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Carbon as a wonder compound

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Carbon as a wonder compound Carbon as a wonder compound Presentation Transcript

  • Carbon as a Wonder Compound
  • What Is Carbon ?
    CARBONis the chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. As a member of group 14 on the periodic table, it is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. There are three naturally occurring isotopes, with 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is radioactive
  • Types of hydrocarbons
    SATURATED HYDROCARBON
    UNSATURATED HYDROCARBON
  • Saturated hydrocarbons
    A Hydrocarbon is an organic compound that contains only the elements hydrogen and carbon.
    In a saturated hydrocarbon, all the bonds are single bonds.
    Alkane is another name for a saturated hydrocarbon.
  • Unsaturated hydrocarbons
    A h y d r o c a r b o n t h a t c o n t ai n s one o r m o r e d o u b l e o r t r I p l e b o n d s I s a n u n s a tu r a t ed h y d r o c a r b o n .
    T h e r e a r e t h r e e t y p e s o f u n s a tu rated h y d r o c a r b o n s : a l k e n e s , a l k yn e s & a r o m a t I c h y d r o c a r b o n s .
  • CHARACTERSTICS OF HYDROCARBONS
    Factors that determine the properties of a hydrocarbon are:
    The number of carbon atoms
    How the atoms are arranged:
    Straight chain
    Branched chain
    Ring Or Cyclic
  • Straight Chains
    A hydrocarbon can contain one carbon atom, as in methane or thousands of carbon atoms, as in cellulose.
  • Branched Chains
    Carbon has an ability to form branches with other carbon atoms. Simple branched alkanes often have a common name using a prefix to distinguish them from linear alkanes, for example n-pentane, isopentane, and neopentane.
    IUPAC naming conventions can be used to produce a systematic name.
  • The Ring Or Cyclic
    Carbons can be arranged in the form of a ring or cyclic, such as cyclobutane , Benzene etc .
  • ALLOTROPES OF CARBON
    Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, known as allotropes of these elements. Allotropes are different structural modifications of an element; the element's atoms are bonded together in a different manner. For Example --
    FULLERENE
    GRAPHITE
    DIAMOND
  • Graphite
    In g r a p h I t e e a c h c a r bo n a t o m
    Is b o n d e d t o t h r e e o t h e r
    Ca rbo n a t om o n t h e s a m e pl a ne I n a h e x a g o n a l A r r a y .
  • Fullerene
    This is also a form of carbon allotrope. The first one to be identified was C-60 which has carbon arranged in the shape of a football.
    As it resembled to the geodesic dome designed by US architect Buckminster Fuller ,
    So the molecule was named fullerene.
  • In diamond, each carbon atom is tetra headedly attached to four other carbon atoms forming a rigid three dimensional structure.
    Thus it is the hardest substance known.
    Diamond
  • Isomers
    T h e o r g a n I c c o m p o u n d s w h i c h hav e s a m e m o l e c u l a r f o r m u l a b u t d i f f e r e n t s t ru c t u r a l f o r m u l a ,t h e s e a r e c a l l e d I s o m e r s a n d t h e p r o p e r t y I s c a l l e d I s o m e r I s a t i o n .
  • FUNCTIONAL GROUPS
    In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups of atoms within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. The same functional group will undergo the same or similar chemical reaction(s) regardless of the size of the molecule it is a part of.
  • SOME FUNCTIONAL GROUPS
  • Thank you
    A n Effo r t By :
    ANURAG
    a n d X - C
    Amit