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# When organizations change

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### When organizations change

1. 1. When organizations do change? <ul><li>Organizations go for a change only when following equation holds true for it. </li></ul><ul><li>C = (D x V x A x FS) > R </li></ul><ul><li>Where: </li></ul><ul><li>C = change </li></ul><ul><li>D = dissatisfaction with the current state </li></ul><ul><li>V = vision </li></ul><ul><li>A = ability to change </li></ul><ul><li>FS = first step/plan </li></ul><ul><li>R = resistance to change/cost of the change </li></ul>
2. 2. Force-field Analysis <ul><li>Force Field Analysis is a method for listing, discussing, and evaluating the various forces for and against a proposed change. </li></ul><ul><li>Force Field Analysis helps look at the big picture by analyzing all of the forces impacting the change and weighing the pros and cons. </li></ul><ul><li>Force Field Analysis can be better understood through the concept of equilibrium of forces in nature. </li></ul>
3. 3. Equilibriums in Nature <ul><li>What is occurring at any point in the nature is a resultant in a field of opposing forces. That is, the status quo – whatever is happening now – is the result of forces pushing in opposing directions (Kurt Lewin, 1951) </li></ul>
4. 4. Forces for the Factor Forces against the Factor New Situation Or
5. 5. <ul><li>With the technique called force-field analysis , we can identify the major forces that make up the field of forces and then develop the action plan for moving the equilibrium point in one direction or the other. </li></ul>
6. 6. Force-field Analysis Method <ul><li>Step 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Start with a well-defined goal or change to be implemented. </li></ul>
7. 7. <ul><li>Step 2. </li></ul><ul><li>Make two columns on paper. </li></ul><ul><li>List all the forces for the change (pros/driving forces) in left hand side column. </li></ul><ul><li>List all the forces against the change (cons/restraining forces) in the right hand column. </li></ul>
8. 8. Proposed Change Driving Forces Constraining Forces Upgrading Factory with new manufacturing machinery 1. Customers want new products 2. Improved speed of production 3. Enhanced volume of output 4. Maintenance costs increasing 1. Loss of staff overtime 2. Staff frightened of new technology 3. Environmental impact of new techniques 4. High cost of the technology 5. Disruption
9. 9. <ul><li>Step 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Give each factor a score of between 1 and 5, where 1 is low or weak and 5 is high or strong. </li></ul>
10. 10. Proposed Change Driving Forces Constraining Forces Upgrading Factory with new manufacturing machinery 1. Customers want new products 2. Improved speed of production 3. Enhanced volume of output 4. Maintenance costs increasing 1. Loss of staff overtime 2. Staff frightened of new technology 3. Environmental impact of new techniques 4. High cost of the technology 5. Disruption 4 2 3 1 3 3 1 3 3 Total = 10 Total = 13
11. 11. <ul><li>Step 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the number/gravity of the opposing forces and enhance the number/magnitude of the supporting forces. </li></ul>
12. 12. <ul><li>In example above: </li></ul><ul><li>By training staff (increase cost by 1) fear of technology could be eliminated (reduce fear by 2) </li></ul><ul><li>It would be useful to show staff that change is necessary for business survival (new force in favour, +2) </li></ul><ul><li>Staff could be shown that the new machines will introduce variety and interest to their jobs (new force, +1) </li></ul>
13. 13. <ul><li>Wages could be raised to reflect new productivity (cost +1, loss of overtime -2) </li></ul><ul><li>Slightly different machines with filters to eliminate pollution could be installed (environmental impact -1) </li></ul><ul><li>These changes swing the balance from 11:10 (against the plan), to 8:13 (in favour of the plan) </li></ul>
14. 14. <ul><li>Types of forces to consider   </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Political Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Available Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Vested interests </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of new technology </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational structures </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Social or organizational trends </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes of people </li></ul><ul><li>Present or past practices </li></ul><ul><li>Union Pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional policies or norms </li></ul><ul><li>Costs </li></ul>