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A Manual for writer of Term Papers, theses andDissertations by Kate L. Turabian Presented to Dr. Kami Rwegasira Presented by: Ahmed Kamal
Introduction • There are different sets of standard procedures (rules for format) for writing research papers • One style which has been used for over 60 years is called “Turabian Style” • It has been formalized by Kate Turabian at the University of Chicago. • Often used for term papers and dissertations in the humanities, social sciences and natural sciences. • The rules covers: format, grammar, typing rules and page layout.
Title Page Sample THE EFFECTS OF THE GENERATIONS ON THE PROGRAMS OF THE CHURCH Spacing/Margins: Form of title: For remainder of title page: Please note: Please note: Please all capital Bottom •Use note: •Top margin (A) =letters. ••Usetitle namecounts as page Use headline style for •The full page already have a with middle A Paper margin (E) not than •If you do more letter •If title is (first capitalization paper, but a Submitted to Dr. Jerry Barlow one (“i”)degree, do not middle initial and period after college of the put except prepositions,it intoon •Spacing between title and 48 spaces, divide articles) initial. does not appear number between your name a of the •anythingitself. spacing only “Adouble-spaced inverted Paper” (B) = Capitalize prepositionsNew Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary the page due date. ifand the “in the very firstof . between they begin the Division pyramid. .• Ifof a section. a college .” you do have line and “Darrell Lindsey” degree, abbreviate the degree, (D) but spell out the college’s •Center spacing (C) will In Partial Fulfillment vary in and to accomplish name order of the Requirements for the Course include the year you other spacing guidelines Pastoral Ministry: PATH5300 graduated. in the Division of Pastoral Ministries Darrell R. Lindsey B.A., University of Georgia, 1995 December 15, 1997
Blank Page•Insert a blank page betweentitle page and table of contentspage.•The blank page counts aspage two (“ii”) of the paper,but no number should appearon the blank page itself.
Content Page Sample Please note:Margins/Spacing: Alignment: Headings: •Page numbers=forinch of •The “Chapter” subheads••Alignmargins theand (top, Page title for 1 tablebottom, omitted.should simply may be and sides)left. “WORKS CITED” contents page ••Align chapter numbers 3 Chapter numbers•Triple-space between the be “CONTENTS” in all caps recommended to Arabicheading,from the left . and spaces “CONTENTS,” numbers. headings on the firstwhat follows. titlesshould also •Align chapter •Chapter • Double-space between be line of spaced periods” “a in•letter .all capital letters. all (period/space/period) andlevels, subheads 3 spaces •Align•indented. up any run-over lines for should line = vertically or Single-space headline . •Subheads •The CONTENTS .page isfor aany given chapter or subhead •If you need two lines sentence style numbered “iii” (lowercasethe sublevel heading, indent roman numeral) second line 3 spaces
Introduction Sample. Margins/Spacing: Heading: Footnotes: Indention: Pagination:0 •Page 1 the place in= 2 inches •Mark top margin capital •Major heading = the •The first page of the text •Indent paragraphs of the text0 •Bottom and sides = 1 inch letters 0.5 inch a footnote Arabic page 1 INTRODUCTION is is introduced where. •Triple-space between •INTRODUCTION = first of thean Arabic superscript with paper •Indent block quotes 4 spaces5 heading and the paper on the •A the of chapter first line of fromfootnotenumber •Center the must begin. text where it is referenced •Center the heading page •Indent footnotes the same5 •Double-space the text and a •Be consistent with the •Separate the footnotes on amount as paragraphs between footnoteslisted in the page from the as with a short heading form text CONTENTS line separator. •Position footnotes in numerical0 order under the separator0 ..5.5 .0 0. 5. 5
.0 0. Introduction Sample 5. Page 2 5 Footnotes (continued): Pagination: • Number the pages following Number footnotes consecutively in a chapter, page 1 consecutively to the • end of the bibliography with Start footnote numbering over at each chapter’s arabic numbers centered or beginning. from the top right 1 inch • edge, except for the first The separator and its footnoteseach chapter) here page of should immediately. follow the number continues the page text when a chapter Ends consecutively but is centered 1 inch from the page’s bottom
Suggested Approach in Writing the INTRODUCTION: 1. Open with background information, such as an observation, historical perspective, quotation, or statistics. 2. Lead into a statement of the problem or concern which led to the research and writing of the paper. 3. Close with the thesis in the last paragraph and transition into the body. Note: the thesis can be the last sentence in the INTRODUCTION and serve as the transition into the body of the paper.
Chapter First page Margins/Spacing:. •Chapter first page top margin = 2 Heading: inches •Bottom and sides = 1 inch •Major heading = capital •Double-space between letters CHAPTER 2 and heading •Center the the actual wording of the chapter the •Be consistent with title. •Triple-space between in the heading form as listed heading and the first line of CONTENTS. text •Triple-space to section titles after a body of text, but double-space after the subhead to the next body of text. •Double-space the text and between footnotes
Body Text •Avoid “orphans,” beginning a new paragraph at the end of one page with only one line. •Avoid “widows,” ending a paragraph on a new page with only one line.
BIBLIOGRAPHY FIRST PAGE SAMPLE Alignment: Margins/Spacing: Headings: •Center the major heading •Top margin = 2 inches •Bottom heading = = 1capital •Major and sides all inch and letters the first level subheads the •Triple-space between •Align the first headline first •Subheads = and the style major heading line of each entry subhead and also level flush left, but indent any runover lines line of text between the last 5 spaces and the following subhead •Double-space between the subheads and the first line of text and also between the bibliographical entries •Single-space within the lines of a single bibliographical. entry
Footnote • As the exact words of another author have been used, this must be acknowledged by using quotation marks and a number. • When quoting from a book, you must include: name of author, title of book, place of publication, publisher’s name, date of publication, and the page number of the specific quotation. • When references to the same work follow each other without any intervening reference … the abbreviation “Ibid.” is used (followed by a period and the page number).
Footnote (cont.) • To write a footnote for an article or statement in a journal, the following format should be used: Ken Hatt, “Probation and Community Corrections in a Neo- Correctional Era,” Canadian Journal of Criminology 27 (July 1985): 299. • For an unsigned article in an encyclopedia, the footnote should look like this: Encyclopedia Britannica, 14th ed., s.v. “Slang.” When citing from any alphabetically arranged reference work such as a dictionary or encyclopedia, it is best to give the title of the article preceded by “s.v.” (which means “under the word”)
Footnote (cont.) • Internet references Needed information includes the following: author(s) if given, title of page, web site, sponsoring organization, revision date, medium (web page), URL and access date.
CONCLUSION This sample outlines Turabian style • Title Page • Table of Content Page • Introduction Page • A Chapter • Bibliography