MEMBERGROUP :
1.MOHAMADFADHIL BINAHAMAD
(17DAS10F2O55)
2.MOHAMADAMIR BAZALI BINSHAMSUDDIN
(17DAS10F2029)
3.MOHAMMADAZHARI ...

INTRODUCTION

 Occurred in Chernobly, Ukraine in 26 April 1986 due
to the nuclear plant design is not perfect
 Main cause of these c...

 Have 4 units,units 1 and 2 constructed between 1970
and 1977, while units 3 and 4 of the same design
were completed in...

STRUCTURE OF RBMK 1000

 On 25 April 1986, before routine shutdown, the reactor
crew at Chernobyl 4 begin preparations to test how long
turbine...

 Two Chernobyl plant workers died on the night of the
accident, and a further 28 people died within a few
weeks as a re...

 The main cause why the case. When seen again in
this case, the safety factor is not taken seriously or in
other words ...

 The effects of what happened. Each case or the
tragedy that happened would have the effect of its
own. Effects are div...

The principal objectives for a highway design Site
Investigation are as follows:
 Suitability: Are the site and surroun...

 Materials: Are there any materials available on site,
what quantity and quality?
 Effect of changes: How will the des...

Typical activities included in a site investigation are:
 Identification and selection of appropriate technologies
that...

Baseline assessment of the risk the site may pose to
receptors of concern. Pathways that should be
considered are:
 Soi...

Technical methods needed to perform the site
investigation activities are for example:
 Field sampling
 Direct-push sa...

 field analytical methods
 In-situ analysis (e.g., fiber optics, laser induced
fluorescence, geophysical measurements,...

 Received or exposed to high doses of radiation can
cause skin diseases , thyroid cancer, leukaemia and
soon.
 Acute r...

 radiation can cause skin diseases , thyroid cancer
and leukaemia

Effects of radiation exposure fall into two main classes:
 deterministic effects
 where the effect is certain to occur...

 some physicians in advised pregnant women to
undergo abortions on account of radiation exposure.
 Chernobyl accident ...

 For the conclusion, site investigation is a investigation
of the physical characteristics of the site and includes
doc...

 http://www.world-
nuclear.org/info/chernobyl/inf07.html
 http://en.wikipedia.org
 http://googlebook.com
 http://www...

THANK YOU….
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CN 301 Geoenvironmental Engineering (DAS/PSIS) : Chernobyl Tragedies (Study Case)

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CN301 Geoenvironmental Engineering. Kajian kes tentang Tragedi Chernobyl. Semoga perkongsian ini bermanfaat.

Ex-Student : Diploma in Environmental Engineering (2010-2013)

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CN 301 Geoenvironmental Engineering (DAS/PSIS) : Chernobyl Tragedies (Study Case)

  1. 1. MEMBERGROUP : 1.MOHAMADFADHIL BINAHAMAD (17DAS10F2O55) 2.MOHAMADAMIR BAZALI BINSHAMSUDDIN (17DAS10F2029) 3.MOHAMMADAZHARI BINZAKARIA (17DAS10F2029)
  2. 2.  INTRODUCTION
  3. 3.   Occurred in Chernobly, Ukraine in 26 April 1986 due to the nuclear plant design is not perfect  Main cause of these cases occurred due to a nuclear plant is operated by staff who do not receive adequate training and lack of ethics to be concerned about security at nuclear plants.  The Chernobyl Power Complex, lying about 130 km north of Kiev, Ukraine, and about 20 km south of the border with Belarus.  Have 4 units,units 1 and 2 constructed between 1970 and 1977, while units 3 and 4 of the same design were completed in 1983
  4. 4.   Have 4 units,units 1 and 2 constructed between 1970 and 1977, while units 3 and 4 of the same design were completed in 1983  To the southeast of the plant,have an artificial lake of some 22 square kilometres, situated beside the river Pripyat  About 3 km away from the reactor, in the new city, Pripyat, there were 49,000 inhabitants.
  5. 5.  STRUCTURE OF RBMK 1000
  6. 6.   On 25 April 1986, before routine shutdown, the reactor crew at Chernobyl 4 begin preparations to test how long turbines would spin long and how much power can be supplied to the main circulating pump. This is because the main electrical supply outages.  A series of operator actions, including the disabling of automatic shutdown mechanisms, preceded the attempted test early on 26 April. By the time that the operator moved to shut down the reactor, the reactor was in an extremely unstable condition. Then, the reactor explode. CRONOLOGY
  7. 7.   Two Chernobyl plant workers died on the night of the accident, and a further 28 people died within a few weeks as a result of acute radiation poisoning.  About 200-300 tonnes of water per hour was injected into the intact half of the reactor using the auxiliary feedwater pumps but this was stopped after half a day owing to the danger of it flowing into and flooding units 1 and 2.  From the second to tenth day after the accident, some 5000 tonnes of boron, dolomite, sand, clay and lead were dropped on to the burning core by helicopter in an effort to extinguish the blaze and limit the release of radioactive particles.
  8. 8.   The main cause why the case. When seen again in this case, the safety factor is not taken seriously or in other words be underestimated. Safety factor is very important because of security involving a person's life. This story should be taken by all parties, including employers and workers themselves to secure their own safety and others. If this tragedy, not just employees who receive the effect, but the society around. It is possible it will spread to neighboring countries. OBJECTIVE
  9. 9.   The effects of what happened. Each case or the tragedy that happened would have the effect of its own. Effects are divided into two, namely rz effects and adverse effects. However, based on case studies done in other cases, the majority are negative. Effects that occur will involve human beings, animals, plants and surroundings.  How to overcome the problems that occur in case that happens. Depending on what happened, if cases occur in the severe stage, the solution will also experience difficulties. Increasingly difficult to solve, the higher cost is required.  Teaching that can be taken from the case or the tragedy that occurred. It is important to ensure that such cases do not recur.
  10. 10.  The principal objectives for a highway design Site Investigation are as follows:  Suitability: Are the site and surroundings suitable for the highway?  Design: Obtain all the design parameters necessary for the works.  Construction: Are there any potential ground or ground water conditions that would affect the construction? PROCESS INVOLVE INVOLVED SITE INVESTIGATION
  11. 11.   Materials: Are there any materials available on site, what quantity and quality?  Effect of changes: How will the design affect adjacent properties and the ground water?  Identify Alternatives: Is this the best location?
  12. 12.  Typical activities included in a site investigation are:  Identification and selection of appropriate technologies that allow site investigation and meet the required level of data quality (e.g., field measurement technologies, field sampling methods) Determination of the environmental conditions at the site:  Sampling and analysis to find out the nature, extent, source, and significance of the contamination present at the site  Sampling and analysis to assess the physical, geophysical, and ecological conditions at the site,  Interpretation of the results t characterize site conditions SITE INVESTIGATION METHODS
  13. 13.  Baseline assessment of the risk the site may pose to receptors of concern. Pathways that should be considered are:  Soil and dust - direct contact, ingestion, or inhalation  Water - ingestion and inhalation  Air - inhalation and ingestion
  14. 14.  Technical methods needed to perform the site investigation activities are for example:  Field sampling  Direct-push sampling  Sampling based on drilling methods  Passive diffusion bag samplers  Soil gas sampling  Single and continuous water sampling Integral pumping tests
  15. 15.   field analytical methods  In-situ analysis (e.g., fiber optics, laser induced fluorescence, geophysical measurements, gamma radiation measurements)  Ex-situ (detector tubes, field bioassessments, photo- and flame-ionization detectors)  laboratory analytical methods  Gas chromatography  Spectroscopy  Immunoassays  Toxicity tests
  16. 16.   Received or exposed to high doses of radiation can cause skin diseases , thyroid cancer, leukaemia and soon.  Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was originally diagnosed in 237 people on-site and involved with the clean-up and it was later confirmed in 134 cases. Causing 28 deaths (result of ARS within a few weeks of the accident)– six of which were firemen. Nineteen more subsequently died between 1987 and 2004. ASSESMENT AND IMPACT CHERNOBLY ACCIDENT 1986
  17. 17.   radiation can cause skin diseases , thyroid cancer and leukaemia
  18. 18.  Effects of radiation exposure fall into two main classes:  deterministic effects  where the effect is certain to occur under given conditions (e.g. individuals exposed to several grays over a short period of time will definitely suffer Acute Radiation Syndrome)  stochastic effects  where the effect may or may not occur (e.g. an increase in radiation exposure may or may not induce a cancer in a particular individual but if a sufficiently large population receive a radiation exposure above a certain level, an increase in the incidence of cancer may become detectable in that population).
  19. 19.   some physicians in advised pregnant women to undergo abortions on account of radiation exposure.  Chernobyl accident 1986 cause serious social and economic disruption for large populations in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine.  Many person reported have have died at the time from a coronary thrombosisc.  Soil contaminated with very highly(radioactive will absorb in soil and cause pollution to ground water).  When contaminated ground water resources. living creatures use this resource was also exposed to radiation.
  20. 20.   For the conclusion, site investigation is a investigation of the physical characteristics of the site and includes documentary studies, site surveys and ground investigation. The last item refers to the actual surface or subsurface investigation, including on site laboratory tests. In broad sense, site investigation should also include study of the site history and environment, interpretation and analyses of all available data, and making recommendations on the favorable/unfavorable locations, economics and safe design, and prediction of potential risks. CONCLUSION
  21. 21.   http://www.world- nuclear.org/info/chernobyl/inf07.html  http://en.wikipedia.org  http://googlebook.com  http://www.world-nuclear.org  Lectures Note( CN301-GEOENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING) REFERENCES
  22. 22.  THANK YOU….

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