Organizational psychology


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Organizational psychology

  1. 1. Historical Background to Industrial/Organizational Psychology
  2. 2. General Information Industrial/Organizational Psychology <ul><li>APA founded in 1892 - now has 53 divisions </li></ul><ul><li>I/O represented by Division 14 ( SIOP ) </li></ul><ul><li>Approx. 4% of Psychologists work in I/O </li></ul><ul><li>I/O –related organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Society for Industrial / Organizational Psych </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for APA or APS members only </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What is I/O Psychology? <ul><li>Guion (1965) - “The scientific study of the relationship between man and the world at work: the study of the adjustment people make to the places they go, the people they meet, and the things they do in the process of making a living.” </li></ul><ul><li>Blum & Naylor (1968) - “The application or extension of Psychological principles to the problems concerning human beings operating within the context of business and industry.” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Where Do I/O Psychologists Work?
  5. 5. Areas within I/O Psychology <ul><li>Personnel Psychology – selection, training, and assessment of employees </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Behavior – social & group influences, communication, org structure/hierarchy, leadership, motivation issues </li></ul><ul><li>Ergonomics/Human Factors – human-machine interaction, job design, optimizing human abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Vocational/Career Counseling – career path, retirement prep, Employee Assistance Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Development – diagnosing org problems, plan, implement, and assess change </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial Relations - labor issues, management -union liaison to resolve conflict </li></ul>
  6. 6. Licensure Should I/O Psychologists Be Licensed? <ul><li>Requirements: </li></ul><ul><li>Doctoral degree from accredited university </li></ul><ul><li>2 yrs supervised practice with licensed psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>Pass comprehensive exam </li></ul>Certification laws – title “Psychologist” Licensing laws – title and practice of Psych ( link to Florida Licensing Statute )
  7. 7. History of I/O Psychology <ul><li>Wilhelm Wundt (1879) – Father of Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Bryan & Harter (1897) – first paper describing the study and application of psych to work activities (Morse code telegraphers) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coined the term “industrial psychology” by mistake </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. History of I/O Psychology <ul><li>Frank & Lillian Gilbreth (turn of century) – time & motion studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coined the term “therblig” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Walter Dill Scott (1911) – “Increasing Human Efficiency in Business” </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick Taylor (1911) – “The Principles of Scientific Management” </li></ul>F. Taylor Gilbreths
  9. 9. <ul><li>Taylor’s 4 principles of Scientific Management </li></ul><ul><li>Science over rules of thumb </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific selection and training </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation over individualism </li></ul><ul><li>Equal division of work best suited to management and employees </li></ul>History of I/O Psychology continued
  10. 10. <ul><li>Hugo M ü nsterberg (1913) – father of I/O psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Psychology and Industrial Efficiency” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application of psych to sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trolley car simulator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lie detector using HR, GSR, Free Association, Automograph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German working in U.S. until WWI </li></ul></ul><ul><li>World War I (1914 – 1918) – Army Alpha project - Army hires psychologists to screen recruits for intelligence, motivation, & skill for placement </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Applied Psychology (1917) – first I/O journal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– documented Army Alpha & Beta projects </li></ul></ul>History of I/O Psychology continued
  11. 11. <ul><li>James Cattell (1921) – forms Psychological Corporation to provide services to industry </li></ul><ul><li>Hawthorne Studies (1924) – research by Harvard & MIT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>led by Elton Mayo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seek cost effective ways to reduce expenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adjusted lighting levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hawthorne effect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>World War II (1941 –1946) – Army hires I/O psychologists to select & classify recruits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Army General Classification Test (AGCT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-WWII – Human Factors psych to deal with increased technology, Personnel Psych to deal with selection and training, Org Behavior & Org Development for social issues </li></ul>History of I/O Psychology continued
  12. 12. <ul><li>Civil Rights Movement (1960’s) – I/O Psychologists accused of being pawns of management </li></ul><ul><li>Title VII of Civil Rights Act (1964) – forbade discrimination on race, color, religion, gender, or national origin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>established Equal Employment Opportunity Commission </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court (1971) – Griggs v. Duke Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>burden of proof for fairness of testing was on employer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>test must be job-relevant </li></ul></ul>History of I/O Psychology continued
  13. 13. Future of I/O Psychology <ul><li>What skills will workers need? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25 million illiterate adults in U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack necessary computer skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Workplace diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Baby boomers retiring – positions to fill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most workers will be over 35 yrs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minorities will make up 35% of workforce (compared to 15% in 1980s) and 50% of all new workers will be women. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employment opps for I/O psychologists (1994 stats) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With master’s degree – avg salary $71k </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With Ph.D. – avg salary $94k </li></ul></ul>