Thesis Dentistry is very important in society not only for improving the appearance of an individual but also for the health and well being of the person. Picture- http://www.ankwd.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/healthy_teeth.jpg
Types of Dentistry Dentistry in general Dental public health Endodontic Oral and maxillofacial Pathology Oral and maxillofacial Radiology (http://www.dentalfind.com/dentistry_types/)
Types of Dentistry cont. Oral and maxillofacial Surgery Orthodontics and Dentofacial orthopedics Pediatric dentistry Periondontics Prosthodontics (http://www.dentalfind.com/dentistry_types/)
General dentistry Involves the prevention, Diagnosis and treatment of a wide variety of conditions, Disorders and diseases affecting the teeth, Gums and maxillofacial region of the body. Provide services related to the general maintenance of oral hygiene and tooth health
Dental public health Preventing and controlling dental diseases Promoting dental health Organized community Not individual patients.
Endodontic Focus on the human dental pulp Periradicular tissue. Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases and injuries that involve the dental pulp. Root canal surgery and therapy
Oral and maxillofacial Pathology Focuses on diseases that affect the oral and maxillofacial regions. Includes the causes and courses of these diseases Research and diagnosis using various examinations.
Oral and maxillofacial Radiology It is akin to its pathology partner Utilizes radiology to create and interpret images of the oral, neck, and facial regions. Diagnose and manage various oral diseases Underlying conditions.
Oral and maxillofacial Surgery Treat defects, diseases, and injuries of the jaw, mouth, skull, and even face. They have dentistry training, as well as surgical specialty. They have an ability to treat both the hard and soft tissues of these areas, and can pertain to both functional aspects as well as aesthetic ones.
Orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics Neuromuscular and skeletal abnormalities of orofacial structures. Includes diagnosis, preventing, and corrections of malocclusions and other problems. Most people commonly associate orthodontics with corrective braces They also can treat and manage other oral issues.
Pediatric dentistry Infants, children, and adolescents. It focuses on both preventative and therapeutic care Dental care for children with special dental health needs. Younger patients get the specialized care needed for optimal oral health.
Periodontics Manages the areas that support the tooth structure Treating any of the diseases and conditions that impact these regions. Periodontal diseases have different manifestations The most common are gingivitis, which untreated can deteriorate the tooth and bone area. Periodontics includes diagnosing, preventing, and treating diseases, as well as assisting patients with maintaining the function, looks, and health of these structures.
Prosthodontics Focuses on patients that have missing or deficient teeth. Specialized in implants, reconstructive, and esthetic dentistry, Work to restore the full oral function of teeth and its support areas. This includes the diagnosis of problems, as well as the rehabilitation of oral effectiveness and the maintenance of prosthetics that are placed.
Anatomy of teeth http://www.curetoothdecay.com/Tooth_Decay/tooth_anatomy.htm
History Dentistry has a long and fascinating history. From the earliest of times, humans have been plagued by dental diseases It has existed since 7000 BC. Tooth decay wasvery prevalent in that time. Pull the decayed tooth. The Egyptians were the first to practice dental surgery and prosthetics. (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c4/Charles_Allen_Stuart.jpg)
History cont. 17th century dentistry start to develop in Europe. Charles Allen was the first person to write a book about dentistry in 1685. Fauchard, was the first to use dental fillings and he discovered the chemicals that cause tooth decay. (http://www.fauchard.org/about/download/images/Fauchard-images/780px-Pierre-FAUCHARD.jpg)
Women in Dentistry In the 18th and early 19th centuries, dental school did not accept female students. Lucy B. Hobbs-Taylor and Nellie E. Pooler broke those barriers. Emiline Roberts was the first women dentist in the United States.
Women in Dentistry cont. she worked for her husband he trained her in his office to become a dentist. She later opened her own dental practice. Today women are active in dental associations, specialties, public health and militaries. By the year of 2020, 20% of all dentists will be women. http://www.ADA.org
What causes tooth decay?
How to treat tooth decay?
Ancient origins 5000 BC – “tooth worms” cause of dental decay. 2700 BC –Chinese used acupuncture to treat pain associated with tooth decay. 2600 BC – Death of Hesy-Re, the first “dentist.” An inscription on his tomb includes the title “ the greatest of those who deal with teeth, and of physicians.”
700 BC – The first bridges. The first society to use dental bridges and appliances were the Etruscans, starting around 700 BC. http://dentalassistant.net/pictorial-history/
500-300 BC – Hippocrates and Aristotle write about dentistry, treating decayed teeth and gum disease, extracting teeth with forceps, and using wires to stabilize loose teeth and fractured jaws. 100 BC – Celsus, stabilization of loose teeth, and treatments for toothache, and jaw fractures.
166-201 AD – The Etruscans practice dental prosthetics using gold crowns and fixed bridgework. http://s002.radikal.ru/i198/1003/61/9a036d272317.jpg http://s005.radikal.ru/i209/1003/ec/ddce8d8a6bb2.jpg
Middle ages–Renaissance 500-1000 – During the Early Middle Ages in Europe medicine, surgery, and dentistry, are generally practiced by monks,the most educated people of the period 1130-1163–A series of Papal edicts prohibit monks from performing any type of surgery, bloodletting or tooth extraction. Barbers often assisted monks in their surgical ministry because they visited monasteries to shave the heads of monks and the tools of the barber trade—sharp knives and razors—were useful for surgery. After the edicts, barbers assume the monks’ surgical duties: bloodletting, lancing abscesses, extracting teeth, etc.
Cont. 1210 –A Guild of Barbers is established in France. Barbers eventually evolve into two groups: surgeons who were educated and trained to perform complex surgical operations; and lay barbers, or barber-surgeons, who performed more routine hygienic services including shaving, bleeding and tooth extraction. 1575 – In France Ambrose Pare, known as the Father of Surgery, publishes his Complete Works. This includes practical information about dentistry such as tooth extraction and the treatment of tooth decay and jaw fractures. 1685 – First dental textbook to be published in English, by Charles Allen, "The Operator for Teeth".
18th Century 1723 – Pierre Fauchard, a French surgeon publishes “The Surgeon Dentist, A Treatise on Teeth”. Fauchard is credited as being the Father of Modern Dentistry because his book was the first to describe a comprehensive system for the practice of dentistry including basic oral anatomy and function, operative and restorative techniques, and denture construction. 1760 – John Baker, the earliest medically-trained dentist to practice in America, immigrates from England. 1760-1780— Isaac Greenwood, the first native-born American dentist.
1790—John Greenwood son of Isaac Greenwood and George Washington’s dentists http://www.flickr.com/photos/rosefirerising/393571079/sizes/m/in/set-72157594542763179/
Set of dentures made for George Washington by John Greenwood, 1798. http://s2.hubimg.com/u/606393_f248.jpg
19th Century 1816–Auguste Taveau developed first dental amalgam 1832—James Snell invents the first reclining dental chair 1839—Charles Goodyear invents the vulcanization process for hardening rubber. The resulting Vulcanite, an inexpensive material easily molded to the mouth, makes an excellent base for false teeth, and is soon adopted for use by dentists
Cont. 1840–Horace Hayden and Chapin Harris invented modern dentistry. They: founded the first dental school in the world, the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery. invented the modern doctorate of dental surgery (DDS) degree. started the world's first dental society, the American Society of Dental Surgeons (ASDA), which eventually formed into the American Dental Association (ADA). 1871—James B. Morrison patents the first commercially manufactured foot-treadle dental engine. Morrison’s inexpensive, mechanized tool supplies dental burs with enough speed to cut enamel and dentin smoothly and quickly, revolutionizing the practice of dentistry.
Cont. 1871—James B. Morrison patents the first commercially manufactured foot-treadle dental engine. Morrison’s inexpensive, mechanized tool supplies dental burs with enough speed to cut enamel and dentin smoothly and quickly, revolutionizing the practice of dentistry. http://www.ada.org/images/public/topics/timeline_drill.jpg
1880s — toothpaste manufacturing and marketing. available only in liquid or powder form usually made by individual dentists, and sold in bottles Tube toothpaste is mass-produced in factories, mass-marketed, and sold nation–wide. 1890 — The first African-American woman to earn a dental degree.
1890—Willoughby Miller an American dentist in Germany, notes the microbial basis of dental decay in his book Micro-Organisms of the Human Mouth. This generates an unprecedented interest in oral hygiene and starts a world-wide movement to promote regular tooth brushing and flossing. 1895—Wilhelm Roentgen, a German physicist, discovers the x-ray. 1896 — prominent New Orleans dentist C. Edmond Kells takes the first dental x-ray of a living person in the U.S.
1895 Greene Vardiman Black standardized both cavity preparation and manufacturing process of silver fillings. http://www.ohsu.edu/library/images/hom/vardiman.gif
20th Century 1913—Alfred C. Fones opens the Fones Clinic For Dental Hygienists in Bridgeport, Connecticut, the world’s first oral hygiene school. 27 women graduates. They are employed by the Bridgeport Board of Education to clean the teeth of school children. Dr. Fones, first to use the term “dental hygienist,” becomes known as the Father of Dental Hygiene.
1929 Penicillin was invented. This had a major impact on treatment protocols for dental infections. 1938—The nylon toothbrush, the first made with synthetic bristles, appears on the market. 1950s—The first fluoride toothpastes are marketed. 1955 Michael Buonocore invented white (composite) fillings. He also described a method of bonding resin to tooth enamel, enabling dentists to repair cracked enamel on front teeth.