How to do research

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How to do research

  1. 1. Writing Research Reports How to do ResearchSlides by Dan Cavanaugh This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Background photo source: GoGo Images Corporation/Alamy Royalty Free
  2. 2. What is a Valid Sociological Topic?  Macro - Broad Matters  Micro - Individualistic MattersCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 2
  3. 3. Common Sense and the Need for Research  What Everyone Knows May Not Be True  Move Beyond GuessworkCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 3
  4. 4. A Research Model  Selecting a Topic  Defining a Problem  Reviewing the Literature  Formulating a HypothesisCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 4
  5. 5. A Research Model  Choosing a Research Method  Collecting Data  Analyzing ResultsCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 5
  6. 6. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 6
  7. 7. Research Methods Surveys  Selecting a Sample  Random Sample  Stratified Random Sample  Asking Neutral QuestionsCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 7
  8. 8. Research Methods Questionnaires  Self-Administered  Allow the Largest Sample  Low CostCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 8
  9. 9. Research Methods  Interviews  More Researcher Control  Time Consuming  Interviewer Bias  Structured Interviews  Unstructured Interviews  Establishing RapportCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 9
  10. 10. Research Methods Participant Observation  Researcher Participates  Problems with Generalizability  Done for Exploratory Work  Generates HypothesesCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 10
  11. 11. Research Methods Case Studies  Focus on Single  Event  Situation  Individual  Reveals Detail  Problem withCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 11
  12. 12. Research Methods Secondary Analysis  Analyze Data Collected by Others  Researcher Cannot Be Sure of DataCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 12
  13. 13. Research Methods Documents  Examine Books, Newspapers, Diaries, etc.  Limited Scope  Cannot Study TopicCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 13
  14. 14. Research Methods Experiments  Experimental Group  Control Group  Independent Variables  Dependent VariablesCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 14
  15. 15. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 15
  16. 16. Research Methods Unobtrusive Measures  Observe People Without Them Knowing  Question of EthicsCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 16
  17. 17. Deciding Which Method to Use  Access to Resources  Access to Subjects  Purpose of Research  Researcher’s Background and Training Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do ResearchCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 17
  18. 18. Deciding Which Method to Use  Quantitative Research Methods  Emphasis on Precise Measurement  Uses Statistics and Numbers  Qualitative Research Methods  Emphasis on Observing, Describing, andCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 18
  19. 19. How Not to do Research  Choose Biased Sample  Ask Biased Questions  List Biased Choices  Discard Undesirable Results  Misunderstand Subjects WorldCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 19
  20. 20. Controversy in Research  Poke into Private Areas of Lives  Threatens Those with a StakeCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 20
  21. 21. Ethics in Sociological Research  Openness, Honesty, and Truthfulness  Forbids Falsifying Results  Condemns Plagiarism  Subjects’ Informed ConsentCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 21
  22. 22. How Research and Theory Work Together  Neither Research nor Theory can Stand Alone  Theories Must Be Tested  Findings Must be Explained with TheoryCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 22
  23. 23. Thank you for your Slides by Dan Cavanaugh Patience. This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Background photo source: GoGo Images Corporation/Alamy Royalty FreeCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5: How Sociologists Do Research 23

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