Railway THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH 53
  54. 54. Employment Areas (See Map 13.) Employment planning has to be responsive to the changing economic and physical requirements of investors, workers, government agencies, and other stakeholders. Employment Areas need to be integrated with transit and transportation systems, other types of land uses and existing infrastructure. Employment planning must be in line with the National Agenda of diversifying the existing employment base by supporting value- added manufacturing and service sector jobs, particularly in the knowledge sectors. In order to meet current employment requirements while accommodating for future demand from new production processes and services, Amman’s Employment Areas will meet the following key objectives: • Accommodate 1,800,000 jobs across GAM within a flexible planning framework • Support a range of employment uses within the City by providing sufficient zoned land to accommodate industrial, commercial, R&D and institutional land requirements • Cluster employment uses to enhance competitiveness and reduce infrastructure costs • Improve opportunities and access to jobs for disadvantaged communities • Encourage the development of Prestige-oriented employment uses that diversify and stabilize the City’s economic base • Provide space for new and expanding high-tech industries with low environmental impact • Support urban development that is attractive to value-added industry and employees by reducing commuting times and offering reliable transportation options Map 13: Metropolitan Growth Plan: Employment Areas54 THE AMMAN PLAN METROPOLITAN GROWTH