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Urbanising India and health issues
 

Urbanising India and health issues

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    Urbanising India and health issues Urbanising India and health issues Presentation Transcript

    • Why new or emerging cities need to be different in India?
      UNHABITAT, State of the World Cities, 2008-09
      Amit Samarth
    • Our collective purpose as a society
      To be economically progressive
      To be socially cohesive
      To promote health and well-being
      To enable individuals to achieve their intellectual and physical potential
      To ensure that citizens today and tomorrow will be able to enjoy the basic amenities of life in a sustainable and eco-friendly way
    • Ecological model of Human Health
      Human health should be seen in a physical, social, behavioural, and ecological context.
      Health promotion activities should involve other sectors making a contribution to health, such as education, food, nutrition, and environment.
      Source: Barton and Grant, 2006
    • What have our cities achieved?
      Drivers of economic growth
      Hubs of world class education, commerce and specialized health care services
      400 million are already living in Urban India
      590 million will be living in urban India by 2030
      68 million plus cities by 2030
      13 cities with more than 4 million people
      6 Megacities with more than 10 million people
      Source: India’s Urban Awakening. Building Inclusive cities , Sustaining Economic Growth
    • Cities in India are of great contrast
      80 million or more urban poor live in cities of India
      Informal sector one of the key drivers of cities economic growth
      Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal have highest slum population
      Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata have highest slum population
      Growing inequalities and growing exclusion
      Poor living conditions
      Poor health outcomes
      Source: India Urban Poverty Report 2009
    • Poor health indicators of the urban poor
      Urban areas in India have better specialized healthcare services but facilities for promotive and primary care are non-existant
      High infant and maternal mortality
      High water-borne diseases
      High vector borne disease like malaria and dengue
      Higher incidence of chronic diseases like hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart disease
      Poor occupational health
      Higher mental illnesses
      Road traffic injuries
      In Andhra Pradesh, there are 7500 slum localities but there are only 250 Urban Healthcare Centres
      Source: Living conditions in 8 cities of India. NFHS-III Survey 2005-06
    • Urban environment affects each one of us
      Only 2 per cent cities have low air pollution on the basis of PM10
      In 80 per cent of cities at least one criteria pollutant exceeded the annual average ambient air quality standards
      Exponential growth in private vehicles in last few years -17 million vehicles in last 7 yrs
      Personal vehicles – cars and two-wheelers -- use up more than 75 per cent of the road space, but meet only 20 per cent of the city’s commuting demand
      Are we creating more space for cars rather than for our own self?
      Source: State of Air Pollution in Indian Cities 2007, Centre for Science and Environment
    • Promoting and protecting health has become a challenge
      Lack of good footpaths
      Absence of dedicated cycling tracks
      Lack of green spaces
      Lack of sports facilities
      Lack of social space
      Changing food systems and nutritional transition
      Food inflation
    • Threats to cities due to climate change
      Urban flooding due to heavy rainfall
      Flooding provides opportunities for breeding of disease carrying insects such as mosquito
      Lack of adequate water can compromise hygiene and thus increasing rates of diarrhoealdisease
      Decreased crop yields can stress food supplies
    • What we need to do in emerging cities of India?To promote and protect health….!
    • Embedding health in all policies
      Good urban governance & healthy urban planning
      Healthy Urban Population
      Improve health and social equity
      Improve availability and access to healthcare services
      Improve living and working condition
    • Make Healthy Choice – The Easy Choice
      12
      Community
      Basic services
      Information & Education
      Housing
      Good water quality
      Healthcare
      services
      Sanitation
      Education and employment
      Government services
      Social & Cultural
      activities
      Waste management
      Good air quality
      Health and Social equity leading to Healthy Urban Population
      Healthy Environment
      Green
      Spaces
      Cheap
      Lightings
      Cheap and nutritious
      Cheap transport
      Roads
      Access to food
      Clean
      Infrastructure
      Nutrition
      Energy
    • Improve Transportation
      • Provide better public transport
      • Facilitate more walking and cycling
      • Reduced levels of cardiovascular diseases
      • Reduce obesity
      • Reduced respiratory diseases
      • Improved mental health and decreased depression
      • Reduce carbon emissions and air pollutants
      • Increased physical activity
      • Improved social capital
      Source: Margalit Younger, Heather R. Morrow-Almeida, Stephen M. Vindigni, Andrew L. Dannenberg. The Built Environment, Climate Change, and Health
      Opportunities for Co-Benefits
    • Better buildings and land use
      • Provide convenient and well lit stairs
      • Natural ventilation
      • Increase facilities such as parks, and opportunities for physical exercise
      • Reduced levels of cardiovascular diseases
      • Reduced respiratory diseases
      • Improved mental health and productivity
      • Reduced susceptibility to heat related illnesses
      • Improved air quality
      • Increased physical activity
      • Decreased heat island effects
      Source: Margalit Younger, Heather R. Morrow-Almeida, Stephen M. Vindigni, Andrew L. Dannenberg. The Built Environment, Climate Change, and Health
      Opportunities for Co-Benefits
    • Improve nutrition
      • Sustainable agriculture
      • Promote locally grown food
      • Provide healthy food options and information
      • Reduce demand for meat consumption
      • Reduced obesity
      • Reduced levels of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes
      • Improved and better balanced nutrition
      • Reduce carbon emissions
      Source: Margalit Younger, Heather R. Morrow-Almeida, Stephen M. Vindigni, Andrew L. Dannenberg. The Built Environment, Climate Change, and Health
      Opportunities for Co-Benefits