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  • There are different types of dentistry
  • Make short sentences.General dentistry involves the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of a wide variety of conditions, disorders and diseases affecting the teeth, gums and maxillofacial region of the body. General dentists provide services related to the general maintenance of oral hygiene and tooth health
  • Dentist for all people instead of an individual. Dentist that is concerned with preventing and controlling dental diseases and promoting dental health through organized community efforts rather than through treatment of individual patients.
  • It is one of the ADA specialties that focus on the human dental pulp and periradicular tissue.  It includes the study of the normal pulp, as well as the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases and injuries that involve the dental pulp.  These dentists specialize in root canal surgery and therapy, especially for patients with difficult cases.
  • Type of dentistry that focuses on diseases that affect the oral and maxillofacial regions.  This includes the causes and courses of these diseases, as well as research and diagnosis using various examinations.
  • Oral and maxillofacial radiology is akin to its pathology partner, but this specialty utilizes radiology to create and interpret images of the oral, neck, and facial regions.  Through radiological analysis, such as CT Scans, MRI, Ultrasounds, and Orthopantomograms, this ADA specialty works to diagnose and manage various oral diseases and underlying conditions.
  • Oral and maxillofacial surgeons treat defects, diseases, and injuries of the jaw, mouth, skull, and even face.  These surgeons have dentistry training, as well as surgical specialty.  They have an ability to treat both the hard and soft tissues of these areas, and can pertain to both functional aspects as well as aesthetic ones.  Patients that would see an oral and maxillofacial surgery may require dental surgery, lip reconstruction, cleft and palate surgeries, and TMJ treatment. 
  • Orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics is the ADA specialty that focuses on the neuromuscular and skeletal abnormalities of orofacial structures. This includes diagnosis, preventing, and corrections of malocclusions and other problems.  Most people commonly associate orthodontics with corrective braces, but they also can treat and manage other oral issues.
  • Dentist that works with infants, children, and adolescents. It focuses on both preventative and therapeutic care, including dental care for children with special dental health needs.  Considering that children and adults have different health needs, pediatric dentistry ensures that younger patients get the specialized care needed for optimal oral health.
  • Periodontics is one of the ADA specialties that manages the areas that support the tooth structure – treating any of the diseases and conditions that impact these regions.  Periodontal diseases have different manifestations, but some common forms are gingivitis, which untreated can deteriorate the tooth and bone area.  Periodontics includes diagnosing, preventing, and treating diseases, as well as assisting patients with maintaining the function, looks, and health of these structures.
  • The ADA specialty of prosthodontics focuses on patients that have missing or deficient teeth.  Specialized in implants, reconstructive, and esthetic dentistry, prosthodontists work to restore the full oral function of teeth and its support areas.  This includes the diagnosis of problems, as well as the rehabilitation of oral effectiveness and the maintenance of prosthetics that are placed.

  • Particularly in mammals, evolutionary adaptation of teeth for processing different kinds of food is one of the major reasons this vertebrate class has been so successful.Carnivores, such as members of the dog and cat families, generally have pointed incisors and canines that can be used to kill prey and rip or cut away pieces of flesh. The jagged premolars and molars crush and shred food. In contrast, herbivorous mammals, such as horses and deer, usually have teeth with broad, ridged surfaces that grind tough plant material. The incisors and canines are generally modified for biting off pieces of vegetation. In some herbivorous mammals, canines are absent.Humans, being omnivores adapted for eating both vegetation and meat, have a relatively unspecialized dentition. The permanent (adult) set of teeth is 32 in number. Beginning at the midline of the upper and lower jaw are two bladelike incisors for biting, a pointed canine for tearing, two premolars for grinding, and three molars for crushing.
  • Cementum - a layer of tough, yellowish, bone-like tissue that covers the root of a tooth. It helps hold the tooth in the socket.Crown - the visible part of a tooth.Dentin - the intermediate tooth layer, the dentin is harder than bone.Enamel - the hard shiny, white outer surface of the tooth, it is hydroxyapatite, which is a crystalline calcium phosphateNerves & Pulp - nerves transmit signals (conveying messages like hot, cold, or pain) to and from the brain, the soft center of the tooth. The pulp contains blood vessels and nerves; it nourishes the dentin.Periodontal ligament - the fleshy tissue between tooth and the tooth socket; it holds the tooth in place.Root - the anchor of a tooth that extends into the jawbone. The number of roots ranges from one to four.
  • It has existed since 7000 BC. Tooth decay was very prevalent in that days. They would simply pull the decayed tooth using forceps. Egyptians were the first to practice dental surgery and prosthetics. Modern dentistry developed out of 17th century Europe. Charles Allen wrote a book about dentistry in 1685, leading to the studies of Pierre Fauchard of France. Fauchard, who is known as the leading pioneer in the modern field of dentistry, was the first to use dental fillings and he discovered the chemicals that cause tooth decay.
  • The history existed since 7000 BC. Tooth decay was very prevalent in that days. They would simply pull the decayed tooth using forceps. Egyptians were the first to practice dental surgery and prosthetics. Modern dentistry developed out of 17th century Europe. Charles Allen wrote a book about dentistry in 1685, leading to the studies of Pierre Fauchard of France. Fauchard, who is known as the leading pioneer in the modern field of dentistry, was the first to use dental fillings and he discovered the chemicals that cause tooth decay.
  • The first American woman dentist was Emeline Roberts, who in 1854 at the age of 17 married Dr. Daniel Albion Jones of Connecticut. She became his assistant in his dental practice and studied at night the basic dental sciences until she was able to become his partner in 1859. After his death in 1864, she took over his practice for sixty years. In 1893, she was appointed a member of the Women’s Advisory Council of the World’s Columbian Dental Congress, and in 1912 she was awarded honorary membership in the Connecticut Dental Society
  • At 17 years of age, she worked for her husband, who trained her in his office to become a dentist. She later opened her own dental practice.
  • Tooth decay results from the action of bacteria that live in plaque, which is a sticky, whitish film formed by a protein in saliva (mucin) and sugary substances in the mouth. The plaque bacteria sticking to tooth enamel use the sugar and starch from food particles in the mouth to produce acid.
  • 5000 BC – A Sumerian text of this date describes “tooth worms” as the cause of dental decay.2700 BC – Evidence that the Chinese used acupuncture to treat pain associated with tooth decay.2600 BC – Death of Hesy-Re, an Egyptian scribe, often called the first “dentist.” An inscription on his tomb includes the title “ the greatest of those who deal with teeth, and of physicians.: This is the earliest known reference to a person identified as a dental practitioner.
  • The image below shows a similar dental bridge created by the Egyptians that uses gold wires to hold the teeth together.
  • 500-300 BC – Hippocrates and Aristotle write about dentistry, including the eruption pattern of teeth, treating decayed teeth and gum disease, extracting teeth with forceps, and using wires to stabilize loose teeth and fractured jaws. 100 BC – Celsus, a Roman medical writer, writes extensively in his important compendium of medicine on oral hygiene, stabilization of loose teeth, and treatments for toothache, teething pain, and jaw fractures.
  • 500-1000 – During the Early Middle Ages in Europe medicine, surgery, and dentistry, are generally practiced by monks,the most educated people of the period1130-1163–A series of Papal edicts prohibit monks from performing any type of surgery, bloodletting or tooth extraction. Barbers often assisted monks in their surgical ministry because they visited monasteries to shave the heads of monks and the tools of the barber trade—sharp knives and razors—were useful for surgery. After the edicts, barbers assume the monks’ surgical duties: bloodletting, lancing abscesses, extracting teeth, etc.
  • 1790—John Greenwood, son of Isaac Greenwood and one of George Washington’s dentists, constructs the first known dental foot engine. He adapts his mother’s foot treadle spinning wheel to rotate a drill.
  • 1816   Auguste Taveau, Paris, developed first dental amalgam(fillings from silver coins mixed with mercury).
  • 1800s-The collapsible metal tube revolutionizes toothpaste manufacturing and marketing. Dentifrice had been available only in liquid or powder form, usually made by individual dentists, and sold in bottles, porcelain pots, or paper boxes. Tube toothpaste, in contrast, is mass-produced in factories, mass-marketed, and sold nation-wide. In twenty years, it becomes the norm.1890—Ida Gray, the first African-American woman to earn a dental degree, graduates from the University of Michigan School of Dentistry.
  • 1890—Willoughby Miller an American dentist in Germany, notes the microbial basis of dental decay in his book Micro-Organisms of the Human Mouth. This generates an unprecedented interest in oral hygiene and starts a world-wide movement to promote regular tooth brushing and flossing.
  • 1913—Alfred C. Fones opens the Fones Clinic For Dental Hygienists in Bridgeport, Connecticut, the world’s first oral hygiene school.  Most of the twenty—seven women graduates of the first class are employed by the Bridgeport Board of Education to clean the teeth of school children. The greatly reduced incidence of caries among these children gives impetus to the dental hygienist movement.  Dr. Fones, first to use the term “dental hygienist,” becomes known as the Father of Dental Hygiene.

Sgp Final Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Dentistry
    Amir Zayniev
    Pd 3
  • 2. Thesis
    Dentistry is very important in society not only for improving the appearance of an individual but also for the health and well being of the person.
    Picture- http://www.ankwd.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/healthy_teeth.jpg
  • 3. Types of Dentistry
    Dentistry in general
    Dental public health
    Endodontic
    Oral and maxillofacial Pathology
    Oral and maxillofacial Radiology
    (http://www.dentalfind.com/dentistry_types/)
  • 4. Types of Dentistry cont.
    Oral and maxillofacial Surgery
    Orthodontics and Dentofacial orthopedics
    Pediatric dentistry
    Periondontics
    Prosthodontics
    (http://www.dentalfind.com/dentistry_types/)
  • 5. General dentistry
    Involves the prevention,
    Diagnosis and treatment of a wide variety of conditions,
    Disorders and diseases affecting the teeth,
    Gums and maxillofacial region of the body.
    Provide services related to the general maintenance of oral hygiene and tooth health
  • 6. Dental public health
    Preventing and controlling dental diseases
    Promoting dental health
    Organized community
    Not individual patients.
  • 7. Endodontic
    Focus on the human dental pulp
    Periradicular tissue. 
    Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases and injuries that involve the dental pulp. 
    Root canal surgery and therapy
  • 8. Oral and maxillofacial Pathology
    Focuses on diseases that affect the oral and maxillofacial regions. 
    Includes the causes and courses of these diseases
    Research and diagnosis using various examinations.
  • 9. Oral and maxillofacial Radiology
    It is akin to its pathology partner
    Utilizes radiology to create and interpret images of the oral, neck, and facial regions. 
    Diagnose and manage various oral diseases
    Underlying conditions.
  • 10. Oral and maxillofacial Surgery
    Treat defects, diseases, and injuries of the jaw, mouth, skull, and even face. 
    They have dentistry training, as well as surgical specialty. 
    They have an ability to treat both the hard and soft tissues of these areas, and can pertain to both functional aspects as well as aesthetic ones. 
  • 11. Orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics
    Neuromuscular and skeletal abnormalities of orofacial structures.
    Includes diagnosis, preventing, and corrections of malocclusions and other problems. 
    Most people commonly associate orthodontics with corrective braces
    They also can treat and manage other oral issues.
  • 12. Pediatric dentistry
    Infants, children, and adolescents.
    It focuses on both preventative and therapeutic care
    Dental care for children with special dental health needs. 
    Younger patients get the specialized care needed for optimal oral health.
  • 13. Periodontics
    Manages the areas that support the tooth structure
    Treating any of the diseases and conditions that impact these regions. 
    Periodontal diseases have different manifestations
    The most common are gingivitis, which untreated can deteriorate the tooth and bone area. 
    Periodontics includes diagnosing, preventing, and treating diseases, as well as assisting patients with maintaining the function, looks, and health of these structures.
  • 14. Prosthodontics
    Focuses on patients that have missing or deficient teeth.
    Specialized in implants, reconstructive, and esthetic dentistry,
    Work to restore the full oral function of teeth and its support areas. 
    This includes the diagnosis of problems, as well as the rehabilitation of oral effectiveness and the maintenance of prosthetics that are placed.

  • 15. Dental adaptations
    http://myphlip.pearsoncmg.com/altcc/student/ab2page.cfm?vbcid=10558&vid=21755
  • 16. Anatomy of teeth
    http://www.curetoothdecay.com/Tooth_Decay/tooth_anatomy.htm
  • 17. History
    Dentistry has a long and fascinating history. From the earliest of times, humans have been plagued by dental diseases
    It has existed since 7000 BC.
    Tooth decay wasvery prevalent in that time.
    Pull the decayed tooth.
    The Egyptians were the first to practice dental surgery and prosthetics.
    (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c4/Charles_Allen_Stuart.jpg)
  • 18. History cont.
    17th century dentistry start to develop in Europe.
    Charles Allen was the first person to write a book about dentistry in 1685.
    Fauchard, was the first to use dental fillings and he discovered the chemicals that cause tooth decay.
    (http://www.fauchard.org/about/download/images/Fauchard-images/780px-Pierre-FAUCHARD.jpg)
  • 19. Women in Dentistry
    In the 18th and early 19th centuries, dental school did not accept female students.
    Lucy B. Hobbs-Taylor and Nellie E. Pooler broke those barriers.
    Emiline Roberts was the first women dentist in the United States.
  • 20. Women in Dentistry cont.
    she worked for her husband
    he trained her in his office to become a dentist.
    She later opened her own dental practice.
    Today women are active in dental associations, specialties, public health and militaries.
    By the year of 2020, 20% of all dentists will be women.
    http://www.ADA.org
  • 21. What causes tooth decay?
  • 22. How to treat tooth decay?
  • 23. Ancient origins
    5000 BC – “tooth worms” cause of dental decay.
    2700 BC –Chinese used acupuncture to treat pain associated with tooth decay.
    2600 BC – Death of Hesy-Re, the first “dentist.” An inscription on his tomb includes the title “ the greatest of those who deal with teeth, and of physicians.”
  • 24. 700 BC – The first bridges.
    The first society to use dental bridges and appliances were the Etruscans, starting around 700 BC.
    http://dentalassistant.net/pictorial-history/
  • 25. 500-300 BC – Hippocrates and Aristotle write about dentistry, treating decayed teeth and gum disease, extracting teeth with forceps, and using wires to stabilize loose teeth and fractured jaws.
    100 BC – Celsus, stabilization of loose teeth, and treatments for toothache, and jaw fractures.
  • 26. 166-201 AD – The Etruscans practice dental prosthetics using gold crowns and fixed bridgework.
    http://s002.radikal.ru/i198/1003/61/9a036d272317.jpg
    http://s005.radikal.ru/i209/1003/ec/ddce8d8a6bb2.jpg
  • 27. Middle ages–Renaissance
    500-1000 – During the Early Middle Ages in Europe medicine, surgery, and dentistry, are generally practiced by monks,the most educated people of the period
    1130-1163–A series of Papal edicts prohibit monks from performing any type of surgery, bloodletting or tooth extraction. Barbers often assisted monks in their surgical ministry because they visited monasteries to shave the heads of monks and the tools of the barber trade—sharp knives and razors—were useful for surgery. After the edicts, barbers assume the monks’ surgical duties: bloodletting, lancing abscesses, extracting teeth, etc.
  • 28. Cont.
    1210 –A Guild of Barbers is established in France.  Barbers eventually evolve into two groups: surgeons who were educated and trained to perform complex surgical operations; and lay barbers, or barber-surgeons, who performed more routine hygienic services including shaving, bleeding and tooth extraction.
    1575 – In France Ambrose Pare, known as the Father of Surgery, publishes his Complete Works. This includes practical information about dentistry such as tooth extraction and the treatment of tooth decay and jaw fractures.
    1685 – First dental textbook to be published in English, by Charles Allen, "The Operator for Teeth".
  • 29. 18th Century
    1723 – Pierre Fauchard, a French surgeon publishes “The Surgeon Dentist, A Treatise on Teeth”. Fauchard is credited as being the Father of Modern Dentistry because his book was the first to describe a comprehensive system for the practice of dentistry including basic oral anatomy and function, operative and restorative techniques, and denture construction.
    1760 – John Baker, the earliest medically-trained dentist to practice in America, immigrates from England.
    1760-1780— Isaac Greenwood, the first native-born American dentist.
  • 30. 1790—John Greenwood
    son of Isaac Greenwood and
    George Washington’s dentists
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/rosefirerising/393571079/sizes/m/in/set-72157594542763179/
  • 31. http://dentalassistant.net/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/footpeddle.jpg
  • 32. Set of dentures made for George Washington by John Greenwood, 1798.
    http://s2.hubimg.com/u/606393_f248.jpg
  • 33. 19th Century
    1816–Auguste Taveau developed first dental amalgam
    1832—James Snell invents the first reclining dental chair
    1839—Charles Goodyear invents the vulcanization process for hardening rubber. The resulting Vulcanite, an inexpensive material easily molded to the mouth, makes an excellent base for false teeth, and is soon adopted for use by dentists
  • 34. Cont.
    1840–Horace Hayden and Chapin Harris invented modern dentistry. They:
    founded the first dental school in the world, the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery.
    invented the modern doctorate of dental surgery (DDS) degree.
    started the world's first dental society, the American Society of Dental Surgeons (ASDA), which eventually formed into the American Dental Association (ADA).
    1871—James B. Morrison patents the first commercially manufactured foot-treadle dental engine. Morrison’s inexpensive, mechanized tool supplies dental burs with enough speed to cut enamel and dentin smoothly and quickly, revolutionizing the practice of dentistry.
  • 35. Cont.
    1871—James B. Morrison patents the first commercially manufactured foot-treadle dental engine. Morrison’s inexpensive, mechanized tool supplies dental burs with enough speed to cut enamel and dentin smoothly and quickly, revolutionizing the practice of dentistry.
    http://www.ada.org/images/public/topics/timeline_drill.jpg
  • 36. 1880s — toothpaste manufacturing and marketing.
    available only in liquid or powder form
    usually made by individual dentists, and sold in bottles
    Tube toothpaste is mass-produced in factories, mass-marketed, and sold nation–wide.
    1890 — The first African-American woman to earn a dental degree.
  • 37. 1890—Willoughby Miller an American dentist in Germany, notes the microbial basis of dental decay in his book Micro-Organisms of the Human Mouth. This generates an unprecedented interest in oral hygiene and starts a world-wide movement to promote regular tooth brushing and flossing.
    1895—Wilhelm Roentgen, a German physicist, discovers the x-ray.
    1896 — prominent New Orleans dentist C. Edmond Kells takes the first dental x-ray of a living person in the U.S.
  • 38. 1895   Greene Vardiman Black standardized both cavity preparation and manufacturing process of silver fillings.
    http://www.ohsu.edu/library/images/hom/vardiman.gif
  • 39. 20th Century
    1913—Alfred C. Fones opens the Fones Clinic For Dental Hygienists in Bridgeport, Connecticut, the world’s first oral hygiene school. 
    27 women graduates.
    They are employed by the Bridgeport Board of Education to clean the teeth of school children.  
    Dr. Fones, first to use the term “dental hygienist,” becomes known as the Father of Dental Hygiene.
  • 40. 1929   Penicillin was invented. This had a major impact on treatment protocols for dental infections.
    1938—The nylon toothbrush, the first made with synthetic bristles, appears on the market.
    1950s—The first fluoride toothpastes are marketed.
    1955   Michael Buonocore invented white (composite) fillings. He also described a method of bonding resin to tooth enamel, enabling dentists to repair cracked enamel on front teeth.